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NINTH ANNUAL REPOR r 



NEW IERSEY STATE 



feiGultura! Eiperimeut Station 



First Annual Repor: 



i^IIaipa flv. 





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won 



OR i tit, \ LAR 



1888. 



TRENTON, N. -JV f > 
The John L. Morphy Publishing Go., State Printers 



^earning anb |fabor. 

LIBRARY 

or THE 

University of Illinois, 

CLASS. BOOK. VOLUME. 

Accession No. 



NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



>!•' THE 



NEW JERSEY STATE 



Agricultural Experiment gtatioi? 



With the Compliments of 

GEO. H. COOK, 

Director N, J, Agricultural Experiment Station, 



New Brunswick, N. J. 



Please acknowledge receipt, 



1UOO, 



TRENTON, N. J. ; 
The John L. Murphy Publishing Co., State Printers. 
1869. 



NINTH ANNUAL REPORT 



NEW JERSEY STATE 



Agricultural Experiment Station 



First Annual Report 



New Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Station 



FOR THE YEAR 



d888. 



TRENTON, N. J. : 
The John L. Murphy Publishing Co., State Printers. 
1889. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Table of Contents 3-5 

I. Organization New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 9-11 

Board of Managers 9 

Officers of the Board 11 

Executive Officers 11 

Organization New Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Sta- 
tion 13 

Treasurer's Report 15 

II. Report of the Director 17-23 

III. Report of the Chemists 24 

Fertilizer-, 24 

1. Fertilizer Statistics 25-30 

1. The Quantity and Value of the Fertilizers used in 

New Jersey During the Year 1888 26, 27 

2. Comparison of this Year's Trade with that of the 

lour Preceding Years 27-30 

2. TheT'ommercial Relations of Fertilizers... 30-81 

1. The Market Prices of Fertilizers 30-36 

2. The Sources and Quality of the Nitrogen, Phos- 

phoric Acid and Potash found in Complete Fer- 
tilizers 36-45 

Analyses of Nitrate of Soda 39 

Sulphate of Ammonia — 39 

Dried Blood and Dried Fish .... 40 

Ammonite and Castor Pomace.... 40 

Tankage and Swift-Sure Guano... 41 
Plain Superphosphates from Bone 

Black, Bone Ash, etc 42 

Plain Superphosphates from S. C. 

Rock, etc 43 

Muriate of Potash... 44 

Kainit 44 

Potash Salts — Double Sulphates 

of Potash and Magnesia 45 

Potash Salts — High-Grade Sul- 
phate of Potash.. 45 

(3) 



4 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



III. Report of the Chemists— Continued. page. 

3. The Guaranteed Chemical Composition and Kela- 
tive Commercial Values of Merchantable Fer- 
tilizers 45 

Sampling of Fertilizers 46-48 

Laboratory Methods 49 

1. Guarantees 49-52 

2. Relative Commercial Values 52-54 

List of Manufacturers of Fertilizers 54, 55 

Analyses of Complete Fertilizers 56-77 

Ground Bone 78, 79* 

Miscellaneous Samples 80-81 

3. The Agricultural Relations of Fertilizers 82-104 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers 83-104 

Lucern, or Alfalfa 105-113 

1. Introduction 105, 106 

2. Plan of Experiment 106 

3. Report on the Second Year's Growth of Alfalfa upon the 

College Farm 106, 107 

4. Chemical Composition of this Crop 108-111 

Alfalfa Considered as a Food in Comparison with 

Clover and Timothy : 109-111 

5. Alfalfa Considered as a Collector of Plant-Food... 112, 113 

Fodders and Feeds 114-130 

1. Introduction. 114,115 

2. Explanation of Terms, Crude Proteine, Crude Fat, Crude 

Fiber, Carbohydrates, Ash 115-119 

Table of Analyses of Fodders and Feeds 116, 117 

3. Feeding Standards 118-120 

Table of Feeding Standards 119 

4. Utility of the Tables 120-127 

Maximum, Minimum and Average Composition of 

Fodders and Feeds 122,123; 124-126 

5. Digestibility of Feeding-Stuffs 128-130 

Analytical Methods 131,132 

Sorghum and Sugar-Making 133-162 

Investigations upon the Cost and Value of Sorghum Sugar in 
its Production on the Farm, and in the Sugar-House 133, 134 

A Report upon Experiments made at Rio Grande during the 

Season of 1888 135-162 

1. Changes and Improvements made in the Hughes 

Sugar-House and in its Machinery... 140-142 

2. Record of the Analyses made at Rio Grande during 

the Season of 1888 142-145 

3. Tonnage of Cane per acre, the Farming Expenses, and 

the* Yield and Value of Sugar Products per ton of 

Field Cane 145-149 

4. Experiments Made to Secure Data for Comparing the 

Modified Diffusion Battery in Use at Rio Grande 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 5 

III. Report of the Chemists— Continued. page. 

with the German Diffusion Battery used in Mag- 
nolia, Louisiana, and Fort Scott, Kansas 150-158 

5. Cost of Concentrating Diffusion Juice with Fuel-Oil 

Burners, and the Effects of this Treatment on the 
Quality of the Product 158-160 

6. Notes Which May be of Value in Demonstrating that 

Financial Success Can be Secured Under Present 
Commercial Conditions, with Sorghum Containing 
Nine per cent, of Sugar in its Juice.. 160-162 

IV. Report of the Biologist 163-201 

Oyster Interests of New Jersey 163-201 

1. Introduction 163-168 

2. Some Points of Practical Importance in the Natural His- 

tory of the Oyster 168-171 

3. Extent, Product and Condition of the Natural Beds 171-178 

4. The Clamming Grounds 178-181 

5. Extent and Condition of the Oyster-planting Industry 181-196 

6. Means for Improving the Oyster-cultural Industry 196-200 

7. Statistical Summary of the Oyster Industry of New Jersey.. 200, 201 

V. Report of the Entomologist 202-212 

1. The White-marked Tussock Moth 204-206 

2. The Bag Worm 206, 207 

3. The Imported Elm-Leaf Beetle 207-209 

4. The Cottony Scale Louse ^ 209, 210 

5. The Codling Moth and the Plum Curculio 211 

6. The Rose Beetle 211 

VI. Report of the Chemical Geologist 213-221 

On the Investigation of Soils 213-221 

1. The Beginning of Soil Investigation 213, 214 

2. Mechanical Soil Analysis 214-216 

3. Physical Soil Analysis 216-218 

4. Prospects of Soil Investigation 218 

5. Reasons for Encouragement of Soil Investigation in the 

United States 218-220 

6. Origin of Soils 220, 221 

VII. Appendix 223-234 

1. Act of Incorporation and Supplements 223, 224, 227 

2. Act to Regulate the Manufacture and Sale of Fertilizers, 

and Supplements 225-227 

3. Act to Provide for the Construction of a State Laboratory 

for the State Agricultural Experiment Station 227, 228 

4. Directions to be followed in Sampling Fertilizers 229 

5. Forma for Description of Samples 230, 231 

<>. Order of Station Work 232 

7. Catalogue of Bulletins, 1880-1888 233, 234 



/ 



To his Excellency Robert S. Green, Governor of the State of New 
Jersey : 

Sir — I have the honor to submit herewith the ninth annual report 
of the New Jersey State Agricultural Experiment Station, as required 
by the law establishing the Station, which was approved March 10th, 
1880, and which is chapter CVI. of the laws of that year. 

JOHN DE MOTT, 

President. 

New Brunswick, N. J., December 31st, 1888. 



(7) 



( 



BOARD OF MANAGERS. 



His Excellency ROBERT S. GREEN, Trenton, 

Governor of the State of New Jersey. 

MERRILL E. GATES, Ph.D., LL.D., New Brunswick, 

President of the State Agricultural College. 

GEORGE H. COOK, LL.D., New Brunswick, 

Prof, of Agriculture of State Agricultural College. 

FIRST CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

Residences. Terms Expire. 

Hon. Thomas H. Dudley, Camden, 1890. 

L M Smalley, Esq., Roadstown, 1890. 



SECOND CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

John I. Bishop. Columbus, 1889. 

Ralph Ege, Hopewell, 1890. 

THIRD CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

John V. N. Willis, Esq., Marlboro, 1890. 

James Netlson, Esq., New Brunswick, 1890. 

FOURTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

John De Mott, Esq., Middlebush, 1889. 

Caleb Wyckoff, Esq., Belvidere, 1890. 

FIFTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

Rev. Oliver Crane, M.D., D.D., Morristown, 1889. 

Samuel R. Demarest, Jr., Hackensack, 1890. 

SIXTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

Wm. M. Force, Esq., Newark, 1889. 

Wm. R. Ward, Newark, 1890. 

SEVENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT. 

Abraham W. Duryee, Esq., New Durham, 1890. 

James Stevens, Esq., Jersey City, 1890. 



(9) 



ORGANIZATION 

OF THE 

NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 



OFFICERS OF THE BOARD. 



JOHN DE MOTT, Esq., Middlebush President. 

ABRAHAM W. DURYEE, Esq., New Durham Vice President. 

JAMES NEILSON, Esq., New Brunswick Treasurer. 

Prof. GEORGE H. COOK, LL.D., New Brunswick Secretary. 



OFFICERS OF THE STATION. 



Prof. GEORGE H. COOK, LL.D., New Brunswick Director. 

ARTHUR T. NEALE, Ph.D., New Brunswick Chemist. 

EDWARD B. VOORHEES, A.M., New Brunswick First Assistant Chemist. 

HKNRY K. BALDWIN, Jr., New Brunswick Second Assistant Chemist. 

LOUIS A. VOORHEES, A.M., since April 24th Third Assistant Chemist. 

WILLIAM S. MYERS, New Brunswick, July 1st to 

September 20th Fourth Assistant Chemist. 

IRVING S. UPSON, A.M., New Brunswick Clerk. 

ELLIS R. WOODRUFF, New Brunswick Mailing Assistant. 



DAVID L. SCUDDER, New Brunswick Laboratory Attendant. 



(11) 



ORGANIZATION 

OF THE 

NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE EXPERIMENT STATION. 



BOARD OF CONTROL. 



The Board of Trustees of Rutgers College in New Jersey. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD. 



MERRILL EDWARDS GATES, Ph.D., LL.D., L.H.D., President of Rutgers 
College, Chairman. 

Hon. GEORGE C. LUDLOW, HENRY R. BALDWIN, M.D., 

Hon. HENRY W. BOOKSTAVER, LL.D., JAMES NEILSON, Esq. 



OFFICERS OF THE STATION. 

Prof. GEORGE H. COOK, LL.D., Director. 
Rev. GEORGE D. HULST, A.M., Entomologist. 

Prof. HORACE B. PATTON, Ph.D., Chemical Geologist, and Investigator of 
Soils. 

Prof. JULIUS NELSON, Ph.D., Biologist, and Investigator of Foe d- Products of 
State. 

Prof. BYRON D. HALSTED, 8c.D., Horticulturist and Botanist. 
IRVING S. UPSON, A.M., Disbursing Clerk and Librarian. 

(13) 



TREASURER'S REPORT. 



James Neilson, in account with the New Jersey Agricultural 
Experiment Station, January 1st, 1888, to January 1st, 1889: 

RECEIPTS. 

From State Treasurer $12,119 41 

PAYMENTS. 

Salaries and pay of chemists and assistants $5,698 92 

Expenses of the Board of Managers 51 49 

Stationery, including envelopes for Bulletins and Reports 186 09 

Printing 605 05 

Postage 105 35 

Telephone and telegraph service 93 41 

Fuel and stoves 70 50 

Ga> and water 59 48 

Laboratory expenses 224 59 

Field and feeding experiments 445 88 

Freight, express and cartage bills 35 90 

Expenses collecting samples of fertilizers 20 13 

Traveling expenses 40 29 

Rent 393 00 

Miscellaneous and incidental expenses 16 03 

Building, including insurance on new Laboratory 4,073 30 



$12,119 41 

Respectfully submitted, 

JAMES NEILSON, 

Treasurer. 

The auditing Committee of the Experiment Station have examined 
the accounts of the Treasurer of said Station and find them correct. 

SAMUEL R. DEMAREST, Jr„ 
WM. M. FORCE, 

Auditing Committee, 
(15) 



REPORT OF THE DIRECTOR. 



The ninth annual report of the New Jersey Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, which is herewith made, is joined with that of the New 
Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Station, the first report of 
which is also here presented. Both Stations are established for the 
benefit of agriculture and its improvement by scientific experiments 
and investigations, conducted by specialists who are provided with the 
necessary buildings and equipments, occupying common ground, and 
with fields wide enough for the occupancy of both ; their managers at 
the outset voted that the work of one should supplement that of the 
other, and during the past year it has been carried on in accordance 
with the spirit of the above vote. 

The work of the New Jersey Experiment Station continues to be 
applied to the analysis of fertilizers, feeds and fodders, and the ques- 
tions connected with the production and the quality of milk. Various 
field experiments have also been continued, in particular experiments 
connected with the production of sorghum and sugar. And in gen- 
eral it continues work upon those subjects which have been considered 
to almost come within the police jurisdiction of the State. Its officers 
are chemists, of whom 4 or 5 are employed, and its questions mostly 
chemical. The Agricultural College Experiment Station takes up 
the work where it is necessarily left by the State Station, and con- 
tinues it farther and devotes more attention to the investigation of 
the principles of science which underlie the various branches of agri- 
cultural and horticultural practice. It has a botanist and horticul- 
turist, whose experiments are with the quality of seeds, the growth of 
staple crops, the diseases of plants and the conditions requisite for 
healthy growth and development. It employs an entomologist, whose 
attention is given to studying the habits of insects both useful and in- 
jurious, and to experiments for benefiting the one and destroying the 
other. It engages the services of an accomplished biologist, who has* 
thus far given his attention mainly to studying our resources of fish 

2 (17) 



18 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 

and shell fish, and in particular to the oyster industry of the State 
and the field for its productive increase and its extension. It has a 
chemical geologist, whose attention is given to the study of soils, marls 
and limestones, and the changes to be wrought in soils by proper till- 
age. Other specialists will be called in as the demands of the farm- 
ers may require. 

The organizations of the two Stations are given in this report, and 
their united forces can do much more for the improvement of our 
agriculture than the two could if working in different and separate 
places. 

The State Station has never had any laboratory or other building 
of its own, but has occupied rooms in the buildings of Rutgers Col- 
lege. The enlargement of the Agricultural College, by the addition 
of an Agricultural Experiment Station, and the increased work of the 
;State Station, made it necessary to provide additional buildings. The 
Legislature of 1888 appropriated $30,000 for the erection of a labora- 
tory for the Station. A liberal friend gave the land on which to build 
it ; the United States appropriation to the Agricultural College Ex - 
periment Station authorized the expenditure of $3,000 in providing 
buildings, and money saved from the annual appropriation for the 
State Station has further increased the building fund, so that in all it 
will amount to near $40,000. The new laboratory is inclosed, and it 
is expected that it will be finished by the opening of the spring of 
1889. It is a building of stone and pressed brick, 100 feet long and 
50 feet wide, with two full stories, a high and well-lighted basement, 
and an attic with capacity equal to either of the other stories. This 
building will provide ample accommodations for the chemists, chemi- 
cal geologists, botanists, biologists, entomologists and other specialists 
who may be engaged in experiment work, and will also have rooms 
foi laboratories, lectures, farmers' meetings, &c. 

In the prosecution of the Station work, analyses have been made of 
170 complete fertilizers, 78 incomplete fertilizers, 33 miscellaneous 
specimens; also 9 analyses of feeds and fodders have been made. 
Field experiments have been made upon wheat, peach trees, millet, 
upon alfalfa, upon sorghum and upon the effect of different simple 
and mixed fertilizers upon crops. Experiments have also been made 
for destroying noxious insects. Important investigations have been 
begun upon the sources for the supply of fish and shell fish from our 
own waters, and the means for their improvement. Investigations 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



19 



have also been commenced for the description and classification of the 
different soils of the State, and the agencies which may be applied to 
develop their best natural productiveness. On all these points fuller 
information is presented in the body of this report. 

The preparation for enlarged work has necessarily interfered with 
the prosecution of some of the Station investigations. And a number 
which have been entered upon are not sufficiently advanced to give 
any practical results, though they are well opened. The value of our 
waters for the production of food fish and shell fish has never been 
appreciated. Our best oyster lands will produce more than ten times 
as much value as our average farms do. There are more than 150,000 
acres of them. They are not all improved, though they are capable 
of as much improvement as any farm land. We have 13,000 acres 
in lakes, ponds and running streams. In all these fish can be culti- 
vated, and the value to be produced from them is quite as large as 
that from an equal area of good upland. This value has not been 
realized up to the present time, but those best informed upon the sub- 
ject say that it can and ought to be done. And our biologist enters 
upon the subject with confidence that he can contribute something to 
this end. 

The study of soils and their properties and composition, has not 
in recent times received the attention it deserves. It is easier to apply 
fertilizers than it is to get out the natural richness of the soil. But it 
is by no means certain that it is more profitable. Thorough and good 
tillage may develop in a soil sources of fertility which under ordinary 
treatment are totally unavailable. There are, in our State, soils which 
have, within six inches of their surface, enough potash and phosphoric 
acid to supply the crops for a hundred years to come, and a good stock 
of nitrogen and the other elements of fertility. They need more com- 
plete exposure to the benignant influences of air, moisture and warmth. 
There are still in New Jersey 2,069,819 acres of upland unimproved, 
of which more than half are now capable of profitable cultivation. 
Some of them will need fertilization, but they will respond to 
thorough tillage, and give full return for all the work bestowed upon 
them. 

Arrangements are also made for a careful and thorough trial of the 
leading breeds of dairy cows, so as to help determine the cost of their 
keep and the value of their product. The trial will need to be con- 
ducted both at the cow-stables and in the laboratory, and to be con- 
tinued for at least three years. 



20 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



The results of the investigations upon the growth of sorghum, and 
the manufacture of sugar, demonstrate that good crops of cane can be 
grown upon the soils of southern New Jersey by the aid of rather 
inexpensive fertilizers, and that by the diffusion process nine-tenths of 
the sugar can be extracted in a solution but very little weaker than 
the natural juice. The present experience is that the sorghum-sugar 
manufacture can be carried on to good advantage, and with good 
efficiency of labor and capital, in sugar-houses working not more than 
40 tons of cane daily, and that with a season of seventy days, which may 
be reasonably expected, 2,800 tons of cane may be worked in the 
mill, and a product of 232,000 pounds of sugar, and 30,800 gallons 
of syrup obtained. This amount can be grown upon 250 acres of 
ground, and may be produced upon a farm of 1,250 acres without 
materially diminishing the other crops of the farm. 

This is the present condition of the manufacture where the cane 
yields only 8 per cent, of sugar and the season of manufacture is 
limited to seventy days. But there are now single canes to be found 
which yield 12 and even 14 per cent, of sugar, and by careful selec- 
tion and cultivation it may reasonably be expected that the whole 
crop may be enriched up to this standard, as it has been in the case of 
the sugar beet. There is no staple crop now culti vated in our country 
which gives promise of such good returns or of so great improvement 
as this ; neither is there one in which a mixed industry of agriculture 
and manufactures can be so generally distributed. 

The benefits coming to our farmers from the work of the Experi- 
ment Station continue to be satisfactory. Seven bulletins have been 
sent out since the issue of the last annual report, and the mailing list 
is increased to nearly 11,000. The early and wide distribution of the 
results of the Station work quickens attention and brings useftil 
information to the farmers. The sale of fertilizers is to a large extent 
regulated by the analyses made at the Station laboratory. The 
inquiries made by farmers are of more than daily occurrence, and 
they indicate a marked and large increase of knowledge of the prin- 
ciples of agriculture. The correspondence started by these inquiries 
is constituting an important part of the Station work, and the 
inquiries made and answers given, when recorded, will become an 
important part of our reports. 

There has been no very marked change in the amount of chemical 
fertilizers used in the State during the past year. From the nearest 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 21 



estimates the Station can make, about 33,600 tons have been sold to 
our farmers, with a value of $1,125,800. The analyses show that 
the respectable manufacturers are becoming more careful to make their 
goods conform closely to their published guarantees of composition. 
But few brands of spurious or of greatly overrated fertilizers have 
been sold to our farmers, and these must have been in very small 
quantities. The following-named specimens are open to the criticism 
mentioned, viz. : 

Cary Brothers' Excelsior No. 1, Station Number 2,134, is also, in 
its Station valuation, very far below the selling price. It does not, in 
its printed analysis, promise much commercial value. There is no 
occasion for a farmer to complain if he buys this. An intelligent 
examination of the analysis printed on the bags or packages will show 
how little of valuable fertilizing material is in them. 

Jeptha A. WageneVs $55 Mineral Fertilizer, Station Number 2,583, 
it will be seen, comes, in its valuation, far below the price at which it 
is sold ; and it also comes below the manufacturer's guarantee as printed 
in the analysis. 

American Chemical Guano, Station Number 2,601, represents brands 
occasionally found which are not accompanied by any analysis, which, 
from the Station's analysis and valuation, is worth, in market, $15.11 
per ton, while its selling price is $45 per ton, or almost three times its 
proper price. For cases like this, too, the buyer has only himself to 
blame ; no high-priced fertilizer should be bought unless accompanied 
by a guaranteed analysis. 

In examining the analyses, attention need only be given to the 
lower quantity of each ingredient, as this is all the manufacturer 
guarantees; thus, if the analysis is nitrogen, 2 to 3 per cent., the 
maker only guarantees 2 per cent., and purchasers should not fail to 
use these in calculating the values of the fertilizers. In the sample 
2,691 the constituents are quite up to the guarantees, but in using 
these guarantees with the Station's prices, which are given on the next 
page, it will be found that its commercial value is only $16.62 per 
ton, while its selling price is $32, or almost twice as much as it would 
east in market. When these analyses are plainly given, buyers have 
only themselves to blame if they pay more for their fertilizers than 
they are worth in market. 



22 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 

The prices of fertilizers have been fully maintained throughout the 
year, and those of some kinds of stock have increased, so that manu- 
facturers are asking to have the Station prices for the coming year 
increased a little. 

^ It is only just to here acknowledge the assistance rendered to the 
Station by the gentlemen who have collected the samples of fertilizers 
which have been analyzed. Justice to the manufacturers, sellers and 
buyers of fertilizers requires the samples should be taken by disinter- 
ested men, whose character and standing are well known in their 
communities, and above question. The following are the names of 
those who have collected during the last season : 

Charles Kraus, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County. 

J. B. Eckerson, River Vale, Bergen County. 

Caleb S. Ridgway, Columbus, Burlington County. 

I. W. Nicholson, Camden, Camden County. 

J. H. Richardson, Rio Grande, Cape I^ay County. 

Theo. F. Baker, Bridgeton, Cumberland County. 

Wm. R. Ward, Newark, Essex County. 

Jas. C. Griscom, Woodbury, Gloucester County. 

A. J. Thompson, Readington, Hunterdon County. 

Franklin Dye, Trenton, Mercer County. 

J. M. White, New Brunswick, Middlesex County. 

J. H. Denise, Freehold, Monmouth County. 

J. J. Mitchell, Whippany, Morris County. 

Geo. A. MacBean, Lakewood, Ocean County. 

John Grundy, Paterson, Passaic County. 

Woodnutt Pettit, Salem, Salem County. 

J. S. Ten Eyck, North Branch, Somerset County. 

D. R. Warbasse, Hunt's Mills, Sussex County. 

Dennis C. Crank, Roselle, Union County. 

.Samuel J. Hixson, Bridgeville, Warren County. 

It has been the aim of the Station to have its annual report ready 
for issue at the annual meeting of the Board of Managers, on the 
third Tuesday of January in each year. On account of delays in 
finishing work already begun, and a desire to get the results of work 
done, in the hands of farmers at as early a day as possible, the reports 
have not been completed as early as proposed, and last year the report 
for 1887 was not ready for distribution till in April. An effort is now 
made to issue a report upon the work done at the beginning of the 
year, though it can include only the results obtained since April last. 

The plans of the State Station for work this year included an account 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



23 



of the present condition and working of the beet-sugar industry in 
Europe, and Dr. Neale, the chemist of the Station, has devoted much 
time in preparing for and making the trip to Europe, and since his 
return the working of the sorghum sugar-house in Cape May and the 
report upon the season's work there, have occupied his time quite up to 
the end of the year, and his removal to the directorship of the Dela- 
ware Experiment Station has necessarily left our plans incomplete. 
The ordinary routine of the laboratory work has been well done by 
the assistant chemists of the Station, and the result of their season's 
work comes first in this report. Dr. Neale's work on sorghum follows 
under his own name, and then the several papers by the members of 
the Agricultural College Experiment Station staff in succession. 



GEORGE H. COOK, 

Director, 



REPORT OF THE CHEMISTS: 



FERTILIZERS. 

In this portion of its work the Station aims to publish all available 
information regarding the purchases, the sales and the uses of com- 
mercial fertilizers. The methods of securing this information remain 
unchanged year after year; the form of this report consequently 
remains unaltered. 

This remark applies only to the kind of work done; its quantity 
is steadily increasing, and at present fully equals the capacity of this 
laboratory. 

The subject is considered under the following divisions : 



I. 

FERTILIZER STATISTICS. 

1. The quantity and value of the fertilizers used in New Jersey 
during the year 1888. 

2. Comparison of this year's trade with that of the four preceding 
years. 

II. 

THE COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF FERTILIZERS. 

1. Their market prices. 

2. The sources and quality of their nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash. 

3. Their guaranteed chemical composition and relative commercial 
values. 

in. 

AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS OF FERTILIZERS. 

1. To show that commercial fertilizers, when used upon suitable 
soils, not only give immediate returns, but also increase the crop-pro- 
ducing power of the ground. 
(24) 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



25 



2. To test the relative value to the crop following the one upon 
which it is applied of the phosphoric acid secured from bones and 
from S. G. rock. 

I. 

FERTILIZER STATISTICS. 

1. The quantity and value of the fertilizers used in New Jersey during 

the year 1888. 

2. Comparison of this year's trade with that of the four preceding years. 

These statistics were taken by manufacturers from their books in 
answer to requests made by this Station. The reports were in each 
•case returned on printed forms, of which the following is a copy : 

SALES OF COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

The following is a correct statement of the number of tons of the several classes of 

Commercial Fertilizers sold in New Jersey by during the year ending 

November 1st, 1888 : 

Number of tons of Complete Manure 

Ammoniated Superphosphate without Potash (Dissolved 

Bone, Ac.) 

Ground Bone 

" " Kainit 

11 Muriate of Potash 

" " Nitrogenous Matter 

(a) Ammonium Sulphate 

(6) Sodium Nitrate 

(c) Blood, Ammonite, See 

Number of tons of Plain Superphosphates, including both Dissolved Bone Black 
and S. C. Acid Phosphate 

The above circular was mailed to 72 firms, 44 of which, including 
those that have the largest sales in this State, forwarded itemized 
statements. These indicate a total consumption in New Jersey of 
33,633 tons, divided as follows : 



26 



NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



1. 

THE QUANTITY AND VALUE OF THE FERTILIZERS USED IN NE 
JERSEY DURING THE YEAR 1888. 



Complete Manures 

Dissolved Bones, &c 

Ground Bones 

Kainit 

Muriate of Potash 

Ammonite, Dried Blood, &c 

Ammonium Sulphate 

Sodium Nitrate 

Bone Black Superphosphate 

S. C. Rock Phosphate 

Total number of tons and value 



00 > 



o a 
2 "o ® 



25,413 
1,016 
2,036 
604 
449 
1,703 
53 
157 
457 
1,745 



33,633 



$34 83 
31 90 
33 76 
12 83 
42 33 
36 66 
69 70 
52 00 
24 80 
15 60 



$885,13 
32,41 
68,73 
7,74 
19,00 
62,432 
3,694 
8,164 
11,334 
27,222 



$1,125,881 



It is admitted that these statistics are incomplete, as they represent 
44 manufacturers only of the 72 whose brands have this year been 
sampled in this State and analyzed by this Station. 

As stated in the annual report for 1887, this statistical work is 
carried out without legal authority, the data being secured only 
through the courtesy of those manufacturers who, year after year, at 
their own expense, compile their reports in answer to direct requests. 

The Inspectors who represent this Station, report the retail prices 
of every brand sampled by them. These reports furnish the data 
from which the above average retail price for complete manures was 
obtained. 

The average retail prices for kainit and all other products tabu- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 27 



lated below it were furnished by manufacturers, consequently they 
do not include charges for freight, cartage, &c. 

The complete manures represent 76 per cent, of the total number 
of tons sold last season, and 80 per cent, of the total value of all sales. 

2. 

COMPARISON OF THIS YEAR ? S TRADE WITH THAT OF THE FOUR 
PRECEDING YEARS. 

The total consumption for the year 1888 is reported to have been 
33,633 tons. This total tonnage is eight per cent, greater than that 
reported in 1887, but the distribution has changed in such a man- 
ner as to increase the sales of complete 'fertilizers nearly thirteen per 
cent. 

The manner in which the average retail prices for the year were 
secured has been already given j the fact has also been demonstrated 
that, of the total expenditure for fertilizers, eighty per cent, was paid 
for complete manures. 

The table shows that the average prices for these complete fertil- 
izers fell 9teadily from 1882 to 1887, when it was fifteen per cent, 
lower, and that the average price of this year is almost identical with 
that of 1887. 



28 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



TONNAGE OF FERTILIZERS USED IN NEW JERSEY. 





1882. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888J 

25,413 

1,016] 

2,03611 
6041 
449f 
*1,703| 
53 1 
157 1 


" " Ammoniated Superphos-) 
phate without Potash > 

\LJ\.*Sc>\Jl V CU -DUIlCj otu. )... J 


15,941 
1.370 

2,509 
683 
144 
719 
76 
26 
244 
228 
248 

3,450 

562 
3,963 


21,894 

1,541 

3,172 
991 
291 
783 
54 
40 

1,001 

228 
574 
10,200 


22,424 

1,603 

2,237 
584 
331 
250 
55 
17 
263 


24^498 

1,343 

2,338 
1,106' 
255 
*698 
21 
24 


22,500 

1,898 

2,465 
1,220 
314 


" " Blood 


95 
93 
411 
184 
363 


Fish 








" " Hair 


434 
6,000 


723 
5,000 




Poudrette 




" " Superphosphates, 30 to 40 ) 






" " Superphosphates, 11 to 18 \ 


5,315 










Bone Black Superphos-1 


2,488 
1,124 


594 
2,078 


370 
1,303 


457 
1,745 








30,163 


46,664 


37,810 


38,678 


31,216 


33,633 




*The total number of tons, in 1886 and 1888, under Ammonite, includes both blood and fish, 
returns having been made, in many cases, without discrimination. 

THE AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES FOR 1882, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887 AND 1888. 




1882. 


1884. 


1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 




$41 00 

32 00 

37 00 
12 00 
41 00 
56 00 
99 00 
76 00 
56 00 
45 00 
10 00 
10 00 

75 00 

28 50 

34 00 
26 60 


$38 00 
31 00 

36 00 

10 00 
38 00 
43 00 
70 50 
54 00 
43 50 
31 50 

11 00 
10 00 


$35 73 

31 62 

31 25 
11 75 

42 15 

43 00 
68 50 
52 25 
38 67 
34 66 
10 00 
10 00 


$36 68 
39 25 

34 35 

10 60 
42 00 
f40 40 
70 00 
58 72 


$34 80 

32 63 

85 39 
10 25 
39 54 


$34 83 

31 90 

33 76 
12 83 
42 33 
|36 66 
69 70 
52 00 


Ammoniated Superphosphate without Pot-) 








68 20 
51 61 
35 33 
35 17 














10 00 
10 00 










Superphosphates with 30 to 40 per cent. ) 






Superphosphates with 11 to 18 per cent. \ 


24 50 

26 00 
20 00 










" " S. C. Rock 


29 86 
20 31 


25 85 
17 75 


26 95 
17 73 


24 80 
16 60 



fThe prices for blood, ammonite and fish have been averaged for the years 1886 and 1888, for 
reason mentioned above. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



29 



The table also shows that during the period from 1882 to 1887, 
with the exception of potash, the decline in the prices of the raw 
materials from which complete fertilizers are mad*, was even more 
marked, averaging 33 per cent, for nitrogenous materials and 27.5 per 
cent, for superphosphates. The record for 1888 shows that the prices 
of organic nitrogen and phosphoric acid were lower, and that potash 
and soluble nitrogen were higher than in 1887. The variation from 
1887, however, was very slight, except in the case of kainit, the price 
of which increased 25 per cent., and South Carolina rock superphos- 
phate, the price of which decreased 14 per cent. 

The question has been raised whether this decline in the average 
prices of complete manures has been accompanied by a corresponding 
decrease in the absolute amounts of plant-food actually delivered to 
consumers. To answer this, the analyses made by the Station in past 
years have been averaged with the following results : 

Total Total Available Insoluble 

Nitrogen. Phos. Acid. Phos. Acid. Phos Acid. Potash. 
Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 



1888 average of 153 samples 2.77 10.91 8.09 2.82 4.29 

1887 " "153 " 2.79 10.87 7.69 3.18 4.22 

1886 " - 146 " 2.66 10.82 8.07 2.75 3.87 

1885 " " 103 " 2.61 11.16 8.33 2.83 3.79 



An examination of these figures indicates that no marked change 
in the average quality of fertilizers has occurred during the past four 
yean. This is rendered more definite by computing cash valuations 
upon the basis of the Station's schedule for 1888. 

On this basis a fertilizer to represent the average for each of the 
three years would be valued as follows : 



1888 $27 42 per ton. 

1887 26 99 

1886 26 63 

1885 26 85 



The decline in the prices of complete fertilizers, therefore, was not 
accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the absolute amounts of 
plant-food delivered to consumers. 

The total cash value of the reported sales of commercial fertilizers 
in this State during 1888, as compared with that of previous years, is 
as follows : 



30 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Total value of fertilizers reported for 1882 $1,070,113 00 

" " " " " 1884 1,369,004 00 

" " 14 " " 1885 1,116,670 00 

" " " " " 1886 1,181,266 00 

" " " " " 1887 1,022,434 00 

" " V ** " 1888 1,125,881 00 



II: 

THE COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF 
FERTILIZERS. 

1. Their market prices. 
c 2. The sources and quality of their nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash. 

■3. Their guaranteed chemical composition and relative commercial 
values. 

1. 

THE MARKET PRICES OF FERTILIZERS. 

The preceding records show that the farmers of this State paid at | 
least $885,000 last season for complete manures. It is therefore a 
matter of importance to ascertain the principal conditions which in- 
fluence the selling-prices of these materials. 

Complete fertilizers are made by mixing a number of crude pro- 
ducts, each of which contains one or more of the following elements 
of plant-food, viz. : Nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. Efforts 
have therefore been made to secure — 

The average wholesale prices of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash. 

The average retail prices of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. 
The advance in prices between the wholesale and retail markets. 

The wholesale prices are quoted every Wednesday in the well- 
known trade journal, The Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter. These 
prices have been tabulated for the entire year, and have then been 
recalculated in order to express the results in the form adopted by 
the Experiment Stations of this country. 

The retail prices were secured by the chemists of this Station, who 
visited all of the principal factories in which fertilizers are mixed ; 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 31 



sampled all crude products found, and learned from the owners the 
rates charged per ton for each of said products before they wee 
mixed to form complete manures. 

A comparison of the retail and wholesale prices, secured as above 
described, gives the following : 



AVERAGE PERCENTAGES 
BY WHICH THE 
RETAIL PRICES EXCEED THE 
WHOLESALE. 





1886. 


1887. 


1888. 




27.3 


23.1 


22.5 




19.9 


13.0 


7.6 


" Dried Blood 


40.8 


26.2 


6.0 


' Fish 










13.7 


12.6 


11.6 










M M S. C. Rock 


35.0 


33.0 


33.3 










" " S.C.Rock 


35.0 


33.0 


33.3 










" " S. C. Rock 


38.7 


33.0 


33.3 










" " Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia.. 


51.2 


40.8 


35.5 




44.8 


29.0 


34.2 




14.3 


17.1 


11.1 



A summary of the above results shows that in 1888 the retail 
prices exceeded the wholesale by the following percentages : Nitrogen, 
11.9 per cent. ; available phosphoric acid, 33.3 per cent. ; potash, 26.9 
Vent. With the exception of nitrogen, the differences between 
the wholesale and retail rates for 1887 and 1888 are practically iden- 
tical, and these differences have been very uniform since 1885, averag- 
ing 33.7 per cent, for phosphoric acid and 30 per cent, for potash. In 



32 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



the case of nitrogen, fluctuations have been more apparent, the differ- 
ence between wholesale and retail prices being 14.3 per cent, in 1885. 
25.4 per cent, in 1886 and 11.9 per cent, in 1888. This comparison 
would seem to indicate a tendency on the part of the manufacturers 
to sell closer to the wholesale market in the case of nitrogen, while in 
the case of phosphoric acid and potash the limit was reached in 1886- 

SUMMARY. 



RETAIL PRICES EXCEED WHOLESALE BY THE FOLLOWING PERCENTAGES. 





1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 




14.3 


25.4 


19.7 


11.9 




52.0 


35.0 


33.0 


33.3 




36.2 


36.2 


29.0 


26.9 



The data upon which all of the above information depends will be 
found on the following pages. 

THE WHOLESALE PRICES OP PHOSPHORIC ACID, NITROGEN ANI> 
POTASH IN CRUDE PRODUCTS. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

The wholesale prices of phosphoric acid remained unchanged 
throughout the years 1885, 1886 and 1887, at $12.00 to $15.00 per 
ton. These prices continued in 1888 until May, when wholesale 
quotations ruled at the rate of $10.50 to $11.20 per ton, and con- 
tinued at that figure throughout the remainder of the year. The 
average analysis of seven samples examined at this Station is as fol- 
lows : 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid 10.69 per cent. 

Reverted * «' 1.15 " " 

Insoluble " " 3.15 (i " 

At the average price of $11.75 per ton of acid phosphate, the 
wholesale prices per pound of phosphoric acid rule as follows : * 

Cents. 

Soluble 4.65 

Reverted 4.65 

Insoluble 1.16 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



NITROGEN AND POTASH. 

WHOLESALE PRICES IN NEW YORK, PER TON. 



OF NITROGENOUS MATTER. 



Nitrate of 
Soda. 



Sulphate of 
Ammonia. 



Azotine. 



s 



Jan $43 00 

Feb 44 00 1 

March.! 44 20 
April....! 41 80l 

May 41 801 

June.... 41 80 

July 41 80 1 

Aug 42 00 j 

8ept.„... 43 20 

Oct 44 60| 

Nov 46 20 

Dec ' 48 001 



$12 20 
41 001 

38 00 

39 00! 

40 40 
40 501 
40 00 

40 801 

41 50 

42 60 
44 80 
46 80 



$61 20 

63 80 
67 50' 
67 50 
66 00 

64 50 
61 00, 
64 OOj 

64 00 

65 60 
69 00, 
69 00 



$60 20 

62 80 
61 00| 

67 00, 
65 00 

63 50j 
63 00; 
63 00| 

63 00 1 

64 40 

68 00 
67 80! 



$30 75 $30 
31 95 31 
33 75 33 
33 751 33 
33 15 | 32 

33 001 32 

34 65 33 

35 25 34 
35 25 34 
37 35 36 
39 75| 38 
39 751 38 



Dried 
Blood. 



00 $30 
05| 32 

001 33 
00! 33 
40, 33 
25 33 
38 34 6 
50 35 
50 35 
60 37 
25 38 
23 38 



329 40 

31 05 

32 25 
32 25 
32 25 

32 25 

33 37 
25 1 31 50 
63 34 87 
35| 36 60 
25 37 50 
25 37 50 



OF POTASH SALTS. 



Muriate of 
Potash. 



$36 CO 
36 20 

35 50 

36 00 
36 20 
36 00 
36 01) 
36 00 

36 50 

37 00 
37 00 
37 00 



Kainit. 



50 $8 50 
50| 8 50 
5011 25 
5011 50 
80 9 20 
50 10 66 
20111 37 
00 10 25 
00,10 23 
3010 40 
50 10 50 
50 10 50 



Double Sul- 
phate of 
Potash anci 
Magnesia. 



$8 00 $23 
8 10! 21 



8 75 
8 75 
8 80 

8 91 

9 32 
9 25 
9 50 
9 68 
9 75 
9 75 



822 00' 
22 50> 
22 50- 
22 50 
21 70 

20 50- 

21 50 

21 00 

22 0C- 

23 00' 
23 00- 
23 40* 



WHOLESALE PRICES IN NEW YORK, PER POUND, OF PLANT FOOL 



1888. 
Months. 


WHOLESALE COST, PER POUND, OF NITROGEN 
IN FORM OF— 


WHOLESALE COST, PER POUND; - 
OF POTASH IN FORM OF — 


Nitrate of 
Soda. 


Sulphate 
of 

Ammonia 


Azotine. 


Dried 
Blood. 


Muriate 

of 
Potash. 


Kainit. 


Double Sul- 
phate of 

Potash and) 
Magnesia. 


M 

m 
2 


c 

a 


i 

a 


a 

i 

cts. 
14.7 
15.3 
14.9 
16.3 
15.9 
15.5 
15.4 
15.4 
15.4 
15.7 
16.6 
16.5 


i 

a 


a 
3 


oS 

a 


a 
a 


a 


a 

a 


i 

a 


c 

a 


i 

a 


d 

a 


January 

February 


cts. 
13.4 
13.8 
13.8 
13.1 
13.1 
131 
13.0 
13.1 
13.5 
13.9 
14.4 
15.0 


cts. 
13.2 
12.8 
11.9 
12.2 
12.6 
12.6 
12.5 
12.8 
13.0 
13.3 
14.0 
14.6 


cts. 
14.9 
15.5 
16.5 
16.5 
16.1 
15.7 
15.6 
15.6 
15.6 
16.0 
16.8 
16.8 


cts. 
12.3 
12.8 
13.5 
13.5 
13.3 
13.2 
13.9 
14.1 
14.1 
14.9 
15.9 
15.9 


cts. 
12.0 
12.4 
13.2 
13.2 
12.9 
12.9 
13.4 
13.8 
13.8 
14.6 
15.3 
15.3 


cts. 
121 
12.8 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.2 
13.9 
14.1 
14.3 
14.9 
15.3 
15.3 


cts. 
11.8 
12.4 
12 9 
12.9 
12.9 
12.9 
13.4 
13.8 
13.9 
14.6 
15.0 
15.0 


cts. 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.7 
3.7 
3,7 
8.7 


cts ' cts. 
3.5 3.4 
3.5 3.4 
R ft 1 A fi 


cts. 
3.2 
3.2 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.6 
3.7 
3.7 
3.8 
3.9 
3.9 
3.9 


cts. 
4.6 
4.8 
4.6 
4.7 
4.6 
4.4 
4.4 
4.3 
4.6 
4.8 
4.8 
4.9 


cts. 
4.4 
4.5 
4.5 
4.5 
4.3 
41 
4.3 
4.2: 
4.4 
4.6 
4.6 
4.7 


April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December... 


3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.5 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 
3.6 


4.6 
3.7 
4.3 
4.5 
4.1 
4.1 
42 
4.2 
4.2 


Average for 1888.. 


13.3 


15.8 


13.8 


13.6 


3.6 


3.8 


4.5 


Average for 1887.. 


13.0 


14.6 


13.5 


13.0 


3.5 


3.1 


4.4 


Average for 1886..' 14.3 


15.1 


14.6 


14.2 


3.5 


2.9 


4.3 



8 



34 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



The above table indicates that the wholesale prices of the various 
forms of nitrogen and potash have been steadily increasing throughout 
the year. With the exception of nitrate of soda and double sulphate 
-of potash and magnesia, the lowest points were reached in January, 
and, with the exception of kainit, the highest points were reached in 
December. The increase ranges for nitrogen from 13 per cent, in the 
•case of nitrate of soda to 29 per cent, in azotine, and for potash from 
2.8 per cent, in muriate of potash to 35 per cent, in kainit. The 
above table also gives the average wholesale prices for the past three 
years. A comparison shows that the price of potash, from all sources, 
has been greater in both 1887 and 1888 than in 1886; the greatest 
percentage increase being in kainit in 1888. In the case of nitrogen, 
however, there has been considerable fluctuation in price. The lowest 
jprices for all forms were reached in 1887. 



AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID AND 
POTASH IN CRUDE PRODUCTS. 

From time to time, during the spring and summer, the Station's 
chemist visited, without warning, the principal factories from which 
this State's supplies of fertilizers are drawn. All material found was 
carefully sampled, and the retail cash prices were obtained by letter 
from the manufacturers. After an analysis of the samples, there- 
fore, it was not difficult to calculate the retail prices per pound of the 
various forms of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash used in this 
trade. 

The tables upon subsequent pages furnish in detail the information 
gained by this work, and afford data also for the following summary. 
For comparison, results secured in a similar manner in 1884, 1885, 
1886 and 1887 are republished : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



35 



Cost per pound of Nitrogen from Nitrate of Soda 

" " Sulphate of Ammonia 

*« " " " " " Dried Blood 

*« 44 •* 44 " 44 Dried Fish 

Ammonite and Tankage 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid from Bone Black ... 

" ''• S. C. Rock 



Reverted 



Insoluble 



" 4i Bone Black... 

" S. C. Rock 

44 41 Bone Black... 

44 S. C. Rock 

Potash from High- Grade Sulphate 

" Double Sulph. Potash & Magn'a, 

44 " Kainit 

4 4 4 4 Muriate 



cts. 
16.9 



17.1 
18.3 



15.8 
7.3 
8.6 
6.7 
7.8 
2.9 
1.9 



7.2 
4.5 
4.2 



1885. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


cts. 


16.1 


18.2 


16.0 


16.3 


16.7 


18.1 


16.5 


17.0 


15.5 


20.0 


16.4 


14.4 


14.8 


*16.6 


15.2 


15.3 


16.1 




fl5.2 


fl5.4 


7.8 


7.8 


8.2 


7.6 


8.6 


7.4 


7.5 


6.2 


6.9 


7.8 


8.2 


7.5 


7.6 


7.4 


7.5 


6.2 


1.7 


1.9 


2.0 


1.9 


1.9 


1.9 


1.9 


1.5 


6.7 


5.8 


5.7 


4.7 


6.8 


6.5 


6.2 


6.1 


4.5 


4.2 


4.0 


5.1 


4.1 


4.0 


4.1 


4.0 



• This average also represents the retail cost of nitrogen in ammonite and castor pomace, 
t Does not include tankage. 

These averages are the manufacturers' retail cash prices for the 
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash in the crude stock from which 
complete fertilizers are made. 



COMPARISON BETWEEN THE AVERAGE WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



The conclusions reached in regard to the wholesale and retail prices 
are here tabulated. They represent the manufacturers' wholesale and 
retail prices for plant-food in its best forms. The percentages by which 
the retail prices exceed the wholesale, have been taken as the basis of 
the comparison : 



36 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Nitrogen frcm Nitrate of Soda 

" Sulphate of Ammonia 

" " Dried Blood 

" Fish 

" " Ammonite 

Soluble Phosphoric Acid from Bone Black. ... 

" " " " S. C. Rock 

Reverted " " " Bone Black ... 

" " S. C. Rock 

Insoluble " " " Bone Black ... 

" S. C. Rock 



Potash from High-Grade Sulphate 

" " Double Sulphates of Potash \ 
and Magnesia j 

" " Kainit 



Muriate. 



MANUFACTURERS' 
AVERAGES. 



13.5 



5.64 



cts. cts. 
13.0 16.0 

14.6 16.5 

13.0 16.4 

15.2 

15.2 

8.2 

7.5 

8.2 

7.5 

2.0 

1.9 

5.7 

6.2 

4.0 

4.1 



564 



141 



4.4 
3.1 

3.5 



cts. 
13.3 



15.8 
13.6 



13.8 



4.7 



4.7 



1.2 



4.5 
S.8 
3.6 



cts. 
16.3 

17.0 

14.4 

15.3 

15.4 

7.5 

6.2 

7.5 

6.2 

1.9 

15 

4.7 

6.1 

5.1 

4.0 



AVERAGE PERCENTAGE 

BY WHICH THE 
RETAIL PRICES EXCEEE 
THE WHOLESALE 



27.3 

19.9 
40.8 



13.7 



35.0 



35.0 



51.2 
44.8 
14.3 



1887. 



23.1 
13.0 
26.2 



12.6 



35.0 



40.8 
29.0 
17.1 



2. 

THE SOURCES OF THE NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID AND POTASH 
FOUND IN COMPLETE FERTILIZERS. 

. As has been already stated, the chemists of this Station visit with- 
out warning nearly all of the factories in which this State's supplies 
of fertilizers are prepared. These visits are invariably made during 
the busiest season of the year, and an opportunity is thereby secured 
for inspecting and sampling crude stocks. In this manner reliable 
information is gained regarding the quality of the nitrogen, phos- 
phoric acid and potash used by each manufacturer in his brands of 
complete manures. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



37 



NITROGENOUS MATERIALS. 

In the following tables these materials have been classified as solu- 
ble and as insoluble in water. In the first class may be found the 
nitrates and ammonia salts; in the second, the dried blood, dried fish, 
ammonite, tankage and other forms of organic nitrogen. 

Difficulties were experienced in securing samples of dried blood. 
In many places tankage was offered as a substitute. 

The following description regarding tankage is copied from the 
last annual report of this Station : 

" The scraps and useless pieces of meat and bone are boiled and then 
subjected to hydraulic pressure, by which fat and water are removed. 
The cakes from the presses are then desiccated in revolving dryers, 
and afterwards ground. Some samples of the dried product analyze 
four per cent, ammonia and fifty to fifty-five per cent, bone phosphate 
of lime, and therefore are practically pure ground bone. Other sam- 
ples analyze seven to eight per cent, of ammonia and from thirty to 
thirty-five per cent, bone phosphate of lime, indicating that consider- 
able meat has been dried and ground with the bone." 

Tankage is classified with ground bone, and in consequence its 
mechanical condition is a matter of considerable importance. A 
number of samples of it will be found in the proper table, in which 
it will be seen that care is now taken to grind it quite as fine as the 
market demands. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

The superphosphates have been arranged with reference to the 
-crude stock from which they are made ; those from bone black and 
bone ash being in the first table, and those from South Carolina rock 
and similar mineral phosphates, in the second. 

No analyses of natural guanos are reported this year. The analy- 
sis of one sample of phosphate meal is tabulated under the head of 
miscellaneous samples. This product was subjected to field trials in 
1887 by this Station in order to determine its agricultural value, and 
incidentally to determine its position in the trade. In these trials it 
proved to be les3 serviceable than precipitated phosphates, though 
relatively a cheap source of phosphoric acid. Business difficulties 
have arisen which prevented its sale in this State during the past 
year. 



38 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



POTASH SALTS. 

The State law provides that in the analysis of fertilizers chemist! 
shall determine only those forms of potash which dissolve in water 
it ignores, therefore, greensand marl, and also certain, forms of organi 
matter, both of which are sometimes used as sources of this element 

The "muriate," "kainit" and "double sulphate" are well-knowr 
salts from the German mines near Stassfurt. The two first mentionec 
are now frequently found in farmers' hands, but the high price* 
demanded for small lots at retail exclude the double sulphate from 
the trade. 

A new product, known as the high-grade sulphate, has recently 
been introduced. It contains potash equivalent to 95 per cent, sul- 
phate of potash, and, consequently, may prove very serviceable to 
manufacturers who wish to use nitrogenous matters or phosphates of 
low percentage composition in making up their standard fertilizers. 

Cotton-hull ashes are also chiefly valuable for their potash, though 
often containing high percentages of available phosphoric acid. 

An analysis of one sample is published this year. Care should be 
exercised in purchasing this article to secure a guaranteed analysis, 
since it is a waste product and great variations are likely to occur in 
its composition. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



39 



FORMS OP NITROGEN 

Readily and Completely Soluble in Water. 
NITRATE OF SODA 

FURNISHING 
Nitrogen in Form of Nitrates. 



C 

8 
£) 




<— 


e . 


So* 


8 




o 






V- 


NAME AND ADDRESS OF DEALER. 


mi 55 
5 mj 




C - OS 

cm i: 


1 Kill 




© 




' 22! 


CS 






c t« 




m 








o 








cts. 




2140 




16.12 


14.9 


$48 00 


2172 


Lister's A. C. Works, Newark 


16.06 


14.9 


48 00 


2215 




16.02 


20.S 


65 00' 


2230 




15.96 


15.0 


48 00 


2237 




15.79 


15.8 


50 00 


2257 




16.01 


16.4 


52 50 


2387 




16.02 


17.1 


55 00 


2404 




15.95 


15.6 


5© 00 


Average Cost per Pound of Nitrogen in Nitrate of Soda 


16.25 





SULPHATE OF AMMONIA 

FURNISHING 

Nitrogen in Form of Ammonia-. 



■ 

M 
j 

3 
55 

s 


NAME AND ADDRESS OF DEALER. 


rercentage of 
Nitrogen. 


i 

0 . 

!» 
i& 

Q 


Cost of 2,000 lbs, 
of Sulphate of 
Ammonia. 








cts. 




2141 




21.09 


14.7 


$62 00 


2173 




20.46 


17.1 


j 70 00 


2206 




18.79 


17.3 


65 00 


2209 


C. Meyer, Jr., Maspeth, L. I 


20.32 


17.8 


72 50 


2231 




20.72 


16.9 


70 00 


2238 




20.45 


17.1 


! 70 00' 


2258 




20.96 


17.3 


72 50 


2388 




20.49 


18.3 


75 00 


2406 




20.60 


17.0 


70 00 


A vcniK'- 1 ost per Tound of Nitrogen in Sulphate of Ammonia.. 


17.0 





40 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



FORMS OP NITROGEN INSOLUBLE IN WATER. 

Dried Blood, Dried Fish, Ammonite and Tankage 
FURNISHING 
Nitrogen in Form of Organic Matter. 
DRIED BLOOD. 



1 

a 

o 


NAME AND ADDRESS OF DEALER. 


Percentage of 
Nitrogen. 


Cost of Nitro- 
gen per lb. 


Cost of 2.000 lbs. 
of Dried Blood. 


'.2216 
■M06 


Read & Co., New York 


13.35 
13.62 


cts. 
14.1 

14.7 


537 50 
40 00 






Average Cost per Pound of Nitrogen in Dried Blood. 


14.4 





DRIED FISH. 







Percentage. 


Cost 


per 


Pound. 


O 








Phosphoric Acid. 




Phos. Acid. 


■ 

T3 
a 


<u 

1 

| 


NAME AND ADDRESS OF 
DEALER. 


§> 

u 


ible in Water. 


ible in Am- 
>nium Citrate. 


)luble. 


rilable Found. 


rogen. 


ible in Water. 


ible in Am- 
•nium Citrate 


)luble. 


Cost of 2,000 pou: 
Fertilizer. 


Stat 




% 


'o 

CO 


I* 


Ins< 


> 
< 




"a 

CO 


<-> 

is 


Ins< 


•2210 




6.86 


0.89 


. 2.96 


4.52 


3.76 


cts. 
16.3 


cts. 
8 


cts. 
8 


cts. 
2 


830 00 


-.2376 


Lord & Polk, Odessa, Del 


6.04 


0.76 


2.76 


2.34 


3.52 


19.4 


8 


8 


2 


*30 00 
35 00 


.2261 


Bowker Fertilizer Co., N. Y 


8.66 


0.96 


3.60 


2.91 


4.56 


15.3 


8 


8 


2 


-2455 


L. Fisher, Port Monmouth, N. J.. 


8.61 


0.74 


3.46 


2.20 


4.20 


13.0 


8 


8 


2 


|30 00 


.2337 


Kirby & Smith, Woodbury, N. J.. 


10.56 


0.61 


0.25 


0.21 


0.86 


12.8 


8 


8 


2 


f28 50 


:2522 


Sharpless & Carpenter, Phila 


8.94 


0.82 


2.35 


3.44 


3.17 


15.4 


8 


8 


2 


*34 00 










Avfiracft Cost r>er Pound of Nitroaren in Dried Fish. 


15.3 

































♦Retail at Hammonton, N. J. fUnground but dry, and in good condition. 

AMMONITE AND CASTOR POMACE. 



NAME AND ADDRESS OF DEALER. 



Percentage. 



'A 



o 

PL. 



Cost 
per Pound. 



o 

s 



"2214 
•2223 
•2239 
2389 
2407 



C. Meyer, Jr .... 

Read & Co., Castor Pomace 

H. J. Baker & Bro., Castor Pomace 

Baugh <fc Sons Co., A A. Nitrogen 

M. L. Shoemaker & Co., Ammonite " B ' 



8.29 
6.12 
5.96 
10.69 
12.36 



3.08 
2.01 
2.05 
4.73 
3.01 



cts. 
14.7 

12.7 

14.7 

16.1 

14.7 



828 00 
18 00 
20 00 
40 00 
40 00 



Average Cost per Pound of Nitrogen. 



14.6 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



41 



FORMS OF NITROGEN INSOLUBLE IN WATER. 

Dried Blood, Dried Fish, Ammonite and Tankage 
FURNISHING 
Nitrogen in Form of Organic Matter. 
TANKAGE AND SWIFT-SURE GUANO. 



NAME AND ADDRESS OF DEALER. 



2221 Read & Co., New York. 



2222 



2390|Baugh & Sons Co., Philadelphia 

2408|M. L. Shoemaker & Co., Philadelphia.. 
3609 John Bowers & Co., Philadelphia 



Mechanical Analysis. 



41.0 

35.0 
39.0 
67.0 
88.0 



27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
27.0 
32.0 



20.0 
24.0 
22.0 
6.0 
11.0 



19.0 



Chemical 
Analysis. 



6.59 
5.57 
6.61 
7.20 
8.05 



fig. 



I 

11.82 $25 CO 



12.95 
10.87 
10.35 



28 00 

26 00 

27 00 



9.98 *25 00 



* Retail price at Germania, N. J. 



i 1 

i 
z 



name and address of dealer. 



2221 

9999 

2390 
2408 
2509 



Read & Co., Tankage 

" " Gronnd Tankage... 

Baagh & Sons Co., Tankage.^ 

M. L. 8hoemaker& Co., Swift-Sure Guano 
John Bowers & Co., " Blood " Tankage .. 



Arerage Cost per Pound. 



Station's Prices. 



Cost of Phosphoric Acid Cost of Nitrogen per 
per Pound in — Pound in- 



5.8 



7.0 



5.0 



CO 



4.1 



5.0 



13.0 
15.7 
14.1 
12.5 
12.5 



3.3 13.6 



4.0 16.6 



10.2 
12.4 
11.1 
9.9 
9.9 

10.7 



13.0 



8.3 
1CL0 
9.0 
8.1 
8.0 



8.6 



10.5 



6.7 
8.1 
7.3 
0.4 
6.4 



7.0 



8.5 



42 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



PLAIN SUPERPHOSPHATES 

Famishing Soluble, Reverted and Insoluble Phosphor!. Arid 
MANUFACTURED FROM 
BONE BLACK, BONE ASH, ETC., ETC. 



2144 
2181 
2213 
2235 
2245 
2246 
2268 
2394 
2413 
2414 



NAME AND ADDRESS OF 
MANUFACTURER. 



Phosphoric Acid. 



J. J. Allen's Sons, Philadelphia. 
Lister's A. C. Works, Newark..... 

C. Meyer, Jr. , Maspeth, L. I 

Geo. B. Forrester, New York 

H. J. Baker & Bro . New York.... 

Bowker Fertilizer Co., New York 

Baugh & Sons Co , Phi la 

M. L. Shoemaker & Co., Phila.... 



o 

I a 

H 

o H 

Q2 



16.03 0.19 



17.70 
16.23 
16.92 
17.80 
40.95 
16.00 
15.99 
12.14 
16.04 



- 0 

0.30 



3.40 
1.20 
0.13 
1.04 
0.16 



Available. 



0.28 
0.36 
0.38 
0.20 
0.07 
1.40 
0.44 
0.04 



16.22 
18.36 
16.53 
16.92 
17.80 
44.35 
17.20 
16.12 



4.60 13.18, 
0 09, 16.20 



Average Cost per Pound of Phos. Acid from Bone Black. 



Cost per Pound, 



Phos. Acid. 



■2 « 



5.84 
7.04 
7.53 
7.65 
7.53 
8.04 
7.53 
8.04 
8.00 
7.73 



*5 



s si 

r. 



7.48 



5.84 
7.04 
7.53 
7.65 
7.53 
8.04 
7.53 
8.04 
8.00 
7.73 



7.48 



1.46 
1.76 
1.88 
1.91 
1.88 
3.01 
1.88 
3.01 
3.00 
1.93 



1.87 



819 00 
26 00 

25 00 

26 00 

27 00- 
72 00 
26 DO 
26 00 
23 00 
25 00 



02 

2144 
2181 
2213 
2235 
2245 
2246 
2268 
2391 
2413 
2414 



MANUFACTURER OR WHOLE- 
SALER. 



Bone Black Superphosphate. 



High-Grade Superphosphate. 
Bone Black Superphosphate.. 

Dissolved Bone Ash 

Bone Black Superphosphate.. 



J. J. Allen's Sons, Philadelphia 

Lister's A. C. Works, Newark , 

C. Meyer, Jr., Maspeth, L. I 

Geo. B. Forrester, New York 

H. J. Baker & Bro., New York 



SAMPLED BY 



I. W. Nicholson, Camden. 
Assistant Chemist of Station. 



Bowker Fertilizer Co., New York. 

Baugh & Sons Co., Phila 

M. L. Shoemaker & Co., Phila.... 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



PLAIN SUPERPHOSPHATES 

Furnishing Soluble, Reverted and Insoluble Phosphoric Acid. 

MANUFACTURED FROM 

SOUTH CAROLINA ROCK AND OTHER MINERAL PHOSPHATES. 



NAME AND ADDRES9 OF 
MANUFACTURER. 



2143 J. J. Allen's Sons, Philadelphia... 
2219 Read & Co., New York 



2243 H. J. Baker & Bro., New York.... 
2267 Bowker Fertilizer Co., New York. 
2393 Baugh & Sons Co., Philadelphia.. 
2412|m. L. 8hoemaker & Co., Phila ... 
2478 J. Richmond, Philadelphia 



Phosphoric Acid. 



o 

a 

So 



■§5 



Available. 



10 32 1.64 
10.92 1.10 



11.66 



1.21 



11.61 0.24 
9.48 1.74 



9.78 
11.07 



1.09 
1.04 



2.18 
3.18 
3.44 
3.12 
3.62 
3.09 
3.43 



11.96 
12.02 
12.87 
11.85 
11.22 
10 87 
12.11 



Average Cost per Pound of Phos. Acid from S. C. Rock„. 



2355 



( Carteret Chem.Co..New York, 
( Precipitated Phos. of Lime. 



22.33 



i 22.30 



Cost per Pound, 



Phos. Acid. 



S 

- - 

Q V 

II 



5.00 
4.88 
5.84 
7.12 
6.60 
6.88 
6.92 



6.16 



-figs 



5.00 1.25 

4.88 1.22 

5.84 1.46 

7.12 1.78 

6.60 1.65 

I 

6.88 1.72 

i 

6.92 1.73 



6.16 1.54 



4.48 1.12 



812 50 
12 50 
16 00 
18 00 
16 00 
16 00 
18 00 



20 00 



Station Number. 


BRAND. 


MANUFACTURER OR WHOLE- 
SALER. 


SAMPLED BY. 


2143 


8. C. Rock Superphosphate... 


J. J. Allen's Sons, Philadelphia.. 


I. W. Nicholson, Camden. 


2219 




Read & Co., New York 


Assistant Chemist of Station 


2243 




H. J. Baker & Bro., New York ... 




2267 




Bowker Fertilizer Co. , New York. 




2393 




Baugh & Sons Co. , Philadelphia. 




2412 




M. L. 8hoemaker & Co.. Phila .... 




2478 








2355 


Precipitated Phos. of Lime... 


Carteret Chem. Co., New York.... 





44 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



GERMAN POTASH SALTS 

Readily Soluble in Distilled Water. 
MURIATE OF POTASH. 



Station Number. 


^ Aid Ci Ai^Lf aDI^nLoij U V D i\ 1* IH 1\. 


Percentage of 
Potash. 


Cost of Potash 
per Pound. 


Cost of 2,000 lbs. 
of Muriate. 








cts. 




2142 




53.34 


3.9 


$12 00 


2178 




53.64 


3.7 


39 50 


2207 




52.87 


4.3 


45 00 


2211 




52.50 


3.8 


40 00 


2218 




55.51 


3.9 


43 00 


2232 




53.05 


3.7 


39 50 


2241 




51.98 


4.0 


*39 50 


2263 




51.06 


4.3 


42 50 


2305 




55.31 


4.1 


f46 00 


2S92 




53.14 


4.7 


50 00 


2410 




53.79 


4.0 


*40 00 


2411 




54.83 


3.7 


J41 00 


Average Cost per Pound of Potash in Muriate 


4.0 





* On basis of 80 per cent, muriate. 

tRetail price at Cranbury. 

t On basis of 88 per cent, muriate. 

KAINIT. 



Station Number. 


NAME AND ADDRESS OP DEALER. 


Percentage of 
Potash. 


Cost of Potash 
per Pound. | 


Cost of 2,000 lbs. 
of Kainit. 








cts. 




•2177 




12.47 


4.8 


$12 00 


2217 


Reed & Co., New York 


13.13 


4.6 


12 00 


2240 




12.67 


5.1 


13 00 


2266 




12.77 


5.5 


14 00 


2391 




11.80 


5.5 


13 00 


2409 




12.73 


5.1 


13 00 








5.1 





EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 45- 



POTASH SALTS. 

Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia. 


1 

3 
2 
C 

BD 

2179 
2212 
2233 
2242 
2265 


> A .M K A>1' AUJJK.fc.ac Ur UJ%AL<fc.K. 


Percentage of 
Potash. 


Cost of Potash 
per Pound. 


Cost of 2,000 lbs. 
of the Double 
Sulphate. 




25.50 
26.05 
25.96 
26.13 
26.35 


cts. 
6.1 

5.8 

6.0 

6.7 

5.7 


831 00 

30 00 

31 00 
35 00 
30 00 
















6.1 








HIGH-GRADE 
. Sulphate of Potash. 


Station Number. 


NAME AND ADDRESS OF DEALER. 


Percentage of 
Potash. 


Cost of Potash 
per Pound. 


1 Cost of 2,000 lbs* of 
I the High-Grade 
Sulphate. 


2234 
2264 




47.92 
52.63 


cts 
4.6 

4.8 


$44 00 
50 00 








Average Cost per Pound of Potash 


4.7 









3. 

THE GUARANTEED CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND RELATIVE COM- 
MERCIAL VALUES OF MERCHANTABLE FERTILIZERS. 

An Act to regulate the manufacture and sale of fertilizers. 

[Laws of New Jersey for 1874, page 90.] 

L That every commercial fertilizer which shall be offered for sale 
in this state shall be accompanied by an analysis, stating the percent- 
age therein of ammonia, or its equivalent of nitrogen ; of potash, in 



46 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



any form or combination, soluble in distilled water ; and of phos 
phoric acid in any form or combination ; the portion of phosphori 
acid soluble in distilled water ; that portion soluble in a neutral solu 
tion of citrate of ammonia at a temperature not exceeding one hun 
dred degrees Fahrenheit; and that portion of phosphoric acid no, 
soluble in either of the above-named fluids, shall each be determined 
separately ; and the material from which the phosphoric acid is 
obtained shall also be stated; a legible statement of such analysis 
shall accompany all packages or lots of over one hundred pounds 
sold, offered or exposed for sale. 

5. That any person selling, offering or exposing for sale any com- 
mercial fertilizer without the analysis required by the first section of 
this act, or the act to which this act is a supplement, or with an 
analysis stating that said fertilizer contains a larger percentage of any 
one or more of the constituents mentioned in said section than is con- 
tained therein, shall forfeit fifty dollars for the first offense and one 
hundred dollars for each subsequent offense; provided further, that 
the provisions of this section, or the act to which this act is a supple- 
ment, shall not apply to any manure sold at a price not exceeding 
one-half a cent per pound, nor to any imported guanos. 



THE GUARANTEED CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FERTILIZERS. 

From the Station's standpoint this subject involves — 

1st. The sampling. 

2d. The laboratory work. 

Previous to the year 1884 all samples of fertilizers analyzed in this 
laboratory were drawn either by the Station's officials or by reputable 
farmers who had reasons for suspecting the quality of the brands 
bought for their own use. This system had many disadvantages and 
has been abandoned. At present the only samples received for analy- 
sis are those taken by duly- authorized Inspectors. 

This plan has been satisfactory to both consumers and producers, 
for the Inspectors are, without exception, farmers of the highest 
standing, who undertake the work solely because it is regarded as a 
matter of vital interest to the farming community. 

The names of those who have represented this Station during the 
past season are as follows : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 47 



Charles Kraus Egg Harbor City Atlantic county. 

Jacob B. Eckerson River Val© Bergen county. 

Calbb S. Ridgwat Columbus Burlington county. 

I. W. Nicholson Camden Camden county. 

J. H. Richardson Rio Grande Cape May county. 

Theo. F. Baker Bridgeton Cumberland county. 

Wm. R Ward Newark Essex county. 

Jas C Gbiscom Woodbury Gloucester county. 

Aaron J. Thompson ReadiDgton.. Hunterdon county. 

Franklin Dye Trenton Mercer county. 

J. M. White New Brunswick Middlesex county. 

J. H. Denise Freehold Monmouth county. 

J. J. Mitchell Whippany Morris county. 

Geo A. MacBean Lakewood Ocean county. 

John Grundy Paterson Passaic county. 

Woodnutt Pettit Salem Salem county. 

J. S. Ten Eyck North Branch Somerset county. 

D. R. Warbasse Hunt's Mills Sussex county. 

Dennis C. Crane.. Roselle Union county. 

Samuel J. Hixson Bridgeville Warren county. 

At the beginning of the season, each Inspector was furnished with 
i sampling tube, blanks for describing samples, bottle labels, <fcc, 
ogether with printed instructions regarding their uses, and each 
inspector was requested to secure a sample of every brand of com- 
pete fertilizer which he could find in his district. As fast as samples 
vere found they were shipped to New Brunswick, where they were 
>roperly numbered and stored. 

A copy of the instructions, under which all samples were taken, is 
is follows : 

directions to be observed in sampling fertilizers. 
Inspectors may sample fertilizers found either — 

First — Upon farms ; 

Second — In dealers' storehouses ; or, 

Third— In manufactories. 

The Station prefers that samples should be drawn either upon farms or in dealers' 
torehouses. 

In sampling fertilizers found upon farms, Inspectors should ascertain — 

First — That the farmer has received these fertilizers during the present 
seaton. 

Second— That they were received in good condition, and have since been 
bo stored that a noticeable gain or loss of moisture has been 
prevented. 



48 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



In no case should farm samples be taken from stock of a past season or from stock 
which is or has been carelessly stored. 

In sampling from dealers storehouses, Inspectors should also a=certain whether the 
fertilizers are of old (last season's) or of new stock. Preference should always be 
given to the present season's goods. Circumstances may, however, make it advis- 
able to sample old stock ; in such cases, this fact should be distinctly stated by the 
Inspector, in his report to the Station's Director. 

If for any reason it is found to be necessary to draw samples at factories, Inspectors- 
should decline — 

First — To sample from piles of fertilizers ; 

Second — To sample from bags which are not distinctly marked with the 
brand, the manufacturer's name and the guaranteed analysis. 

If fertilizers are found stored in piles only, Inspectors should cause six or more 
bags to be filled from different portions of the piles ; from these bags the samples may 
be drawn in the usual manner. 

SAMPLING. 

Whenever the mechanical condition will allow, samples should be drawn by means 

of the sampling tube. 

This tube is formed to a sharp point at one end, and can be forced to the bottom of 
a bag or barrel. A slot extending nearly its entire length can then be opened and 
the tube allowed to fill with the fertilizer. When the slot is closed and the tube 
withdrawn, it will contain a fair sample of any, given package. 

It is not desirable to sample lots of less than one-half ton of any one brand. In 
such lots portions may be taken from each bag; in larger lots each fifth or tenth bag 
may be opened. The several portions representing the same brand should then be 
carefully mixed and a quart fruit-jar filled, securely closed and 1 marked with labels 
furnished by the Station 

As soon as a sample has been taken, and invariably before bags of another brand 
have been opened, the Inspector should carefully fill out the blank describing samples. 

He should copy from the bags — 

First— The brand ; 

Second — The name of the manufacturer ; 
Third — The guaranteed analysis. 

Any other information desired can be sought from the owner of the fertilizer. 
Each sample bottle should be carefully wrapped in heavy paper, and packed for 
transportation in a wooden box, properly closed. . This box should be forwarded by 
express, directed to 

The New Jebsey Agricultural Experiment Station, 

GEO. H. COOK, Director, 

New Brunswick, N. J. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



49 



LABORATORY METHODS. 

The methods followed in this laboratory have been developing 
gradually ever since the Station was organized ; very slight modifica- 
tions only have been introduced during the past year. 

Each spring a circular letter is addressed to the fertilizer manufac- 
turers, requesting a list of all brands intended for the New Jersey 
trade. The returns are properly classified and arranged in such a 
manner that brands which Inspectors fail to find are known, and 
special searches for them can then be instituted promptly. 

As above stated, Inspectors are requested to sample all fertilizers 
offered for sale in their counties ; many duplicates are consequently 
received at New Brunswick, all of which are numbered, however, and! 
an entry is made for each in an appropriate book, one page of which 
is here published as an illustration. The manufacturer's name is* 
withheld and letters are substituted for the names of brands, but in> 
other respects the copy is strictly accurate. (See table, page 50.) 

This firm offered fourteen different brands to the New Jersey trade r 
two of which, viz., A and K, seem to be extremely popular, for eleven* 
samples of one and ten samples of the other indicate a wide distribu- 
tion throughout this State. It will be noticed that one number only- 
opposite each brand is printed in black-faced type. This indicates the 
particular sample of that brand which was selected for analysis. 
These entries show that the analyses representing this firm were upon* 
samples drawn from twelve different counties. 

The section of the Fertilizer law published as an introduction to- 
this chapter indicates that certain analyses must be made in this State 
according to prescribed methods; all others are left to the judgment 
of the chemists. 

The rules of this laboratory require that all determinations shall' 
be made in duplicate, and that duplicates shall not be made upon the* 
same day. In the case of total nitrogen and total phosphoric acid,, 
the duplicate determinations are also made in each case by two radi- 
cally different methods. 

GUARANTEES. 

With two exceptions, every manufacturer has observed the State? 
law, which provides that the percentages of nitrogen, of phosphoric 
acid and of soluble potash, which are claimed to be present in a 

4 



NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



51 



brand, shall be distinctly printed upon every package of fertilizer 
- exposed for sale. 

In the one case the manufacturer claimed that a few goods were 
ordered before he could secure his stencil plates, and that it was hi3 
intention to obey the law in this respect. In the other case, no analy- 
sis was printed on the bags, the dealer claiming that an analysis of 
the goods published in pamphlet form was all that was furnished by 
the manufacturer. In the pamphlet accompanying the sample the 
date of analysis had been erased; the testimonials, however, were 
dated 1858 and 1860. Efforts to find the responsible manufacturers 
of this brand have thus far been unavailing. 

In all cases the Station's analyses of brands are compared with their 
manufacturers' guarantees ; in this report prominence is given to the 
comparison by the use of black-faced type. Out of 170 samples, 96 
have been found to contain more plant- food of all kinds than their 
manufacturers claim, while 4 fall below their guarantees in every 
respect. Fifty-six per cent., therefore, of the samples tested are up 
to the standard, and 2.5 per cent, are, in all respects, below grade. 
These results are practically identical with those secured in 1885, 1886 
and 1887. 

Of the remaining samples, 70 in number, some contain excessive 
amounts of one or more elements, and fall below their claims in other 
respects, indicating careless work in the factories. Others show that 
the State law which regulates the method of analyzing fertilizers has 
been ignored, but in no case has proof been secured of a deliberate 
attempt to defraud. 

Of the three cases deemed decidedly suspicious, two were evidently 
due to ignorance, since extraordinary claims were made for chemical 
elements that are not recognized as having any agricultural value. 
These brands, when analyzed by the Station, have been published, 
with such comments as were deemed necessary to guide farmers in 
their purchases. 

The condition of the fertilizer trade in New Jersey during the past 
year shows no marked improvement over that of 1887. On the whole, 
however, a decided tendency is shown on the part of the manufacturers 
to conform to the law and to place their product on the market in a 
good mechanical condition. 

During the past year four bulletins containing fertilizer analyses 
have been published : 



52 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



No. XLV. Devoted to Prices of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Pot- 
ash, for 1888. 
" XLVII. " " Fertilizer Supplies 
" XLVIII. " " Complete Fertilizers. 

XLIX. " " Complete Fertilizers, Ground Bone and Mis- 
cellaneous Fertilizers. 

The circulation of these publications approximated eighty-five hun- 
dred copies in this State alone. 

THE RELATIVE COMMERCIAL VALUES OF MERCHANTABLE 
FERTILIZERS. 

The schedule of valuations prepared by Experiment Stations is 
intended to be used in explaining chemical analyses, and also to serve 
as a guide to farmers who estimate the commercial value of fertilizers 
from their guaranteed analyses. The methods followed in making up 
this schedule and in testing its accuracy have already been published 
in detail in former reports. 

TRADE VALUES OF FERTILIZING INGREDIENTS IN RAW MATERIALS AND CHEMICALS. 



CENTS PER POUND. 


1886. 


1887. 


1888. 


18% 


ny a 


17% 


18% 


16 


16 


17 


17% 


16%" 


17 


16 


16% 


17 


17% 


16% 


17 


17% 


16% 


17 


16 


16% 


15 


14 


13 


13 


12 


10% 


11 


10 


8% 


9 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


7 


.7 


7 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


5 


4 


4 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


5% 


5% 


5% 


4% 


4% 


4% 


4% 


4% 


4% 



Nitrogen in Ammonia Salts 

" Nitrates.. 

" " Dried and Fine Ground Fish 

Organic Nitrogen in Dried and Fine Ground Blood 

" " Meat 

" " " Cotton- Seed and Linseed Meal and in Castor Pom... 

" " " Fine Ground Bone 

" " " Fine Medium Bone 

" " " Medium Bone 

" " " Coarse Medium Bone 

" " " Coarse Bone, Horn Shavings, Hair and Fish Scrap. 

Phosphoric Acid, soluble in Water 

" " " " Ammonium Citrate 

" " insoluble in Dry, Fine Ground Fish and in Fine Bone. 

" " " " Fine Medium Bone 

" " " " Medium Bone 

" " " " Coarse Medium Bone 

" " " " Coarse Bone 

" " " " Fine Ground Rock Phosphate 

Potash as High-Grade Sulphate... 

" " Kainit - 

" " Muriate... 



Before this schedule was used by this Station its accuracy was 
subjected to the following severe test : Seventy-eight samples of crude 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 53 



material, including all the best sources of plant-food, were collected, 
analyzed, and the retail cost of their nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
potash accurately determined. The schedule secured in the above 
manner, of manufacturers' average retail cash prices for plant-food in 
i fertilizer supplies, has already been considered in detail in this report. 
In comparison with the Station's schedule it appears as follows : 



COMPARISON BETWEEN STATIONS SCHEDULE AND MANUFACTURERS* AVERAGE RETAIL 
PRICES OF PLANT-FOOD IN FERTILIZER SUPPLIES. 





MANUFACTURERS' 
AVERAGE 
RETAIL PRICES 
FOR 


STATION'S 
SCHEDULE 
OF PRICES 
FOR 


1887. 


1888. 


1888. 




cts. 


cts. 


cts. 




16 


16M 


16 




16.5 


17 






16.4 


14.4 


16K 




15.2 


15.3 


16^ 


" " " " " • " Ammonite and Castor Pom... 


15.2 


14.6 


16% 


" " " " Soluble Phosphoric Acid from Bone Black 


8.2 


7.5 


8 


" " " " " " " " S.C.Rock 


7.5 


6.2 


8 


14 " ** Reverted " " " Bone Black 


8.2 


7.5 


8 


" " " " " " " " S. C Rock 


7.5 


6.2 


8 


" " " " Insoluble " " " Bone Black 


2.0 


1.9 


2 


" " ' " • " " S. C Rock 


1.9 


1.5 


2 


" " " " Potash from High-Grade Sulphate 


5.7 


4.7 




" " " " " " Double Sulph's of Pot. and Mag. 


6.7 


6.1 




" " " Kainit 


4.0 


5.1 






4.1 


4.0 





In seven cases there is a very close agreement between the valua- 
tion- assumed by the Station and the prices charged by the manufac- 
turers, while the Station's figures are too high by an average of 11.5 
per cent, for all forms of organic nitrogen, by an average of 18.6 
per cent, for phosphoric acid from bone black and South Carolina 
rock, and by an average of 14.5 per cent, for potash from high-grade 
sulphate. In the case of sulphate of potash and magnesia and of 
kainit the Station's prices are too low by 12.7 per cent, and 6 per cent, 
respectively. 

The estimated values published in the following tables have been 



54 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



calculated from the chemical analyses of the samples with the aid of 
the above schedule. These values, consequently, represent the cost 
of the plant-food only, without allowance for the expenses involved 
in mixing materials to form the so-called complete manures. 

From estimates received by the Station from the leading fertilizer 
manufacturers on their mixing and bagging expenses, it was ascertained 
that this work could be done at an average cost of two dollars and 
eighty-five cents per ion. This amount, therefore, should be added to 
the Station's estimated value per ton, in order to ascertain, approx- 
imately, what a manufacturer's price should be before freight and 
similar charges have been incurred. Efforts have been made to secure 
from manufacturers the retail prices of their brands at their works, 
but wither. 4 ; marked success, not more than thirty per cent, of those 
who are interested having responded. It has, however, been thought 
best to publish these as far as they have been given, and, in cases 
where the manufacturers have declined to furnish the information 
desired, to publish the prices which the retail merchants have given 
to the Station's Inspectors ; at the same time calling attention to the 
possibility that these latter prices may be, in many cases, much higher 
than the manufacturers would charge. 

In addition to the samples, 78 in number, reported upon a pre- 
ceding page, the analyses may be found in the following tables of — 

170 samples of Complete Fertilizers 
19 samples of Ground Bone. 

3 samples of Dissolved Bone. 
11 samples of Miscellaneous Products. 

The following list may be used as an index to the tables of 
COMPLETE FERTILIZERS. 

LIST OF MANUFACTURERS WHOSE BRANDS HAVE BEEN SAMPLED AND ANALYZED 

THIS YEAR. 

J. J. Allen's Sons 124 South Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

American Fish Guano Co Hoffman's Wharf, Va. 

American Oil and Fertilizer Co Greenwich, N. J. 

William P. Adams 248 Front Street, New York City. 

Allentown Manufacturing Co Allentown, Pa. 

William T. Allen Lawrence Station, N. J. 

Max Ams Bayside, N. J. 

H. J. Baker & Bro 215 Pearl Street, New York City. 

Bowker Fertilizer Co 27 Beaver Street, New York City. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 55 



Baugh & Sons Co Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brands & Reed Belvidere, N. J. 

Clark's Cove Guano Co , New Bedford, Mass. 

Crocker Fertilizer Co 60 Pearl Street, Buffalo, N. Y. 

E. Frank Coe 16 Burling Slip, New York City. 

Carey & Bro... Lumberville, Pa. 

Dambmann Bros. & Co 27 East German Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Davidge Fertilizer Co 121 Front Street, New York City. 

Equitable Fertilizer Co Baltimore, Md. 

Geo. B. Forrester 169 Front Street, New York City. 

Fruit Growers' Union Hammonton, N. J. 

J. C. Fifield & Sons Bakersville, N. J. 

Farmers' Fertilizer Co Syracuse, N. Y. 

Theodore Glaser Linden, N. J. 

Great Eastern Fertilizer Co Rutland, Vt. 

Hassinger Fertilizer Co Mullica Hill, N. J. 

Lister's A. C. Works , Newark, N. J. 

Lewis & Price Smyrna, Del. 

Lord & Polk Co Odessa, Del. 

Mapes F. & P. Guano Co 158 Front Street, New York City. 

C. Myer, Jr Maspeth, L. I. 

A. Mitchell Tremley, N. J. 

H. S. Miller & Co Newark, N. J. 

N. J. Chemical Co 129 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Frederick Ludlam 182 Front Street, New York City. 

National Fertilizer Co Bridgeport, Conn. 

Orient Guano Manufacturing Co 16 and 18 Exch. Place, New York City. 

James E. Otis Tuckerton, N. J. 

Preston Fertilizer Co Greenpoint, L. I. 

Frederick Phillips 131$ South Third Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Pacific Guano Co Boston, Mass. 

J. Richmond 147 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Read & Co 88 Wall Street, New York City. 

Sharpless & Carpenter 114 South Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Scott Fertilizer Co Elkton, Md. 

M. L. Shoemaker & Co. ..Venango St. and Delaware Ave., Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. L Smith... Trenton, N. J. 

R. Savidge Mount Rose, N. J. 

Stearns' Fertilizer Co 133 Water Street, New York City. 

I. P. Thomas & Son 2 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The John Taylor Co Trenton, N. J. 

J. E. Tygert & Co .42 South Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa.. 

Taylor Bros Camden, N. J. 

Williams & Clark Fertilizer Co. ..Cotton Exch. B'ld'g, Hanover Sq., N.Y. City. 

Wando Phosphate Co 203 Walnut Place, Philadelphia, Pa. 

J. Wenderoth & Sons.. 1046 Cooper Street, Camden, N. J. 

Wilkinson & Co 239 Centre Street, New York City. 

Jeptha A. Wagener Holtsville, N. Y. 



m NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



57 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



77 



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82 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



III. 

AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS OF 
FERTILIZERS. 

The discussions in the previous chapters are devoted exclusively to 
the commercial relations of fertilizers, and are mainly valuable in 
indicating the sources from which plant-food is secured, the work of 
the manufacturers in preparing it for market, and a comparison of 
actual commercial values as demanded by the different firms repre- 
sented. This work is also useful in showing the dependence placed 
upon commercial fertilizers by the farmers of New Jersey, but must 
not be taken as a guide to their profitable use. It does not necessa- 
rily follow that a mixture of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, 
which costs and is actually worth $10, will produce on the soil 
upon which it is applied, such an increase as to admit of a profit 
to the farmer who makes such an investment. The agricultural value 
of a fertilizer must be secured from data of a different character. In 
order that a knowledge of the commercial values of fertilizers may 
serve as a sure guide to their agricultural value, it is essential to 
know, 1st, the soil in all its relations to plant- food, texture, moisture, 
&c., and, 2d, how to control all the conditions which can influence 
the crop. This has been acknowledged from the beginning of agri- 
cultural investigation, and has led to various methods of experimenta- 
tion for the purpose of determining, 1st, those principles in the nutri- 
tion of plants which govern the action of the various forms and 
kinds of plant-food, both applied and present in the soil, and, 2d, the 
imeans by which uncontrolled conditions may be limited. 

This field of scientific research is wide, and individual experiments, 
from the nature of the work, are usually confined to groups of specific 
and definite questions. The principal methods used in attempts to 
solve these questions are, 1st, Field Experiments, and, 2d, Pot 
Experiments. The relative value of these two methods of investi- 
gation is at the present time not entirely settled. Both methods, 
however, have supplemented each other to a considerable extent, and 
by their aid many scientific facts have been demonstrated, and hence 
much valuable data secured, capable of application by the practical 
farmer. The field of agricultural experimentation is, nevertheless, 
still practically unlimited. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



83 



The equipment of this Station has rendered field experiments with 
fertilizers the only feasible method to be followed. Since 1881 these 
experiments have numbered more than sixty — have been distributed 
upon the radically different soils of the State, and have included all 
the staple farm crops grown in New Jersey. In this work several 
distinct ends have been kept in view, and detailed statements of 
results have been published from time to time in previous reports of 
this Station. Definite conclusions thus far reached can be grouped as 
follows : 

1. Profitable returns cannot always be secured, even when the highest 
grades of fertilizers are used throughout an entire rotation. 

£. Fertilizers, when used upon suitable soils, secure immediate profits 
and also materially benefit the land. 

The experiment on millet, by Mr. Arnold, and that on peach trees, 
by Mr. Dayton, were planned to test roughly the effects of plant-food 
upon certain soils and crops. One experiment carried out at the 
College Farm, and four experiments by farmers in Salem county, 
were planned to test the relative value of phosphoric acid derived 
from different sources. An experiment to test the uniformity of soil 
on un manured plots is also continued and the results of this year 
recorded. 

FIELD EXPERIMENTS BY MR. A. P. ARNOLD. 

VISE LAND, CUMBERLAND COUNTY. 

In 1882 Mr. Arnold began a series of field experiments under the 
Station's directions, to determine : * 

/. The effect of barn-yard manure upon a rotation of crops, compared 
with the effects of the leading elements of plant-food used sepa- 
rately and in combinations. 

II. The financial results which follow the use of commercial fertilizers, 

A description of this farm and its management was given in the 
annual report of this Station for 188G ; it indicated that dairying was 
not followed to any marked extent and that a very limited supply of 
manure was produced ; that fertilizers were used successfully and that 
the tendency at present was against complete manures and in favor of 
acid phosphates and potash salts. 



84 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



It was shown that a four-year rotation was followed, viz., corn, 
sweet potatoes, clover and millet, and clover ; the object being to keep 
the ground in good condition for the potatoes, from which the profits 
of the rotation were secured, the income from this crop being equal to 
that received from the other three combined. 

The field was selected for this work in 1882 ; at that time it was in 
blackberries. It was prepared for corn in the usual manner, and 
eleven plots, each one-tenth of an acre in area, were staked off in a 
favorable location. The kinds and quantities of plant-food used in 
1882 upon each plot can be learned from a following table. During 
the succeeding years of the rotation every crop was fertilized, but no 
changes of any kind were made in the original plan. Plot 11, there- 
fore, received during the rotation eighty tons of stable manure per 
acre. In like manner, plot 4 received six hundred pounds of muriate 
of potash, plot 3 fourteen hundred pounds of bone-black superphos- 
phate, plot 9 twenty-six hundred pounds of a high-grade potato fer- 
tilizer per acre, &c, in each case one-quarter of the above weights 
having been used broadcast annually. 

At the close of the first rotation the following conclusions were 
reached : 

1. The total market value of the four crops grown without manure 
or fertilizer, averaged $55.30 per acre. 

2. At a total expense, for nitrate of soda, of $16.20 per acre, the 
income was increased to $70.95 ; the cash which was advanced for the 
fertilizer was therefore recovered, but no profits were made. When 
$14.68 was expended, per acre, for superphosphates, the total income 
was $63.09 ; J:he use of this material consequently resulted in a loss 
of $6.89 per acre. 

3. Potash, used alone on plot 4, influenced the profits in a very 
marked manner ; the increased returns from its use were sufficient to 
leave a balance of $21.59 after fertilizer charges had been met and 
due credit allowed for the product from the unmanured ground. 
$21.59 is one hundred and eighty per cent of $1%> the cost of six hun- 
dred pounds of muriate of potash. 

4. Plots 7 and 8, upon which potash was used in combination with 
nitrogen and phosphoric acid, respectively, also gave profitable crops, 
the net gains being $23.16 in one case and $24.48 in the other. The 
combination of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash (plot 9) called 
for the largest investment but yielded the largest net profit, viz., 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 85 



$47.03, or one hundred and ten per cent, of $1$.80, the market value 
of twenty-six hundred pounds of a complete potato manure. 

5. Daring a period of four years, Mr. Arnold used 80 tons of 
stable manure per acre, upon plot 11, and converted it into crops 
worth §177.82. During the same period, without the aid of fertil- 
izers, a portion of the same field in the same crops, gave returns 
worth §55.30. The value of the manure may therefore be estimated 
at §122.52, or a fraction more than $1.50 per ton. 

The manure, of course, caused a marked improvement in the fer- 
tility of the field, but the value of this improvement cannot at pres- 
ent be definitely expressed. To study this point, a second rotation has 
been commenced upon the same plots, its first crop, Indian corn, 
having been gathered in 1886, and its second, sweet potatoes, in 1887 ; 
its third crop, viz., millet, is herewith reported : 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS ON 
MILLET. 

BY A. P. ARNOLD, VINELAND, CUMBERLAND COUNTY, N. J. 



FERTILIZERS. 



Kind. 



00 o 



Nothing 

Nitrate of Soda 

Superphosphate 

Muriate of Potash... 

j Nitrate of Soda 

( Saperphosphate 

Nothing 

{Nitrate of Soda 
Muriate of Potash... 

f Superphosphate 

{ Muriate oi Potash... 

("Nitrate of Soda 

-J Superphosphate 

( Muriate of Potash... 

Plaster 

Fine Barn-yard Ma- 



150 lbs 
350 lbs 
150 lbs 
150 ) 



! 350 j 



lbs. 



150 
150 

350 ] 
150 j 



lbs. 



lbs. 



150) 
350 \ lbs. 
150 J 

400 lbs... 



$i.05 
3.67 
3.00 

7 72 



20 two-horse 
loads 



7.00 
6.67 

10.72 
1.50 

30.00 



O o 

03 <i 

s ® 

o ^ 



890 
1,750 

880 
720 

2,210 

700 

2,150 

1,380 

2,920 
640 

5,570 



$4.45 
8.75 
4.40 

3.60 

11.05 
3.50 
10.75 

690 

14.60 
3.20 

27.85 



86 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



It has been stated above that these plots were selected in 1882, and 
that since this time the original plan has been followed without 
changes of any kind. Plots 1 and 6 have therefore received no plant- 
food, from manure or from fertilizers, for seven years; plot 11, on 
the other hand, has been dressed with 140 tons of yard manure per 
acre, and plot 9 has had per acre over two tons of a high-grade 
potato manure. The total amounts of plant-food used upon the other 
experiments during the same period may be learned by multiplying 
by seven the weights of fertilizer per acre published in the above 
table for each of said plots. 

The fertilizers were applied about the middle of April, and at the 
same time the plots were seeded with millet and clover at the rate of 
one bushel each, upon six acres. Mr. Arnold reports that upon plots 
1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 the product was largely crab grass, and that the 
clover was a good catch only upon plots 8 and 11. In computing 
values, however, the product of each plot has been regarded as of 
the same quality; and the market value of millet in that section, 
viz., $10 per ton, has been used. The yields from plots 1 and 6 
agree fairly well. A comparison of the average yield of those plots 
with yields from plots 3, 4 and 10 indicates that phosphoric acid, pot- 
ash and plaster have practically no effect when used alone ; a notice- 
able increase is observed, however, in plot 8 from the combination of 
superphosphate with muriate of potash. A very favorable influence 
on both catch and yield is exerted by nitrogen wherever used. Used 
alone, it increased the yield over that of the unmanured plots by 120 
per cent., while only securing a profit of seventy-three cents ; a finan- 
cial loss followed the use of fertilizers in every other case. The finan- 
cial values have been computed to serve as an aid in comparison of 
yields, rather than as an indication of profits or losses. Mr. Arnold's 
letter concerning the value of millet is here republished from the 
Fifth Annual Report of this Station. 

He writes in substance as follows : " In making this report I do 
not wish it to be understood that a crop of millet was sought as a 
direct source of profit. Our problem here is to secure a clover sod 
upon which to grow a corn crop. If clover seed is sown alone, weeds 
take possession of the ground at first, and make the small amount of 
clover which is secured by late cutting of comparatively little value. 

" By sowing millet and clover together I secure fodder which my 
stock consume as readily as they do baled hay worth here $20 per 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



87 



ton. My clover, too, is not inferior to that secured by others, who 
seed down without millet and receive little or no benefit from the 
first cut, because of weeds." 



o 

z 

o 

c 
_c 

5 



FERTILIZERS. 



VALUE OF CROP 



Kind. 



Nothing 

Nitrate of Soda 

Superphosphate 

Muriate of Potash.... 



la | 



( Saperpho8phate 

Nothing 

f Nitrate of Soda 



[ Muriate of Potash } 

f Superphosphate .... ) 
{ Muriate of Potash j 

(Hi 
\ Su 
I Mi 



Nitrate of Soda ") 

Superphosphate.... V 
" '.uriate of Potash I 



Plaster. 



Fine Barn-yard ) 
a. j 



( Fin< 
I M 



1882. 
Ccrn. 


1886. 
Corn. 


1883. 
Sweet 

Pnt n t nPH 


1887. 
Sweet 


1884. 

Clover 

and 
Millet. 


1888. 
Millet. 


?16.14 


$15.14 


$25.85 


$18.98 


$4.55 


$i.45 


21.28 


18.67 


25.61 


17.18 


10.05 


8.75 


15.96 


20.50 


29.93 


11.79 


5.30 


4 40 


14.84 


20.88 


56.41 


87.45 


5.10 


3.60 


20.86 


28.12 


30.60 


13.24 


11.05 


11.05 


13.37 


17.52 


29.07 


18.68 


4.85 


3.50 


23.17 


25.18 


52.65 


72.16 


12.15 


10.75 


15.79 


25.09 


65.77 


81.60 


6.00 


6.90 


22.05 


33.29 


75.76 


103.10 


16.40 


14.60 


14.49 


12.69 


20.08 


16.89 


5.35 


3.20 


23 45 


40.06 


85.45 


201.38 


17.90 


27.85 



In the above table the corn crop grown in 188G, the sweet potatoes 
grown in 1887 and the millet grown in 1888 are compared with 
similar crops grown upon the same plots in 1882, 1883 and 1884, in 
order to determine roughly the loss or gain of fertility due to the 
persistent use of barn-yard manure and commercial fertilizers. Con- 
clusions drawn from a comparison of the sweet potato crops, and 
published in the report of this Station for 1887, showed that, wher- 
potasfa had been used, the improvements in the value of the 
crop varied from 8 per cent, to 107 per cent., and that an improve- 
ment of 35 per cent, in the crop-producing power of the land had 



88 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 

therefore been gained without sacrifice of any kind. In all cases 
where potash was excluded, the decrease in the value of the second 
potato crop was serious, ranging from 36 to 63 per cent. The value 
of barn-yard manure in improving the crop-producing power of the 
land was estimated at $2.74 per ton. 

A comparison of the crops of millet upon these plots shows an 
improvement of the soil in only two cases, plot 8 yielding 15 per 
•cent, and plot 11, 56 per cent, more in 1888 than in 1884. On all 
the other plots the decrease in the yield ranges from 2 to 40 per cent. 
These results seemed to indicate that the sweet potato crop, immedi- 
ately preceding, consumed all the crop-producing power that the soil 
had acquired up to that time, leaving the land in about the same con- 
dition of fertility as it was four years previous. Upon the eleventh 
plot, however, the accumulation of reserve plant-food from the annual 
addition of 20 tons of barn-yard manure seemed to have been suffi- 
ciently great to double the yield of sweet potatoes and afterwards 
increase the yield of millet 56 per cent. In comparing the two crops 
of millet, its value has been estimated on the basis of $10 per ton in 
both cases. 

The complete record of Mr. Arnold's work up to date is here pub- 
lished in tabular form : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 89 



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90 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS ON PEACH 

TREES, 

BY STEPHEN 0 DAYTON, BASKINGRIDGE, SOMERSET COUNTY, N. J. 



FERTILIZERS. 



Kind. 



Nothing 

Nitrate of Soda 

Superphosphate 

Muriati of Potash. 



f Nitrate of Soda. 
\ Superphosphate. 



Nothing 



f Nitrate of Soda.... 
1 Muriate of Potash. 



f Superphosphate .... 
\ Muriato of Potash. 



{Nitrate of Soda 
Superphosphate.. 
Muriate of Potash 

Plaster 

Fine Barn yard Manure. 



f Barn-yard Manure. 
\ Lime 



Pl. p 

i-s 
< 



15 

35 

15 

151 
35/ 



50 



15) 
15 J 



30 



35 
15 



50 



65 
40 

2 horse loads. 



load, 
bushels. 



o o 

a « 



00 

o> 

o 
cs 

0) 

Pw 

o 

OQ 

PQ 



11.00 
15.0C 
20.75 
17.75 

31.75 

25.50 

29.50 

32.25 

32.25 

26.25 
40.00 

26.75 



<D O 

. a 
o •** 

*z\ © 



1.22 
1.15 
1.73 
1.77 

2.65 

1.93 

2.27 

2.48 

3.22 

219 
3.63 

2.06 



PQ 



158.6 
150.0 
224:9 
230.1 

344.5 

255.0 

295.0 



179.30 
75.00 
112.45 
115.05 

172.25 

127.50 

147.50 



322.5 161.26 



418.6 

2S5.7 
471.9 

267.8 



209.30 

142.85 
235.95 

133.90 



This experiment was begun in 1884. Details as to the planting of 
the trees, the care of the orchard, and the application of fertilizers, 
have been published in previous reports of this Station. Since the 
beginning of the experiment, plots 1 and 6 have received no plant-, 
food of any kind ; of the remaining plots, no two were fertilized alike, 
but in other respects the treatment was identical. The above table 
will show the kind and quantity of materials used in each case; for 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



91 



nstance, in 1884 plot 3 was dressed with superphosphate at the rate of 
jhree hundred and fifty pounds per acre, and corn was planted between 

he trees. In 1885 the same plot was dressed again with the same 
material at the same rate, and buckwheat was sown. In 1886, 1887 
lind 1888 three hundred and fifty pounds of superphosphate were 
iigain applied each year for the use of the trees alone, no crops having 
oeen planted. Plot 3, therefore, had received superphosphate at the 
pate of seventeen hundred and fifty pounds per acre when the present 
prop was harvested. In the same manner plot 11 had received one 
hundred tons of barn-yard manure per acre. 

The trees on all of the plots are uniform in size ; the only effect 
produced by the fertilizers, so far as the eye could discern, has been 

n the darker green of the foliage on the trees of the superphosphate 
blot. 

The second crop of peaches is reported this year ; the season was 
wery unfavorable for ripening the fruit and harvesting the crop. The 
fertilizers were applied again -as usual in the spring of 1888. In 
peculating financial gains or losses for this year, the average of plots 
L and 6 is taken as indicating the value of unmanured land ; to this 
s added the cost of fertilizers, and the sum is deducted from the 
palue of the crop3 on each of the fertilized plots. 

EFFECT OF FERTILIZERS. 

Assuming 50 cents to be the average net price per basket, plot 3 
mows a net profit of only 85 cents, as against a net profit of $20.55 
Ifor the same plot in 1887. The very favorable effect of phosphoric 
iicid alone upon all previous crops in this experiment, and its marked 
influence on fruit development when used in combinations this year, 
render it advisable to delay drawing conclusions on this point until 
the results of future years are secured, especially since no unfavorable 
oonditions were reported as affecting this plot. 

Nitrogen, when used alone, has been, as in the past, apparently 
injurious ; in its combination with phosphoric acid and potash, how- 
ever, a favorable influence is indicated. 

Potash, when used alone, afforded a profit of $2.85 ; when used in 
combination with superphosphate, the profit was increased to $51.18. 

The favorable effect of plaster noticed on previous crops is main- 
tained to even a greater degree this year, securing a net profit of 
$37.95. 



92 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



The effect of large quantities of barn-yard manure is beginning to 
be felt; its use on plot 11 secured a profit of $41.27 this year, against 
a loss of $22.85 for 1887. 

MANAGEMENT OF THE ORCHARD. 

Mr. Dayton's letter concerning the care of the orchard and man- 
agement of the trees for the past season is as follows : 

"The long-continued rainy weather in September damaged the 
peaches very much, and, with the best care I could give them, some 
were lost, some rotted on the trees before they were ripe, and some 
dropped off prematurely, which makes the experiment somewhat 
unsatisfactory this year. 

" The plots were plowed in the spring and the fertilizers were care- 
fully sown and harrowed in as usual. They were not plowed again, 
as the limbs hung low with the weight of the fruit and I thought it 
unadvisable. The trees were carefully hoed around and the grubs 
looked after. 

" The number of bearing trees in each plot is the same as last year, 
except in plot 11, which lost one tree during the winter; in plot 9 
also, there are two trees of a different and tender variety, whose fruit 
almost entirely rotted on the trees ; I have left these out in making 
up the table. 

"The unhealthy tree3 on plots 1, 4 and 12 are not dead, but seem 
to be doing better. The trees generally are thrifty and healthy." 

The table on the opposite page is offered as a financial statement of 
the condition of the experiment up to the present date. 

It has already been stated that this orchard was set out on these 
experiment plots in 1884; that corn was planted the first year; 
that buckwheat was sown the second ; that during the third, fourth 
and fifth years the ground was given up to the trees. It has also 
been stated that the fertilizers were applied each year; that the 
orchard came into bearing in 1887; and that with the exception of 
plot 3, in 1888, large profits were secured from the use of phosphoric 
acid, whether used alone or in combination with other kinds of plant- 
food; and that a previous experiment on another part of this farm 
had shown a uniformly favorable effect from the use of this element 
on field crops. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



93 



9AIJ IOJ 8801 JO ^IJOIJ 




—$62 51 
4-39.04 
4-3.73 

4-70.63 


OS OS O CO O CO 
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OS* CO* CM OS CO Tti 

I oo o -h* co r~ 

+ + + + + 1 


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$20.25 
18.35 
15.00 

38.60 


35.25 
33.35 

53.60 

7.50 
150.00 

103.00 


•sdojQ inoj jo en^^ 


$162.65 
149.54 
249.19 
210.53 

301.03 

220.96 

236.24 

308.64 

347.80 

248.53 
375.10 

220.37 



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94 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



This tabulation shows the values of crops already harvested, 
based upon calculations per acre, at prices ruling for those years. 
The average value per acre of crops grown on the unmanured plots 
is $191.80, an increase over the total value in 1887 of $103.40. 

A summary of the results of 1887, as published in the report of 
this Station for that year, is as follows : A profit of over 200 per 
cent, was secured from superphosphate alone, but wherever used in 
combination with either nitrogen or potash, and in complete manure, 
the profit was decreased by more than the cost of fertilizers used. 
This fact was also shown in the case of barn-yard manure, where an 
application of 80 tons resulted in a loss of $69.25. Plaster showed a 
profit of $11.28. Up to that time, therefore, plaster and superphos- 
phate were the only profitable fertilizers for peach trees. 

The results of this year show that, in addition to superphosphate 
and plaster, potash and barn-yard manure can be added to the list of 
profitable fertilizers. 

The use of superphosphate alone, while securing a profit, has mate- 
rially reduced the net percentage profit. Potash has changed the 
financial balance from — $4.93, in 1887, to +$3.73 for the present 
year. Barn-yard manure has been effective in changing a loss of 
$69.25, in 1887, into a profit of $33.30, in 1888. 

The following table shows the percentage increase in the total value 
of the cropy caused by the crop of 1888, and the percentage profit or 
loss secured from four crops and five crops respectively : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



SJB3A 8AIJ JOJ SSOT 

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96 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



The increase in the total value of the crops upon the unmanured 
plots by the crop of 1888, is 116 per cent. This percentage increase 
has been largely exceeded on all fertilized plots, except plots 2, 3 and 
8. The greatest increase was produced by barn-yard manure on plot 
11. The yield of plot 2 is in accord with the record of previous 
years ; on plot 3, however, the result is contrary to all previous 
records for phosphoric acid, and its explanation must await the results 
of future crops. The cumulative effect of fertilizers is shown very 
strikingly in the columns indicating profit and loss for four years and 
for five years respectively ; with the single exception of nitrogen, the 
percentage profits to date range from 62 to over 650 per cent. Plots 
4, 7 and 11 show a profit for the first time this year, while plots 3, 5, 
8 and 10 had $12.74, $3.40, $10.84 and $3.76, respectively, to their 
credit in 1886 previous to the harvesting of any peach crop. The 
full effect of fertilizers and the proper balancing of profit and 
loss accounts cannot be indicated, however, until the orchard has 
ceased profitable bearing. 

For the benefit of those interested, details as to the results of all 
experiments carried out on different parts of the farm since 1881 are 
here tabulated : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



97 



11 



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98 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



FIELD TRIALS WITH CANADIAN ASHES, DOMESTIC 
ASHES, DISSOLVED SOUTH CAROLINA ROCK AND 
ORCHILLA GUANO. 

BY A. P. ARNOLD, VINELAND. 

The following experiment was planned by Mr. Arnold, and will 
be carried through the rotation. The amounts and kinds of fertili- 
zers indicated in the table were applied in the spring of 1885 and of 
1888. The sweet potatoes were dressed with 15 one-horse loads of 
barn manure. 

The average yields of unmanured land in the different years were 
secured from the records of blank plots in another experiment con- 
ducted by Mr. Arnold under the direction of the Station. 

The following entries are made as a record simply, the considera- 
tion of the plan and its results being deferred until the trial is 
completed : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



99 



1888. 
Millet. 


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1887. 
Sweet Potatoes. 




223.7 
183.9 
217.6 
181.8 


49.1 


•epunoj 


12,180 
9,930 

11,750 
9,820 


2,383 


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1,500 
1,380 
1,880 
1,540 


1,775 




10,680 
8,550 
9,870 
8,280 


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1886. 
Corn. 


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2,910 


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36.8 
37.0 
36.5 
35.3 


13.7 


1885. 
Clover. 


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100 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



FIELD EXPERIMENTS WITH FERTILIZERS ON CORN, 
1886, OATS, 1887, AND WHEAT. 1888. 

BY THEODORE WEST, COLLEGE FARM, NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J. 



FERTILIZERS. 



Kind. 



Nitrate of Soda 

No Fertilizer 

Superphosphate .... 

No Fertilizer 

Muriate of Potash. 
No Fertilizer........ 



| Nitrate of Soda, 160 ) 
{ Superphosphate, 300 ) 



No Fertilizer. 



f Nitrate of Soda, 160 \ 
{ Muriate of Potash, 150 / 



No Fertilizer 

/ Superphosphate, 300 1 
t Muriate of Potash, 150 J 

No Fertilizer 



f Nitrate of Soda, 160) 
1 Superphosphate, 300 \ 
( Muriate of Potash, 150 J 



No Fertilizer 

Plaster 

No Fertilizer 

No Fertilizer 

Fine Barn-yard Manure. 



$ 



160 lbs. 



300 lbs. 



150 lbs. 



460 lbs. 



310 lbs. 



450 lbs. 



610 lbs. 



400 lbs. 



20 tons. 



Sh 

CD 

Ph 



$4.32 



3.20 



3.00 



7.52 



7.32 



.20 



10.52 



1.50 



30.00 



YIELD FEB ACRE. 



CORN. 


OATS. 


WHEAT. 


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5,120 


45.0 


1,720 


28.5 


3,328 


50.0 


4,800 


46.5 


1,530 


30.7 




46.0 


5,200 


42.0 


1,460 


29.9 


3,305 


48.8 


4,600 


45.6 


1,480 


28.3 


2,871; 


50.5 


5,600 


48.2 


1,400 


26.0 


3,012 


47.0 


4,660 


44.4 


1,520 


33.6 


3,493. 


53.3 


5,200 


44.7 


1,370 


32.8 


3,657 


46.0 


5,000 


49.1 


1,590 


27.3 


2,696 


55.3 


6,000 


46.5 


1,554 


29.9 


3,832 


41.5 


5,200 


41.3 


1,540 


30.9 


3,118 


41.3 


5,600 


43.4 


1,010 


28.5 


3,328> 


43.8 


4,700 


51.0 


1,270 


27.8 


2,549' 


52.0 


6,000 


42.5 


1,240 


30.9 


3,539* 


42.0 


5,200 


47.5 


1,480 


27.0 


2,602: 


39.3 


5,300 


41.3 


1,280 


29.7 


2,789 


38.5 


5,400 


45.3 


1,550 


25.4 


2,344 


38.5 


5,460 


42.2 


1,250 


25.0 


2,485- 


68.3 


6,400 


48.4 


1,650 


27.0 


3,774, 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 101 



This experiment, begun in 1886, was planned to show : 

I. The variations in yields between unmanured plots ; 
II. The effects both of barn-yard manure and commercial fertili- 
zers upon the growth of corn, oats, wheat and grass. 

The above plots are located in the center of a field which was 
cropped in 1882 with fodder corn, grown with a heavy dressing of 
barn-yard manure. Since that time, without the addition of plant- 
food of any kind, it had yielded heavy crops of rye, clover and mixed 
hay. 

This is the third crop reported in this rotation. Fertilizers were 
applied in the usual manner upon corn and wheat. 

In the report on corn in 1886 and on oats in 1887, considerable 
variations were noted in the yields from the unmanured plots. These 
variations are no less marked this year. 

With the exception of the corn on plot 11, the crops thus far pro- 
duced have not been influenced by the use of large amounts of plant- 
food. This result is in accord with those secured in previous rota- 
tions on this farm, in which it was shown that no combination of 
commercial fertilizers was followed by financial profit. 

The conditions were favorable for both harvesting and threshing, 
and noticeable losses were thereby avoided. 

The plots have been seeded to timothy and clover without further 
addition of fertilizers. These entries are made as a record simply, 
the consideration of the results being deferred until the trial is 
completed. 

FIELD TRIALS UPON WHEAT, 

MADE TO TEST AND COMPARE 

Phosphoric Acid derived from Bone Black, or Bone Ash, and South 

Carolina Rock. 

"At a late meeting of the Salem County Board of Agriculture the 
following preamble and resolution were adopted, viz.: 

" Whereas, Dissolved South Carolina rock is a much cheaper 
source of phosphoric acid than dissolved bone j and 

" Whereas, The value of the first to the crop subsequent to that 
to which it is applied is questioned ; 



102 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



"Resolved, That the Salem County Board of Agriculture request 
our Experiment Station to carry out such experiments as will decide 
the relative agricultural value of phosphoric acid from dissolved 
rock and from dissolved bone. 

H. C. Perry, 

"Alloway, May 11th, 1887. Secretary:' 

In response to the above resolution, passed by the Salem County 
Board of Agriculture, the following experiments were planned and 
carried out on wheat, for the purpose of aiding in the solution of the 
question involved. This question, expressing exactly the intent of 
the resolution as indicated in a letter from the Secretary of the 
Board, received at a later date, is as follows : What is the relative 
agricultural value of phosphoric acid derived from South Carolina 
rock superphosphate and bone-black, or bone-ash, superphosphate? 

LOCATION OF EXPERIMENTS AND DESCRIPTION OF SOILS. 

The experiments have been made upon four farms in Salem county 
and upon the College Farm. The farms in Salem county are all 
underlaid by marl-beds. That of Mr. Flitcraft lies near Woodstown^ 
is level and dry, consists of a heavy clay loam and is in a good state 
of cultivation. 

Mr. Gaunt's farm is situated near Pittsgrove. It is Oakland soil, 
medium clay, dry, and well adapted to grain and hay. 

H. C. Perry, of Alloway, has a rather light soil of yellow sandy 
clay, susceptible of great increase in fertility by cultivation and the 
use of fertilizers. 

The soil upon the farm of Mr. Cooper, near Pedricktown, is a 
sandy loam, especially suitable for trucking and fruits. 

The College Farm consists largely of decomposed shale j it has 
been manured heavily for several years and is in a high state of 
cultivation. 

DETAILS OF EXPERIMENTS. 

The Station planned to have every experiment consist of three 
groups, each group including three plots, and each a duplicate of the 
other, in order that the results secured from a series of plots might 
be compared under the same conditions respecting area and kind and 
amount of plant-food applied. Every experiment, therefore, was- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 103 



intended to include nine plots, treated as follows : Upon plots 1, 4 and 
7, no phosphatic fertilizer ; upon 2, 5 and 8, bone-black superphos- 
phate ; and upon 3, 6 and 9, South Carolina rock superphosphate. 

One acre of land divided into nine parallel plots, with spaces of 
thirty-two inches between plots, furnished one-tenth of an acre area in 
each plot. In two cases nine plots were under experiment ; in three 
cases only six could be secured ; the size and shape of the plots, how- 
ever, were the same throughout. 

Except upon the farm of Mr. Flitcraft, who had manured his land, 
the ground under experiment, previous to the addition of the super- 
phosphates, was uniformly fertilized with a mixture furnishing fifteen 
pounds of nitrogen and twenty pounds of potash per acre. The fer- 
tilizers were sown and the grain seeded early in October, 1887. In 
every case the chemist of the Station was present to witness this 
work. 

Details as to the kind and quantity of superphosphate used and the 
weights of grain and straw harvested can be learned from the table on 
the following page. These results are valuable only in so far as they 
may assist in interpreting the main question, which is to be decided by 
the crop of 1889, and to this end the plots under experiment are now 
seeded to timothy and clover. 

CONSIDERATION OF RESULTS. 

In three experiments a wide variation is noticed in the yield from 
the plots untreated with superphosphate. 

Bone-black superphosphate was effective in producing an increased 
yield in each experiment when considered as a whole, though only 
effective in seven cases out of twelve when groups are considered 
separately. 

In four experiments South Carolina rock superphosphate increased 
the yield of both grain and straw. It was effective, however, on only 
five plots out of the twelve upon which it was applied. 

Bone black and South Carolina rock were both effective on only 
four plots out of the twelve. In one case the increase from bone- 
black superphosphate exceeded that from South Carolina rock super- 
phosphate by 24 per cent., while in three cases the average increase 
in yield from the use of South Carolina rock exceeded that from 
bone black by 17.5 per cent. 



104 



NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 105 



LUCERN, OR ALFALFA. 

(Medicago sativa.) 



In the spring of 1887 a circular was issued by this Station in 
which lucern, or alfalfa, and the claims made for it as a fodder plant, 
were described substantially as follows : 

Alfalfa is a forage plant which closely resembles clover, not only 
in feeding value, but also in its habits of growth and effects upon 
following crops. It has been cultivated in Europe for nearly two 
thousand years, and is now well known both in North and South 
America. In California, in particular, its importance is fully appre- 
ciated by stockmen. 

For New Jersey, it is claimed that in comparison with red clover, 
alfalfa has the following advantages : 

1. It is fit for soiling purposes as early as the third week in May. 

2. It may be cut three or four times each season. 

3. The second and later growths, if harvested as soon as blossoms 
appear, make an excellent hay. 

4. When well rooted it successfully resists both drought and frost. 

5. Under favorable conditions it does not "run out" for many 
years. 

It has been grown in the Eastern and Middle States ever since 
1791, but in spite of its apparent advantages it has never been in 
general use. For this, numerous explanations are offered, among 
which the following may be noted : 

1 . The first growth is fit to cut before the weather is suitable for 
hay- making. If allowed to mature, the stems grow woody and are 
rejected by stock. 

2. Trouble has been experienced in securing a good stand. 

These advantages and alleged disadvantages warranted the Station 
in planning a series of experiments to test its value upon the different 



106 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



soils of New Jersey. Ten experiments, therefore, were then begun r 
distributed among seven counties of the State. Of these the one 
upon the College Farm alone has proved successful. Its success is 
believed to be due almost entirely to the fact that it was the first one 
seeded, and was, from the start, aided by favorable weather and till- 
age. The details of this experiment are as follows : 

PLAN OF EXPERIMENT. 

A plot 30 feet wide and 150 feet long was carefully prepared. It 
had been in corn the preceding year, and, as the subsoil is a rather 
compact clay, it was not believed to be specially fitted for alfalfa. 
Eighty pounds of a complete fertilizer, having an unusually high 
percentage of nitrogen and potash, were spread upon it broadcast. 
Approximately one-half of the plot was then seeded in drills at the 
rate of 15 pounds of seed per acre; the rows were 14 inches apart. 
The other half of the plot was seeded broadcast at the rate of 30 
pounds of seed per acre. 

REPORT ON THE SECOND YEARNS GROWTH OF ALFALFA UPON 
THE COLLEGE FARM. 

Upon the 27th of April, 1888, fifty pounds of a complete fertilizer 
— analyzing 2.79 per cent, total nitrogen, 10.87 per cent, total phos- 
phoric acid, 7.69 per cent, available phosphoric acid, and 4.22 per 
cent, potash — were broadcasted upon the two plots of alfalfa, which 
at this time showed a thick stand and was growing rapidly and vigor- 
ously, (plover had not yet made any start. 

Upon May 10th the drilled plot was cultivated ; the alfalfa then 
had a height of fifteen and a half inches. Upon May 19th its 
growth had become very heavy but it showed no blossoms. It has 
been demonstrated that the best results are secured from alfalfa when 
it is cut just after the blossoms have appeared. In order to wait for 
this stage in its growth, therefore, and also because the weather was 
almost continuously wet or cloudy, the crop was left untouched until 
June 4th, when the first cutting was secured ; even at this date no 
blossoms were visible, although blossom buds were plainly developed. 
The maximum height of the alfalfa at this time was forty inches^ 
the average length of the plants being about thirty-two inches. Both 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



107 



plots were quite free from weeds, and no dodder was visible. Clean 
| mowiug was very difficult, owing to the alfalfa being very much down 
i and twisted, this being the case especially with the drilled plot. The 

yield was nine and three-tenths tons of green fodder 'per acre on the 

drilled plot and nine and nine-tenths tons per acre on the broadcasted 

plot. 

On June 15th the drilled plot was again cultivated. The alfalfa 
was then ten inches high. Blossoms began to appear June 30th, and 
on July 5th, when it was in fall bloom, the second cutting was 
secured. Its height was then twenty inches upon the drilled, and 
eighteen inches upon the broadcasted plot, but upon the latter the 
growth was thicker and just as free from weeds. The yield was four 
and four-tenths tons of green fodder per acre on each plot, this growth 
having been made during an interval of thirty days. 

The third cutting was secured on August 6th, at which time the 
alfalfa had an average height of only eight inches, and looked very 
badly. Its leaves had turned yellow ; no' dodder was visible ; the 
broadcasted plot contained a great deal of plantain. The yield of 
green fodder per acre was two and one-tenth tons on the drilled, and 
Uco and four-tenths tons on the broadcasted plot. 

On August 6th, immediately after the third cut was secured, the 
two plots received an application of 35 pounds of bone-black super- 
phosphate and 15 pounds of muriate of potash. On August 28th 
there was a fine, vigorous growth of sixteen inches, which, on Sep- 
tember 14th, had increased to twenty-two inches. Although very few 
blossoms were visible as yet, the alfalfa was cut for the fourth time^ 
and yielded three tons per acre on the drilled, and four and two-tenths 
tons per acre on the broadcasted plot 

Following this cutting there was a rank growth, which would have 
yielded a good crop early in October, had it not been deemed best to 
omit further cutting this season, pasturing lightly instead. The total 
yield of green fodder per acre during the season of 1888, therefore, 
was eighteen and eight-tenths tons from the drilled plot and twenty and 
nine-tenths tons from the broadcasted plot. 

At the beginning of winter the alfalfa showed a good stand, although 
bare spots could be seen in parts of the drilled plot, and plantain had 
taken possession of a small spot in the center of the broadcasted plot. 
It is believed that the delay in cutting the first crop this season- 
materially injured the subsequent crops. 



108 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THIS CROP. 



Each cut of alfalfa was sampled immediately after the crop wag 
secured. The analyses of these samples are as follows : 



Station Number. n 




Tonnage per Acre. 


POUNDS PER 


HUNDRED OP 


PERCENTAGE OP 


Water. 


Fat. 


Fiber. 


Ash. 


Proteine. 


Carbohydrates. 


Nitrogen. 


Phosphoric 
Acid. 


Potash. 


454 


1st Cut, Drilled 




9.30 


79.46 


0.89 


5.00 


2.03 


4.17 


8.45 


0.67 


0.14 


0.69 


455 






9.90 


80.61 


0.79 


4.48 


2.04 


4.02 


8.06 


0.64 


0.13 


0.78 


456 






4.35 


64.37 


1.33 


6.54 


2.81 


5.43 


19.52 


0.87 


0.19 


0.91 


457 






4.41 


61.69 


1.24 


9.08 


3.15 


6.42 


18.42 


1.03 


0.20 


0.89 


458 


3d " Drilled 




2.05 


69.41 


1.29 


5.58 


2.81 


5.42 


15.49 


0.87 


0.10 


0.80 


459 






2.4p 


72.45 


0.91 


5.95 


2.70 


4.86 


13.13 


0.78 


0.12 


0.80 


460 


4th " Drilled 




3.00 


77.44 


1.16 


4.75 


2.38 


4.90 


9.37 


0.79 


0.14 


0.74 


461 






4.15 


78.33 


1.26 


4.68 


2.26 


4.26 


9.21 


0.68 


0.15 


0.70 




Total Tonnage 


per 
























Acre and Average 
























Composition of Crop 
























on Drilled Plot 




18.70 


73.67 


1.17 


5.47 


2,51 


4.98 


13.21 


0.80 


0.14 


0.80 




Total Tonnage 


per 
























Acre and Average 
























Composition of Crop 
























on Broadcast Plot... 


20.86 


73.27 


1.05 


6.03 


2.54 


4.79 


12.21 


0.78 


0.15 


0.79 



No marked differences are noticed in the composition of the alfalfa 
from the two plots. The total yield on the broadcast plot was 11.5 
per cent, greater than on the drilled plot. 

The following table shows the yields and average composition of the 
alfalfa from the drilled plot for 1887 and 1888, and from the broad- 
casted plot for 1888. These have been calculated to the hay basis for 
the purpose of comparing with clover, which is everywhere recognized 
to be one of the most valuable plants grown, in its various relations to 
agriculture. 

The table shows that 39.49 tons of the green alfalfa on the drilled 
plot would dry to 9.98 tons of hay, and that 20.86 tons on the broad- 
cast plot would dry to 6.04 tons. Since no cuts were made on the 
broadcast plot in 1887, there remains a balance to the credit of the 
drilled plot of 3.94 tons, which, exclusive of the cost of cultivating 
and hoeing, represents to this date the advantage of seeding in drills 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 109 







S 




POUNDS PER 


HUNDRED OF 










< 










o 
a 


DO 

<v 












iage per 


M 


e Fat. 


e Fiber. 




e Proteii 


Dhydrat 


•gen. 


o 
o 


w" 






a 
a 
o 


3 
"S 




rud 




rud 


arbi 






s 

P 






Eh 


> 


o 


O 


<i 


O 


O 


55 


Ph 


Cu 


1887. Drilled Plot 





20.79 


80.34 


0.83 


4.51 


2.07 


3.82 


8.44 


0.61 


0.11 


0.69 






18.70 


72.67 


1.17 


5.47 


2.51 


4.98 


13.21 


0.80 


0.14 


0.80 


Broadcasted Plot ., 




20.86 


73.27 


1.05 


6.03 


2.54 


4.79 


12.21 


0.78 


0.15 


0.79 


1887, Drilled Plot 


on 






















the Hay basis 




4.44 


7.70 


3.89 


21.17 


9.80 


17.93 


39.62 


2.90 


0.52 


3.24 


1888. Drilled Plot 


on 






















the Hav basis 




5.54 


7.70 


3.95 


18.47 


8.48 


16.82 


44.61 


2.70 


0.47 


2.70 


1888. Broadcasted Plot 






















on the Hay basis 




6.04 


7.70 


3.63 


20.82 


8.77 


16.54 


42.16 


2.69 


0.52 


2.73 


Average Composition 


of 




























7.70 


2.08 


28.20 


6.80 


12.46 


42.77 


1.99 


0.36 


1.68 









over broadcast seeding. The drilled plot was cultivated five times 
and hoed once during the first year's growth in 1887 ; in 1888 it was 
cultivated but three times. An exact record of the cost of this culti- 
vating and hoeing has not been kept, but it is estimated to be not 
more expensive, with proper tools, than the cultivation of field oorn. 



ALFALFA CONSIDERED AS A FOOD IN COMPARISON WITH CLOVER AND TIMOTHY. 



DRILLED PLOT. 


Tonnage on the 
Hay basis. 


Fat. 


Fiber. 


Proteine. 


Carbohydrates. 


Feeding value of 
Crop per Acre. 


1887. Total 


4.44 


lbs. 
345.1 

155.3 

437.6 

196.9 


lbs. 
1875.3 

768.9 

2045.8 

838.8 


lbs. 
1588.4 

1286.6 

1862.5 

1508.6 


lbs. 
3509.4 

2526.8 

4940.5 

3557.2 




1887. Digestible 


92.15 




5.44 




113.50 








9.98 


782.7 
352.2 


3921.1 
1607.7 


3450.9 
2795.2 


8449.9 
6084.0 




Total Digestible for two years 


205.65 






Average Amount** of Digestible 


Food 












and value per Ton of Lucern Hay 


35.3 


161.1 


280.1 


609.6 


20.60 


Average Amounts of Digestible 


Food 












and value per Ton of Clover Hay ... 


33.6 


316.6 


167.0 


569.0 


14.20 


Average Amounts of Digestible Food 












and value per Ton of Timothy Hay... 


24.4 


357.0 


68.a 


566.4 


12.40 



110 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



The above table shows the total and the digestible food per acre ! 
secured from the drilled plot in 1887 and 1888, and its feeding value. 
As a means of ready comparison of yields, and also of feeding value j 
when compared with the principal hay crops grown in New Jersey, 1 
a money value has been placed upon the digestible proteine, fat and ' 
carbohydrates. The prices assumed are four and three-tenths cents 
per pound for proteine and fat, and nine-tenths of a cent per pound 
for carbohydrates, including fiber. The total yield for the two years 
has an estimated feeding value of over $200, the value of the second 
crop exceeding that of the first by $21.35. The total yield for the! 
two years is approximately ten tons of dry hay with a feeding value 
of $20.60 per ton. 

In the above table clover and timothy are added as representing, in 
the case of clover, the hay usually fed upon the farm, and in the case 
of timothy, the hay very largely sold from it. The table shows that 
alfalfa hay is, in money value, 45 per cent, better than clover and 
66 per cent, better than timothy. The actual feeding value of any 
one of them, however, depends upon the proper balancing of the 
different classes of compounds. To secure a good milk ration by the 
use of timothy hay, proteine must be supplied from some other source 
in order to secure a ration that will give a sufficient amount of that 
material without entailing a loss of carbohydrates and fat; clover 
hay, however, is a fairly good ration in itself and can be economically 
used without the addition of any one of the classes of compounds 
mentioned ; alfalfa hay, on the other hand, requires the addition of 
large amounts of both fat and carbohydrates in order to be profitably 
utilized as a milk ration. This fact renders alfalfa even more 
serviceable than its valuation would indicate, since, in the manage- 
ment of farms either for dairy purposes or for grain farming, an 
excess of carbohydrates is secured which in the great majority of 
cases is wasted, either through lack of proper material from other 
sources with which to balance the ration, or through ignorance of the 
real loss incurred. 

Under ordinary conditions, two and a half pounds of proteine, 
four-tenths of a pound of fat, and twelve and a half pounds of car- 
bohydrates can be profitably fed daily to a milk cow of one thousand 
pounds live weight. One ton of alfalfa hay — containing thirty-five 
and three-tenths pounds of digestible fat, two hundred and eighty 
and one-tenth pounds of digestible proteine, and seven hundred and 



EXPERIMENT STATION EEPORT. 



Ill 



» seventy and seven-tenths pounds of digestible carbohydrates — would 
I furnish sufficient proteine for one hundred and twelve days, fat for 
eighty-eight days, and carbohydrates for sixty-one days. Therefore, 
in order to feed this amount of alfalfa economically and profitably, fat 
sufficient for twenty-four days and carbohydrates for fifty-one days 
must be added from some other source. In securing these amounts of 
fat and carbohydrates, it is impossible to avoid adding proteine to a 
slight extent, since all farm products, that are of any value for feed- 
ing purposes, contain more or less proteine ; this addition of proteine, 
however, may be, and should be, reduced to a minimum by the selec- 
tion of those materials which contain it in the smallest amounts. 
Among these may be mentioned field corn stalks, green fodder corn 
or ensilage, wheat straw, oat straw, root crops, &c. 

One ton of field corn stalks — containing seventeen pounds of fat, 
sixty pounds of proteine, and ten hundred and seventy-six and six- 
tenths pounds of carbohydrates — would furnish sufficient proteine for 
twenty-four days, fat for forty days and carbohydrates for eighty-six 
days. Two tons of a mixture of equal weights of field corn stalks 
and alfalfa would therefore furnish food sufficient for one hundred 
and thirty-six days without noticeable loss of any of the digestible 
compounds. 

In the case of corn ensilage, every ton of which contains six pounds 
of fat, twenty-four and four-tenths pounds of proteine, and two hun- 
dred and ninety-six and six- tenths pounds of carbohydrates, three 
tone would furnish sufficient proteine for twenty-eight days, fat for 
forty-five days, and carbohydrates for seventy-one days. Four tons 
of a mixture composed of one ton of alfalfa hay and three tons of 
ensilage, or green fodder corn, would therefore furnish food sufficient 
for one hundred and thirty-six days without any appreciable loss. 
By the aid of the feeding tables, upon subsequent pages, other mate- 
rials could be substituted which would secure results similar to those 
in the examples just given. 

Alfalfa, therefore y furnishes the farmer a feeding material rich in 
proteine, which can be substituted for such waste products as wheat 
bran, cotton-seed meal, &c, usually bought in order to profitably utilize 
the excess of carbohydrates. 



112 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



ALFALFA CONSIDERED AS A COLLECTOR OF PLANT-FOOD; 

The extraordinary demands made upon available plant-food by a- 
crop of alfalfa were referred to in the annual report of this Station 
for 1886. These demands are especially noticeable in the case of 
nitrogen and potash, the crops of 1887 and 1888 together having 
collected over one-quarter of a ton of each. Including the barn- 
yard manure applied previous to seeding, the total amount of plant- 
food applied to this crop has not exceeded one hundred and fifty 
pounds each of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash. 

It is universally admitted that the mineral constituents of plants, 
as phosphoric acid, potash, lime, &c, are derived solely and entirely 
from the soil. In the case of nitrogen, however, it has long been 
asserted, and is now claimed to be positively proven, that certain 
leguminous plants, as clover, peas, alfalfa, &c, have the power of 
assimilating large amounts from the atmosphere, when sufficient phos- 
phoric acid, potash and lime are present in the soil. 

Therefore, while it is quite possible that alfalfa, being a deep- 
rooting plant, could secure all this nitrogen from the soil ; the proba- 
bility that it has secured a large quantity from the air enhances its 
value as an agricultural plant, firstly, because nitrogen is the basis of 
the compound proteine, the most valuable part of the food product, 
and secondly, because nitrogen is the most costly element in fertiliz- 
ing compounds. 

Alfalfa serves, therefore, not only as a manufacturer of the chief 
element of food, but also as a collector from sources otherwise inac- 
cessible of the most valuable fertilizing agent for a large class of 
agricultural plants whose only source of nitrogen is in the soil. It 
acts in the hands of the farmer as an agent for rendering locked-up 
capital available. 

When alfalfa is grown, and its products are properly utilized upon 
the farm, it cannot be considered an exhaustive crop, but rather as- 
one fulfilling the proper aim of rational agriculture, which is to 
transform into produce the raw materials at our disposal in the- 
atmosphere and soil. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



113 



THE AMOUNT OF PLANT-FOOD COLLECTED FROM ONE ACRE, AND ITS VALUE IN THE 
FORM OF NITRATE OF SODA, BONE-BLACK SUPERPHOSPHATE AND MURIATE OF 
POTASH . 



DRILLED PLOT. 


POUNDS PER ACRE OF 


Fertilizing value at 
present prices. 


Nitrogen. 


Phosphoric 
Acid. 


Potash. 




253.6 
299.2 


45.7 
52.4 


286.9 
292.2 


$57.70 
66.30 








552.8 


98.1 


586.1 


124.00 





The amounts of plant-food gathered by the alfalfa crop in two 
years are equivalent in nitrogen to that contained in 3,455 pounds of 
nitrate of soda, in phosphoric acid to that contained in 613 pounds of 
16 per cent, available bone-black superphosphate, and in potash to 
the amount contained in 1,176 pounds of muriate of potash. At the 
prices of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash assumed in estimating 
the values of commercial fertilizers, these amounts of plant-food 
would cost §124.00. 

8 



114 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



FODDERS AND FEEDS. 



This Station has in the past devoted a large portion of time to the 
study and analysis of fodders and feeds. Feeding trials have also 
been made both with different farm crops and with waste products 
largely bought to utilize the coarser materials of the farm. These 
trials have had for their primary purpose the determining of their 
proper position in the list of nutrients, at the same time testing the 
German feeding standards. 

Chemical analyses of four hundred and sixty-one samples of fodders 
and feeds have been made, including nearly all the materials service- 
able as food for farm animals. The results of these analyses, showing 
the composition of the different samples and the variations in the com- 
position of materials of the same kind, have appeared from year to year 
in the reports of this Station, accompanied by such comments and 
explanations as were deemed necessary. 

There is, however, a continual demand upon the Station, from the 
farmers of the State, for just such information as this work was 
intended to furnish, which indicates that the work is appreciated but 
is not readily used in the form in which it is published. The Station 
feels warranted, therefore, in making further attempts to render this 
work available for all. 

With this idea in mind, the following tables have been arranged. 
The first table contains twenty-two samples, and shows the pounds 
per hundred and per ton of the different digestible food compounds, 
of the ash and of the fertilizing elements. These samples have been 
selected as representing the principal feeding-stuffs and also because 
their percentages of digestibility can be reasonably relied upon. 

As a means of comparison as well as to show the relative value of 
the materials both as feed and as fertilizer, money values have been 
assumed. Proteine and fat have been valued at four and one- third 
cents, and carbohydrates at nine-tenths of a cent per pound ; of the 
fertilizing ingredients, nitrogen has been valued at sixteen and a half 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



115 



<?ents, phosphoric acid at eight cents and potash at four and a quarter 
cents per pound. 

The actual value of these food and fertilizer constituents depends 
upon the degree of skill exercised in their use. 

The tabulations represent average analyses secured from a rela- 
tively large number of samples ; the fodders in all cases were grown in 
the different counties of the State. Differences in composition are 
observed between those fodders grown upon soils in a good state of 
fertility and rich in organic matter and those grown on light and 
sandy soil ; in nearly every case the former are richer in fat and pro- 
teine. Great differences are likely to occur also, if hay, corn-fodder, 
straw, &c, are not cut at the proper time, or not gathered in good 
condition. The feeds, on the other hand, when properly classified, 
are reasonably uniform in composition. While these averages are 
therefore trustworthy in the majority of cases, judgment must be ex- 
ercised when products used are known to be either extra good or very 
poor, and use made of tables published on a subsequent page. 

EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 

In the analyses, the ingredients of fodders are separated in the five 
following classes : 

CRUDE PROTEINE, CRUDE FAT, CRUDE FIBER, CARBOHYDRATES, ASH. 

The following description of these is revised from previous annual 
reports of this Station. The term proteine is used to designate a 
group of compounds, some of which are well known. The elastic 
substance which remains when wheat flour is kneaded under water, 
r example, a member of this class; its specific name is gluten. 
The white solid in a hard-boiled egg is another member of this class ; 
it is known as albumen. When fresh blood is whipped with a bundle 
of twigs it coagulates, and the red coloring matter can then be washed 
out ; the white solid remaining is a third member of the class, known 
under the name of fibrin. Gluten, albumen and fibrin, while differ- 
ing widely in appearance, agree closely in chemical composition, each 
having, in a pure and dry condition, 16 per cent, of nitrogen; this 
percentage of nitrogen is the characteristic feature of this class. 

Fodders and feeds, without exception, contain some member of this 
group ; but as the labor of separating the compound is in many cases 



116 



NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



TABLE OP ANALYSES 

FOOD CONSTITUENTS (DIGESTIBLE). 



eg 

,Q (D 



SAMPLE. 



Brewers' Grains 

Owe* Hay 

Corn Meal {g* 

Cotton-Seed Meal {}£g' 

Field Corn Stalks |}^' 

Fodder Corn— Green 

Fodder Corn— Dry.. j }{j 

German Millet 

Linseed Meal— Old Process... j J^J 
Linseed Meal— New Process.. { 

Lucern— Green jj^" 

Lucern Hay {lbs 

Malt Sprouts |}^; 

Oats— Ground 

Oat Straw |}^; 

Orchard Grass {Jjj 

Straw 

Timothy Hay {}|J 

Wheat Bran -[{{j 

Wheat Chaff...... 

Wheat Middlings 

Wheat Straw 



per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 



per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 



per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton. 



per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton. 



per hundred, 
per ton. 



per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 



per hundred, 
per ton. 



per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 

per hundred, 
per ton 



92.30 
87.21 
90.67 
90.29 



92.25 
90.54 
91.39 

92.30 
89.53 
88.83 
91.94 
93.00 
93.36 
92.88 
87.91 
93.00 
87.83 
93.00 



1.81 
36.20 

1.68 
33.60 

3.30 
66.00 

10.76 
215.20 

0.85 
17.00 

0.30 
6.00 

1.26 
25.20 

0.87 
17.40 

6.06 
121.20 

3.45 
69.00 

0.40 
8.00 

1.46 
29.20 

1.12 
22.40 

3.90 
78.00 

0.64 
12.80 

0.89 
17.80 

0.40 
8.00 

0.88 
17.60 

3.22 
64.40 

0.39 
7.80 

2.78 
55.60 

0.41 
8.20 



5.44 
108.80 

8.35 
167.00 

6.58 
131.60 

37.83 
756.60 

3.00 
60.00 

1.22 
24.40 

5.11 
102.20 

3.95 
79.00 

27.81 
556.20 

26.83 
536.60 

3.65 
73.00 

13.33 
266.60 

11.85 
237.00 

9.83 
196.60 

1.53 
30.60 

2.97 
59.40 

0.78 
15.60 

3.56 
71.20 

13.35 
267.00 

1.09 
21.80 

13.09 
261.80 

0.65 
13.00 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



117 



OP FODDERS AND FEEDS. 



FERTILIZER CONSTITUENTS. 



a 



■55 I 



SAMPLE. 







2 






















a 

9 
& 


O 
A 
A 


JS 


d 


8 


o 

& 


3 


< 




Oh 


1 


1.51 
30.20 


0.11 
2.20 


0.31 
6.20 


0.05 
1.00 


6.80 
136.00 


1.99 
39.80 


0.36 
7.20 


1.68 
33.60 


1.41 
28.20 


1.45 
29.00 


0.62 
12.40 


0.39 
7.80 


7.35 
147.00 


6.93 
138.60 


3.28 
75.60 


1.91 
38.20 


5.98 
119.60 


0.94 
18.80 


0.26 
5.20 


1.02 
20.40 


1.49 
29.80 


0.29 
5.80 


0.11 

2.20 


0.36 
7.20 


6.24 
124.80 


1.21 
24.20 


0.46 
9.20 


1.51 
30.20 


6.18 
123.60 


1.21 
24.20 


0.35 
7.00 


1.29 
25.80 


5.76 
115.20 


5.45 
109.00 


2.08 
41.60 


1.47 
29.40 


6.04 
120.80 


5.71 
114.20 


2.22 
44.40 


1.59 
31.80 


2.21 
44.20 


0.72 
14.40 


0.12 
2.40 


0.67 
13.40 


8.07 
161.40 


2.63 
52.60 


0.41 
8.20 


2.45 
49.00 


12.48 
249.60 


3.97 
79.40 


1.46 
29.20 


1.65 
33.00 


3.37 
67.40 


1.86 
37.20 


0.77 
15.40 


0.59 
11.80 


4.75 
95.00 


0.65 
13.00 


0.22 
4.40 


1.22 
24.40 


5.17 
1015.40 


0.91 
18.20 


0.28 
5.60 


1.64 
32.80 


3.25 
65.00 


0.50 
10.00 


0.29 
5.80 


0.79 
15.80 


4.32 
86.40 


1.00 
20.00 


0.36 
7.20 


1.30 
26.00 


6.05 
121.00 


2.45 
49.00 


2.92 
58.40 


1.59 
31.80 


7.18 
143.60 


0.68 
13.60 


0.95 
19.00 


0.56 
11.20 


2.43 
48.60 


2.38 
47.60 


1.21 
24.20 


0.65 
13.00 


3.45 
69.00 


0.51 
10.20 


0.09 
1.80 


0.74 
14.80 



fibs, 
jibs. 

fibs, 
tlbs. 

fibs. 



6 ; Brewers' Grains 

11 j Clover Hay 

7 iCorn Meal 

5 Cotton-Seed Meal 

11 ! Field Corn Stalks 

20 ' Fodder Corn— Green 

I Fodder Corn— Dry 

7 German Millet 

6 Linseed Meal— Old Process.. 

2 'Linseed Meal— New Process 
17 Lucern— Green 

'Lucern Hay 

Malt Sprouts 

8 Oats— Ground 

7 Oat Straw „ 

3 Orchard Grass {{jj 

6 Rye Straw 



per hundred.... 
per ton 

per hundred.... 
per ton 

per hundred.... 
( ids. per ton 

fibs, per hundred.... 
(lbs. per ton 

fibs, per hundred.... 
per ton 

per hundred.... 
per ton 

per hundred.... 
per ton 

per hundred.... 
per ton 

per hundred.... 
per ton i 

per hundred.... 
per ton 

fibs, per hundred. 
{ lbs. per ton 

fibs, per hundred. 
I lbs. per ton 

fibs, per hundred.... 
(lbs. per ton I 

/lbs. per hundred.... 
(lbs. per ton i 

Hbs. per hundred.... 
( lbs. per ton 

lbs 



fibs, 
libs. 

fibs, 
jibs. 

Jibs, 
(lbs. 

fibs, 
jibs. 

fibs, 
libs. 



10 Timothy Hay. 
6 Wheat Bran... 
2 Wheat Chaff... 



fibs, 
"tlbs. 

fibs. 
- (lbs. 

fibs. 



11 Wheat Middlings. 
5 Wheat Straw 



fibs, 
jibs. 

fibs. 
\lbs. 

fibs, 
tlbs. 



per hundred... 
per ton 

per hundred... 
per ton 

per hundred... 
per ton 

per hundred... 
per ton 

per hundred... 
per ton 

per hundred... 
per ton 

per hundred... 
per ton 



118 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



considerable, and in some cases excessive, the usual plan of making 
an analysis is simply to determine the percentage of nitrogen, and 
secure the percentage of proteine by multiplying by 6}. 

The class of compounds known as fats also differ widely in appear- 
ance ; butter, lard and tallow are solid at ordinary temperatures, and 
olive oil and cotton-seed oil, fluid. In chemical composition all are- 
closely allied, and while insoluble in water, are all readily soluble in 
certain re-agents, as ether, &c. In fodder analysis all substances sol- 
uble in ether are grouped as crude fats. 

Paper pulp and cotton lint are two of the best examples of the class 
of crude fiber, and sugar and starch of the class carbohydrates. 

Ash signifies the residue remaining when a fodder or feed has been 
burned. It contains the mineral matters extracted 'by the growing 
plant from the soil, and in composition varies, of course, with the 
nature of the fodders. Without exception, however, it contains 
phosphoric acid, potash, lime, magnesia, soda, sulphuric acid, &c, all 
of which are substances indispensable to animal life. 

FEEDING STANDARDS. 

The animal body has been demonstrated to consist essentially of 
the ingredients above enumerated, deriving its proteine from the 
digested proteine of the food, its fat from the four classes of nutrients, 
and the mineral matter of its bones and various soft tissues, from the 
constituents of the ash. These ingredients, therefore, are essential to 
the animal body and must be supplied to it as the need for each 
arises. This need varies with the animal and the nature of its 
work — whether producing milk, flesh, wool, animal heat or muscular 
energy. Investigations have consequently been made which have 
resulted in the formation of feeding standards, viz. : Statements of 
the amounts of digestible proteine, fat and carbohydrates (including 
fiber), which have been shown to be best adapted to the various con- 
ditions of the animal and the numerous purposes of feeding. A table 
of feeding standards, based upon data secured from the work of Ger- 
man chemists, is given on the opposite page. 

By reference to the table it is observed that the feeding standard 
for milk cows is 2 \ pounds of proteine, T 4 7 of a pound of fat and 12J 
pounds of carbohydrates, all included in 24 pounds of dry matter,, 
and giving a nutritive ratio of 1 : 5.4. The nutritive ratio is secured 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



119 



TABLE OP FEEDING STANDARDS. 

POUNDS PER DAY PER 1,000 POUNDS LIVE "WEIGHT. 



KIND OF ANIMAL. 



13 



« L-l 

aj {10 

Is 



Horse, at light work 

" average work 

" hard work. 

Oxen, at rest in stall 

" ordinary work 

" hard work 

Oxen, fattening, first period 

M " second period 

" " third period 

Milk Cows 

Sheep, wool-producing (coarser breeds). 
" " (finer breeds) .... 

" fattening, first period 

" " second period 

8 wine, fattening, first period 

" " second period 

u " third period 



GROWING CATTLE. 



Age, 
Months. 



Average live weight 
per head. 



2- 3 150 pounds. 

3- 6 300 " . 

6-12 500 " . 

12-18 700 " . 

18-24 850 " . 



GROWING SHEEP. 



5- 6 . 

6- 8 . 
8-11. 

11-15. 
15-20. 



GROWING PIGS. 



2- 3 ... 

3- 6 ... 

5- 6 ... 

6- 8 „. 
8-12... 



50 
100 
125 
170 
250 



21.0 
22.5 
25.5 
17.5 
24.0 
26.0 
27.0 
26.0 
25.0 
24.0 
20.0 
22.5 
26.0 
25.0 

36.0 
31.0 
23.5 



22.0 
23.4 
24.0 
24.0 
24.0 



28.0 
25.0 
23.0 
22.5 
22.0 



42.0 
34.0 
31.5 
27.0 
21.0 



9.5 
11.2 
13.4 

8.0 
11.3 
13.2 
15.0 
14.8 
14.8 
12.5 
10.3 
11.4 
15.2 
14.4 



0.40 

0.60 

0.80 

0.15 

0.30 

0.50 

0.50 

0.70 

0.1 

0.40 

0.20 

0.25 

0.50 

0.60 



27.5 
24.0 
17.5 



13.8 
13.5 
13.5 
13.0 
12.0 



15.6 
13.3 
11.4 
10.9 
10.4 



2.0 
1.0 
0.6 
0.4 
0.3 



0.8 
0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 



30.0 
25.0 
23.7 
20.4 
16.2 



120 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



by multiplying the amount of fat by 2J, adding the carbohydrates 
and dividing the sum by the amount of proteine, i. e. 0.4 multiplied 
by 2 J equals 1, which added to 12 J equals 13 J, this divided by 2 J 
equals 5.4. Many feeding-stuffs approximate closely enough to the 
feeding standards given, and the special value of tables of analyses, 
<fec, is recognized only when those materials are not at hand or when 
it is desirable from any cause to change the diet. 



UTILITY OF THE TABLES. 

The following examples are given to illustrate the utility of the 
tables : 

1. It is desired to feed 15 milk cows for 100 days. The table of 
feeding standards shows that this will require 600 pounds of fat, 
3,750 pounds of proteine and 18,750 pounds of carbohydrates. There 
is available 6 tons of cornstalks, 5 tons of clover hay and 3 tons of oat 
straw, which the table of analyses shows to contain 308 pounds of fat, 
1,287 pounds of proteine and 13,340 pounds of carbohydrates. Too 
little of all the ingredients is contained in the materials at hand. 
A simple subtraction shows that there must be secured from other 
sources 292 pounds of fat, 2,463 pounds of proteine and 5,410 
pounds of carbohydrates. Feeds must be added, therefore, which 
are relatively high in proteine and fat, and low in carbohydrates. Of 
such feeds, cotton-seed meal, linseed meal, wheat bran, malt sprouts 
and wheat middlings are good examples, and any or all of these, if 
added in proper proportions, will give the desired food, and a ration 
corresponding to the feeding standard. For instance, the food required 
in order to furnish a balanced ration for the time mentioned, may be 
secured from 3.7 tons of new-process linseed meal and 2 tons of malt 
sprouts, as follows : 

Digestible Digestible Digestible 
6 tons corn stalks.... % Fat- Proteine. Carbohydrates. 

5 " clover hay.... I on hand 308 pounds. 1,287 pounds. 13,340 pounds. 

3 " oat straw J 



3.7 " N. P. linseed meal, added 


255 " 


1,985 " 


3,270 




44 " 


478 » 


2,433 




, 607 " 


3,750 " 


18,943 




... 0.40 " 


2.50 " 


12.63 



This ration compares with the theoretical ration, as follows : 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



121 



Digestible Digestible Digestible 
Fat. Proteine. Carbohydrates. 

Total for 15 cows for 100 days 600 pounds. 3,750 pounds. 18,750 pounds. 

" '« 1 cow for 1 day 0.40 " 2.50 " 12.50 " 

2. A dairy herd of 47 cows, averaging 1,000 pounds live weight, 
is fed daily the following mixed ration. Required to know if it 
agrees with the feeding standard for milk cows, and if it does not, 
what changes are necessary to be made : 

Digestible Digestible Digestible 
Ration consisting of : Fat. Proteine. Carbohydrates. 

600 lbs. brewers' grains., -j f 10.86 lbs. 32.64 lbs. 100.68 lbs. 

250 '« corn meal I 8.25 " 16.45 " 163.72 " 



300 " wheat bran J 9.66 « 40.05 " 137.52 

160 " field corn stalks f Containing j L36 M 18Q g612 



125 '* clover hay | | 2.10 " 10 44 " 55.35 " 

50 " wheat chaff J [ .19 " .55 " 17.34 " 

Total for 47 cows per day 32.42 " 104 93 M 560.73 " 

" " 1 cow " " 69 u 2.23 " 11.93 " 

The calculation, by means of the tables, of the amount of digest- 
ible fat, proteine and carbohydrates which these materials contain, 
has been placed opposite the ration ; it shows that the ration contains 
too little proteine and carbohydrates, and too much fat. To get suf- 
ficient proteine and carbohydrates it is obvious that some fat will be 
added also ; nevertheless, care should be taken to select materials con- 
taining a minimum amount of that ingredient. A slight excess of 
fat will not materially influence the economic value of the ration, pro- 
vided sufficient proteine is present. 

An addition of fifty pounds of new-process linseed meal would 
give : 

Digestible Digestible Digestible 

Fat. Proteine. Carbohydrates. 

Total for 47 cows per day 34.2 pounds. 118.35 pounds. 582.83 pounds. 

" " 1 cow " " 73 " 2.52 M 12.40 " 

The nutritive ratio is a trifle wide, owing to the excess of fat ; still, 
for practical purposes, it may be considered quite close enough to the 
standard ration. For feeding standards must not be regarded as 
inflexible rules to be blindly followed, but guides and indications 
which must be intelligently adapted to local and individual circum- 
stances. 

The above question was recently asked by a farmer of this State, 
and the answer is substantially as given him. Tables giving the 



/ 



122 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 





6.30 

0.10 

6.80 


4.23 
4 32 

6.00 




7.10 


5.24 
6.18 


7.42 
6.53 


CRUDE FIBER. 




29.90 
26.35 
28.20 




29.93 
28.73 

33.00 


30.34 


27.16 
27.53 


31.47 
25.18 


"TTT TT TTT T "V U TAT 
LAA LLLAA LA O J\_ 


43.00 
28.64 
35.65 


8 8 § 

ec eo 5 


0 


28.94 
30.25 


37.90 
25.27 


■TTTTl TTTTTTTTLT 


19.50 
23.79 
23.74 


22.70 
24.55 

19.30 


26.22 


26.18 
23.58 


27.00 
25.08 


CARBOHYDRATES 

OR NITROGEN 
— FREE EXTRACT. 


*^^1>Ta A "W 
K7jO t5iA^7iS. y 


32.90 
40.11 
42.77 


44.89 
51.69 

27.90 


37.11 


42.49 
49.19 


42.42 

53.35 


• TTT T"l TTTT YT2TAT 
LLA L l LAA L. A. L5 L/^ 


39.70 
45.47 
49.03 


48.58 
57.09 

34.80 


39.22 


44.71 
52.97 


53.67 
54.32 


• TTT Tl TTT T TT T TAT 
LAA LI IUL LA J- 


22.30 
35.03 
39.27 


41.09 
46.02 

20.00 


35.45 


84.85 
44.42 


34.10 
52.38 


FAT. 




3.20 
1.98 
2.08 


2.03 
1.83 

2.50 


2.05 


1.81 
1.78 


2.32 
2.26 


* TTT Tl TTT T Y TAT 
LAA LI LAA I A. O L/\[ 


5.50 
3.10 
2.87 


O CM O 
CO CO CO 

eo cm co 


2.40 


2.14 
2.19 


3.10 
2.42 


'TTTTl TTTTTTTTAT 
LAA L L LAA lUl 


1.20 
1.47 
1.64 


1.08 
1.52 

2.30 


1.80 


1.30 
145 


1.63 
2.11 


PROTEINE. 


•a9r>Ta A ~w 

kJXj biigA Y 


11.00 
11.38 
12.46 


6.36 
6.25 

14.40 


17.04 




6.59 
7.59 


5.90 
4.57 


• TTT Tl TTTT Yl? TAT 
LAA LI LAA L A. U J Y. 


15.80 
13.06 
14.06 


9.60 
9.19 

19.7 


18.56 


10.67 
12.25 


7.80 
5.13 


'TTTTl TTT T TT T TAT 
U.A L L U-l IUL \\ 


7.20 
8.87 
10.31 


4.88 
3.76 

13.1 


15.00 


5.56 
5.00 


4.30 
4.00 


DRY MATTER. 




83.30 
84.98 
92.30 


87.42 
92.88 

83.80 


93.52 


83.30 
92.25 


89.53 
91.89 


Tnr\xnixBj\[ 


90.00 
91.53 
93.89 


91.30 
93.88 

87.50 


94.34 




93.22 


92.80, 
91.94 


•umnrraipi 


77.10 
78.18 
91.48 


85.70 
91.83 

80.80 


92.45 




90.95 


§ ao 
00 oj 


'SaSA^BUV JO *Otf 




<M rH 
rH rH 


; 00 0 




eo 


co t- 


rH CN 
rH 


From the Report of 


p 

5 
<- 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 
New Jp.rsfiv Station 


P 

rC 

s 

■ i 

i 
1 

p. 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 
Np.ot .Torse v Station 


P 

I 

r- 

l 
g 
P- 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 


p 

! 1 

! 1 

; s 
; 0. 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 
New Jersp.v Station 


p 

i 

• * 

V 

a 
0 
c 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 
New Jersev Station 


> 


Brand. 


Timothy Hay... 
Lucern J 


Millet 1 


I 

Salt Marsh Hay 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



123 







4.32 
5.98 

3.90 
3.22 
3.45 

4.10 
8.03 
3.25 

4.40 
4.72 
4.75 

5.20 
5.05 
6.51 


CRUDE FIBER. 






22.14 
27.46 

40.00 
38.68 
35.78 

44.00 
34.20 
38.22 

39.70 
42.78 

36.33 

44.30 
45.88 
37.16 


•rannnxBK 




25.18 
30.31 

52.60 
40.05 
37.62 

54.90 


41.52 

50.20 
55.96 
41.80 

51.80 
46.83 








18.65 
23.61 

28.90 
37.32 
34.30 

30.10 


32.70 

30.00 
35.21 
29.52 

35.30 
44.93 




CARBOHYDRATES 

OR NITROGEN 
—FREE EXTRACT. 






35.96 
49.69 

37.50 
44.27 
49.23 

33.30 
35.70 
47.53 

35.60 
36.97 
44.71 

32.90 
33.28 
38.93 


nmniTXBK 




40.82 
57.47 

44.40 
47.01 

50.56 

44.50 


52.88 

48.90 
44.26 
51.41 

37.10 
34.49 




•ranraintpi 




30 52 
43.67 

26.70 
41.51 
47.42 

23.40 


44.54 

24.90 
26.42 
42.10 

29.90 
32.08 






'8SBI8AV 




1.24 
1.26 

1.20 
1.89 
1.27 

1.30 
2.68 
1.25 

2.00 
2.07 
2.12 

1.40 
1.56 
0.65 



•ranraixBj^ 



•ranraiuiK 



<M OO ^ 



•a2UJ8AY 



•rannnniK 



O r- 



•8SBI3AV 



•caminxtfK 



'ranraitrtj^ 



8 § 



•38S^l«UV JO 'Ofl 



08 3 



^> I— > 



a w 
8 c 



a m 



X 

! ^ 

■§ 8 

w O 

.2 3 

t-c 

I w 



» i 

.2 3 



-I 
Is 



W 3 

- o 



124 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



CO © © 

10 cm t~ © 

rH r-< CN CO 



'TntixniX'BH 



•uimnraijv; 



-2 K u 

w «,? s 

ofi 05 05 
« I 



■ratuniuiK 



g S 



CO N 
tH 00 



•umraiuiK; 



o o> 

CO CO 



•ranraixBH 



OO CO 

i> od 



•ranratx^K 



•sasinmy jo *oj^ 



O j. 

£ Q 



. 1-1 

M CD 



a5 <t> 

S3 



d 






1 


d 


a 


sterr 


o 
o 


o 
O 






Wes 


Flii 


1 
P 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



125 



HSV 


I 


6.00 
5.83 
6.24 

2.60 
2.47 
2.54 


4.32 
2.14 

1.80 
1.90 
1.84 

5.20 
3.62 
2.96 


X 
H 
H 
p 

| 

o 




9.40 
8.79 


3.10 
4.58 




7.94 




3.00 
1.60 


7.20 
3.51 




•ranunx'BK 


34.60 
10. 64 


4.80 
7.45 




10.47 


6.70 
2.10 


28.50 
4.00 






4.10 
7.24 


1.40 
3.47 




6.34 


1.10 
1.40 


4.20 

| 2.50 




M 

■< a 2 

5 o h 

ggs 

-< ° ? 




53.60 
55.16 


63.80 
65.48 




58.96 


67.80 
72.60 


57.10 
63.12 


•ranunx^K 


61.50 
58.93 


64.90 
70.86 




1 

62.32 


72.40 
73.90 


64.60 
67.00 




•TUtlUITUTI^ 


28.50 
0U.41 j 


61.60 
60.21 




55.62 


62.50 
70.70 


32.90 
59.75 




FAT. 




3.50 

.5.00 

3.30 

3.00 
3.23 
3.29 


3.79 
3.32 

1.70 
1.70 
1.71 

3.50 
2.19 
2.63 


■umunxrc j£ 


6.60 

5.04 

3.30 
4.35 
3.92 


4.85 
3.69 

2.80 
2.10 
2.00 

5.00 
2.60 
3.85 



■umurraiji 



•3S*J8AY 



•ratiuiixBft 



g S © 

-«S> ifi 



8 S S 52 g 8 

— O © W5 



— ■ —I o 



S S S3 

© <N 



So So 



8 % 



© g 



■mninixupj 



5 g e 



S3 S3 SB 



■wiproy jo -ojj | 



O 55 



NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



ASH. 


•83BI3AV 




1.05 
0.52 

8.80 
6.24 
5.84 

7.80 
6.06 
6.04 


7.20 
6.53 

3.40 


4.03 


CRUDE FIBER. 


•83BI8AV 




0.28 


9.70 
7.34 


8.80 
8.37 




5.67 



7.90 






•tnnniTX'Bpi 




0.35 


16.80 
757 


10.80 
9.00 




11.76 


18.00 






•uinunniK 




0.21 


5.10 
7.12 


6.70 
7.58 




2.77 


3.20 






CARBOHYDRATES 

OR NITROGEN 
— FREE EXTRACT. 


•8SBI9AV 




77.34 



29.80 
37.75 


36.40 
38.78 




23.49 


.19.60 






•ranraixBH 




79.83 


41.30 
44.89 


39.90 
48.03 




38.68 


35.70 






•umuiratpi 




75.81 


19.70 
31.45 


24.50 
35.22 




12.74 


9.00 






FAT. 


•aSBjaAy 




1.33 
0.64 

10.00 
8.72 
7.41 

2.30 
2.83 
2.35 


13.36 
11.63 

35.60 


32.63 


•innuiixBj^ 




1.74 
0.64 

18.20 
11.57 
7.80 

3.80 
4.01 




18.01 
12.88 

39.00 


33.57 


•ununiuTpi 




0.65 
0.63 

6.00 
5.16 
6.69 

0.70 
1.30 

i 




10.24 
10.39 

21.70 


31.69 


W 
g 

Ph 


•aSiuaAy 




6.48 
4.03 

29.50 
31.23 
32.80 

32.70 
33.45 
35.69 


42.45 
43.79 

21.70 


24.03 


•canniix'BK 




8.00 
4.19 

37.80 
33.95 
34.25 

35.10 
37.10 




So eo § 
d co" 

m CN 


25.75 


•tnnmraijtf 




4.18 

3.88 

20.60 
27.68 
31.81 

24.90 
27.10 




22.27 
43.25 

20.00 


22.31 


DRY MATTER. 


•3SBI9AY 




86.48 
84.00 

87.80 
91.28 
90.54 

88.00 
89.49 
91.39 


92.17 
90.67 

88.20 


91.71 


•nmunx'BK 




87. : 

84.18 

92.90 
93.83 
93.31 

90.30 
93.21 




94.32 
92.01 

93.20 


92.23 


•umniraTyi 




85.06 
83.81 

81.10 
87.53 
89.48 

85.40 
86.65 




90.87 
89.33 

87.70 


91.28 


•saSif i^uy jo -on | 


eo cn 


H* O 


CO i-H 






: cn 


From the Report of 


c 

c 
» 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 


P 

I 
i 

t- 
$ 
1 
£ 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station 


• .c 

5 

= 

& 
P- 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 


' c 

: * 

I 

i 

? * 
>- 

i § 
' J 

i i 
p. 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 


c 

X 

& 

I 

1 
1 

£ 
p. 


Dr. E. H. Jenkins, Conn. Station. 


i 






Brand. 


Buckwheat Flour j 

Linseed Meal j 

Linseed Meal, 
New Process, -j 

Cotton-Seed Meal - 

Flax-Seed Meal... • 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 127 



composition of foods aud their digestibility are in every-day use in 
some countries, and are recognized as highly serviceable. 

The table on pages 116 and 117 shows also the amount of nitrogen, 
ash, phosphoric acid and potash contained in the fodders and feeds. 
By its aid farmers are enabled to keep an account of the amount of 
fertilizing material exported from and imported to the farm. 

As before stated, money values have been assumed largely as a 
means of comparison, although the prices placed upon the ingredients 
are those used in estimating values of commercial fertilizers. 

With the exception of the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid 
and potash sold from the farm in the shape of milk and animal pro- 
duct, the entire amounts of phosphoric acid and potash and nearly 
all of the nitrogen contained in the materials fed, are found in the 
liquid and solid excrements of the animal. Consequently, the degree 
to which a farmer secures the estimated fertilizing value of his feed- 
ing-stuffs, depends upon the care that he takes in properly saving and 
using these excrements. 

The above five tables, containing the classified analyses of fodders 
and feeds made at this Station, compared with similar analyses secured 
by Professor Julius Kuhn, of Halle, Germany, and by Dr. E. H. Jen- 
kins, of the Connecticut Experiment Station, are republished from the 
annual reports of this Station for 1885 and 1886. They indicate the 
absolute amounts of fat, proteine, carbohydrates and fiber present in 
the feeding-stuffs, without reference to digestibility. The table on 
the following page is added, therefore, in order to show what per- 
centages are digestible, of the amounts of fat, proteine, carbohydrates 
and fiber actually present. 

The especial value of these tables at this time lies in the fact that 
they give the highest and lowest amounts of the different constituents 
which were found in all the analyses made, and therefore show the 
analytical range of each feeding-stuff, as it varies from extra good to 
very poor. When material, for instance, is, in the judgment of the 
farmer, at either extreme in quality, and is to be used with other stuffs 
in a mixed ration, the utility of these tables becomes apparent j for in 
such a case the proportions should be based, not upon the average 
analysis as given on page 116, but upon the analysis which these 
tables give in either the maximum or minimum column. 



128 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



DIGESTIBILITY OF FEEDING-STUFFS. 

(digestion go-efficients.) 









1 








o3 
U 








TS 
t>* 




M 


g 

■+5 


o 






o 
*1 


3 


rv. 




p-< 


O 


84. 


39. 


73. 


64. 


60. 


47. 


62. 


70. 


85. 


62. 


79. 


91. 


75. 


72. 


73. 


67. 


88. 




85. 


95. 


91. 




82. 


73.. 


39. 


43. 


74. 


66. 


49. 


9S. 


82. 


88.. 


82. 


17. 


77. 


74. 


30. 


60. 


41. 


46. 


58. 


4. 


66. 


75. 


32. 


60. 


21. 


37. 


50. 


62. 


64. 


68. 


48. 


58. 


57. 


62. 


41. 


54. 


51. 


58. 


69. 


33 


78. 


77. 


36. 


56. 


17. 


39. 



KIND OF MATEBIAL. 



Brewers' Grains 

Clover Hay 

Corn, Indian 

Cornstalks... 

Cotton- Seed Meal 

Linseed Meal 

Lucern 

Malt Sprouts 

Oats 

Oat Straw 

Rye Bran 

Rye Straw 

Timothy Hay (very good) 

" " (medium) ... 

" " (inferior) ... 

Wheat Bran 

Wheat Straw 



For example, should it be desired for the above or any other pur- 
pose to know the analysis of timothy hay, it would be determined as 
follows : 

1. If the material is of inferior quality. Turning to timothy hay 
in the preceding tables, the minimum amounts that this Station has 
found in 100 pounds are seen to be 

1.52 pounds of fat. 

3.75 " " proteine. 
46.02 " " carbohydrates. 
24.55 " " crude fiber. 

The table of the digestibility of feeding-stuffs shows that in timothy 
hay of inferior quality about 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 129 



41 per cent, of the fat, 

51 " " " " proteine, 

58 " " " " carbohydrates, 

54 ' crude fiber, 

are digestible. 

Multiplying the total amounts of the different constituents, as ex- 
pressed in pounds per hundred (i. e. per cent.), by their percentage of 
digestibility or " digestion co-efficients," gives the actual amounts of 
digestible matter in 100 pounds, and this again multiplied by 20 will 
give the amounts of digestible fat, proteine, &c, in 2,000 pounds or 
one ton of inferior timothy hay, thus : 

Digestible fat 1.52 X -41 = 0.62 X 20 = 12.4 pounds. 

Digestible proteine 3.75 X -51 = 1.91 X 20 = . 38.2 

Digestible carbohydrates 46.02 X -58 = 26.69 X 20 = 533.8 

Digestible fiber 24.55 X -54 = 13.26 X 20 = 265.2 

Adding the digestible carbohydrates and fiber together, the analysis 
of inferior timothy hay would, therefore, be 

12.4 pounds of digestible fat per ton. 
38.2 " " " proteine per ton. 
799.0 " '* '* carbohydrates and fiber per ton. 

2. If the material is of superior quality. Again turning to timothy 
hay in the preceding tables, the maximum amounts found by this 
Station in 100 pounds must now be used. These are 

2.32 pounds of fat, 

9.19 " " proteine, 
57.09 " '* carbohydrates, 
31.28 " " crude fiber. 

Consulting the table of digestibility of feeding-stuffs again, we 
learn that in timothy hay which is very good, 

50 per cent, of the fat, 

64 " " " " proteine, 

68 " " " " carbohydrates, 

62 " " " " crude fiber, 

are digestible. 

Multiplying the pounds per hundred by the digestion co-efficients, 
as in the preceding case, and multiplying again by 20, gives the 
amounts of digestible matter in one ton of superior hay, thus : 

9 



130 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Digestible fat 2.32 X -50= 1.16 X 20 = 23.2 pounds. 

Digestible proteine 9.19 X -64 = 5.88 X 20= 117.6 

Digestible carbohydrates 57.09 X -68 = 38.82 X 20 = 776.4 

Digestible fiber 31.28 X -62 = 19.39 X 20 = 387.8 " 

The analysis of very good timothy hay is therefore 

23.2 pounds of digestible fat per ton, 
117.6 " " " proteine per ton, 
1,164.2 " " " carbohydrates and fiber per ton. 

3. If the material is of medium or average quality. In this case 
a similar calculation may be carried through, in which the data 
corresponding to the condition of the crop must be used. Since, 
however, by far- the largest number of fodders and feeds fall under 
this case, this calculation has been made for each of the various feed- 
ing-stuffs ; the results thus secured have been incorporated in the 
table upon pages 116 and 117. Therefore, we have only to turn to 
page 116, where we will see that the analysis of medium timothy hay is 

17.6 pounds of digestible fat per ton, 
71.2 " " " proteine per ton, 
974.0 " " " carbohydrates and fiber per ton. 

By precisely the same method as described in these three cases the 
actual nutriment of each of the feeding-stuffs may be determined 
according to its quality, with considerable accuracy. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 131 



ANALYTICAL METHODS. 



POTASH. 

Lindo's method, as described in the report for 1887, was used the 
3ntire season, with perfect satisfaction. 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. 

The solution of phosphates was secured by the potassium chlorate 
land the magnesium nitrate methods. These methods have been on 
Ithe whole satisfactory, although a few materials are difficult of oxida- 
Ition ; of these, castor pomace is a notable example. The averages of 
the determinations in over 150 samples are within the limits of ex- 
perimental error ; nitrate of magnesia giving results less than five- 
Ihundredths of one per cent, higher than those secured by the chlorate 
lof potash. 

NITROGEN. 

1. Results obtained by Kjeldahl and soda-lime methods. KjeldahPs 
method, as described in detail in previous reports, was used this season 
without further modification. The total nitrogen in all samples free 
from nitrates was determined by both methods. 

Of 134 samples of complete fertilizers, 18 samples of high-grade 
nitrogenous material, and 19 samples of ground bone, the average 
results in total nitrogen are practically identical by both methods. 

2. A comparison of methods for the determination of all forms of 
nitrogen contained in fertilizers. The modification of KjeldahPs 
method, and the absolute method, as described in the report for 1887, 
were used in all samples of complete fertilizers containing nitrates 
that were analyzed by the Station during the past season. The average 
determinations of 42 samples show that the percentages of nitrogen 



132 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



secured were almost identical; the average difference by the two 
methods being less than two-hundredths of one per cent. 

Blank determinations are always made, and the results are modified 
by the amount of the constant error due to re-agents, <fec. 



A COMPARISON OP METHODS FOR THE DETERMINA- 
TION OP ALL FORMS OP NITROGEN CONTAINED IN 
FERTILIZERS. 



Station Number. 


Percentage of Nitrogen— 
Kjeldahl modified by 
Scovell. 


Percentage of Nitrogen- 
Absolute Method. 




Station Number. 


Percentage of Nitrogen— 
Kjeldahl modified by 
Scovell. 


Percentage of Nitrogen- 
Absolute Method. 




Station Number. 


Percentage of Nitrogen — 
Kjeldahl modified by 
Scovell. 


Percentage of Nitrogen- 
Absolute Method. 




Station Number. 


Percentage of Nitrogen— 
Kjeldahl modified by 
Scovell. 


Percentage of Nitrogen- 
Absolute Method. 


2157 


2.68 


2.73 




2378 


3.14 


3.26 




2450 


2.25 


2.28 




2608 


2.05 


2.17 


2164 


3.21 


3.25 




2380 


4.05 


4.18 




2469 


4.27 


4.34 




2618 


4.02 


3.98 


2171 


2.67 


2.51 




2384 


4.17 


4.27 




2472 


2.72 


2.73 




2623 


2.63 


2.62 


2276 


3.67 


3.81 




2385 


3.93 


4.05 




2504 


5.31 


5.41 




2625 


2.02 


2.12 


2283 


2.24 


2.31 




2418 


7.33 


7.40 




2514 


4.13 


4.05 




2638 


4.92 


5.07 


2284 


2.40 


2.37 




2423 


3.68 


3.70 




2532 


1.69 


1.59 




2650 


2.40 


2.37 


2298 


4.54 


4.56 




2436 


3.78 


3.80 




2535 


3.75 


3.66 




2669 


0.92 


0.96 


2316 


2.14 


2.02 




2440 


3.56 


3.51 




2538 


2.72 


2.76 




2673 


3.55 


3.52 


2329 


3.76 


3.81 




2445 


1.71 


1.68 




2561 


3.30 


3.31 




2675 


2.52 


2.58 


2348 


3.10 


2.99 




2447 


3.78 


3.78 




2583 


0.92 


0.86 










2361 


2.76 


2.67 




2448 


2.88 


2.90 




2601 


0.79 


0.67 











1 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



133 



SORGHUM AND SUGAR-MAKING. 



I NVESTIGATIONS UPON THE COST AND VALUE OF SORGHUM SUGAR 
IN ITS PRODUCTION ON THE FARM AND IN THE SUGAR-HOUSE. 

The Legislature of 1881 requested the State Agricultural College 
-£> experiment on the sorghum plant, in order to further its cultivation 
by the farmers of this State. The sorghum was grown on the College 
i Farm, and the chemical work was carried out in the laboratory of the 
Experiment Station. In the experiments the growth of the cane was 
[satisfactory ; the effects of different fertilizers were plainly marked, 
|and the product of sugar carefully ascertained. The same year a law 
was passed authorizing a bounty of §1.00 per ton to be paid for 
sorghum cane grown and used in making sugar, and one cent per 
pound for all the sugar made from sorghum grown in the State ; said 
law to be continued in force for five years. 

Trial crops of sorghum were grown upon the College Farm, and 
tested in the Experiment Station laboratory, from year to year, up to 
1886-7, and the demonstration was complete that it could be success- 
fully grown, and that it contained sugar in workable quantities ; and 
the detailed results were given in the annual reports of the Station. 

The bounties offered by the State for the production of sorghum- 
cane and sugar encouraged the Rio Grande Sugar Company, located 
at Rio Grande, Cape May county, to invest large sums in the erection 
of a sugar-house, and in the purchase of land upon which to grow 
sorghum. This enterprise was continued through the years 1881, 
1882, 1-883, 1884 and 1885. Good crops of cane were grown, and a 
large amount of sugar was made. Many difficulties were met with in 
organizing a new industry, but these were fairly overcome. The 
ruinously low prices of sugar in the latter years, however, took away 
all chances of profit in a mill which, at the best, could express only 
half the sugar in the cane. The process of diffusion, or soaking out 
the nugar by water, was tried upon a large scale, but difficulties inci- 
dent to a new business delayed the realization of the hopes of the 
company, and work by the Rio Grande Sugar Company ended with 



134 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



1886. The bounties offered by the State ended with 1885. The 
whole amount of bounties paid to encourage this industry was $43,723. 

Mr. Henry A. Hughes, of Cape May City, who had been the super- 
intendent of the works from the beginning, and who was largely 
interested in overcoming the difficulties experienced in the above 
enterprise, at the beginning of 1887 organized the Hughes Sugar 
Company, and with the assistance of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, built and equipped a small sugar-house, to work 15 or 
20 tons of cane per day. The machinery in this house was mainly of 
his own invention, and included machines for topping, stripping and 
shredding the cane, and for extracting the sugar by diffusion. The 
results of the work in 1887 were, in many respects, satisfactory, and 
the experience gained showed where and how many savings of time, 
labor and expense could be made. 

The Station has, every year, from 1884, had its chemist, Dr. Neale, 
devote a considerable part of his time to the study of the methods 
pursued in the sugar-house at Rio Grande, and he has been able to 
render essential and important aid in arranging and balancing the new 
inventions. At the beginning of 1888, numerous changes were plan- 
ned so as to produce effective work, and a large sum of money was 
appropriated by the Station, to carry them into operation. But these 
plans for the expenditure of the money were not carried through, and 
while the time and attention of Dr. Neale have been as fully given to 
the sugar manufacture, as in any former year, and while the results 
detailed in the following report are, in some directions, very satisfac- 
tory, they are, in others, left to be carried out at some future time. 

Better results than ever before have been obtained in extracting 
the sugar by the smallest quantity of water, and thus saving time 
and expense in evaporating the diffusion juice, and the studies for 
economizing labor have shown where other savings can be made. 
The separating of seeds and leaves from the cane, has removed the 
causes for the discoloration and peculiar taste of the sugar and mo- 
lasses, so that they are now undistinguishable from the best of those 
articles made from sugar-cane. 

The growing of sorghum and the manufacture of sugar from it by 
farmers everywhere in our country, at paying prices, appear to be 
assured. It is now ready for them to proceed in acquiring, by practice, 
the skill and experience which is to make it one of the great indus- 
tries of the nation. 

GEO. H. COOK, Director. 
New Brunswick, N. J., December 31st, 1888. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



135 



THE SORGHUM SUGAR INDUSTRY. 



A REPORT UPON EXPERIMENTS MADE AT RIO GRANDE DURING 
THE SEASON OF 1888. 

The eighth annual report of this Station contains a detailed descrip- 
tion of the Hughes Sugar-House, a brief account of its machinery and 
a copy of its record for the season of 1887. This record strengthened 
the opinion that a sorghum sugar industry could be developed in New 
Jersey, and led to a closer study of the conditions upon which finan- 
cial success seemed to be dependent. Prominent among these condi- 
tions were the questions as to the average percentage of sugar in 
sorghum, the area of land available for this crop, and the size, the 
equipment and the management of the sugar-house. 

During the months of September and October, 1887, samples of 
shredded cane were drawn daily, to represent the sorghum which was 
used during this period in the Rio Grande factory. The results of 
more than sixty analyses indicated that each ton of unstripped and 
untopped cane contained on the average one hundred and fifteen 
pounds of pure sugar. 

Within a radius of one mile from a sugar-house properly located 
in any good farming section of southern New Jersey, two hundred 
acres of land suitable for sorghum can be found, year after year, with- 
out disturbing the present system of crop rotation. Such an area 
should yield two thousand eight hundred tons of field cane — averag- 
ing, as above stated, one hundred and fifteen pounds of pure sugar 
per ton. 

The size of a factory should depend upon the length of the sugar- 
making season and upon the tonnage of available cane. At Rio 
Grande, seventy working days can be secured each fall ; in order to 
handle twenty-eight hundred tons of field cane, therefore, the capacity 
of a house must be at least forty tons per day. 

Every machine needed in order to extract ninety per cent, of the 
total sugar in normal cane, has already been invented and thoroughly 



136 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



tested. Financial success requires, however, that each machine shall 
be economic in its demands upon human labor and steam power; that 
it shall be constructed in such a manner that no repairs shall be 
necessary during the working season ; that, as regards capacity, it 
shall neither exceed nor fall short of the amount which the plans for 
the house require ; and that the different pieces of apparatus shall be 
so arranged with reference to each other that mechanical wastes of 
sugar shall be absolutely impossible. The equipment and arrange- 
ment of a sugar-house which can fulfill all of the above conditions is 
a problem which must be solved before the farmers of this State 
should turn their attention towards this industry. 

The inducement to solve this problem can be stated as follows : A 
ton of field cane contains, under normal conditions, approximately, 
one hundred and fifteen pounds of pure sugar, of which 90 percent., 
or one hundred and four pounds, can be extracted by means of the 
diffusion process. Of the total sugar in the melada, at least seventy 
per cent, will crystallize when the purity of the cane juice is 64°. 
The yield from each ton of field sorghum should therefore be seventy- 
two pounds of pure sugar, or eighty-three pounds of raw sugar test- 
ing 86 per cent. The balance of the extracted sugar, viz., thirty-two 
pounds, will remain in the molasses, of which there should be, approx- 
imately, eleven gallons. Raw sugar testing 86 per cent, was sold in 
Philadelphia, December 17th, 1888, for five and seven- eighths cents 
per pound, and raw molasses of the sorghum grade was sold for 
twenty-three cents per gallon. The present market value of the possi- 
ble products from one ton of field sorghum amounts, therefore, to eight 
dollars; this includes sixty cents' worth of seed. 

The contracts between the farmers and the Sugar-House Company 
required that all merchantable products secured from the cane should 
be shared equally. Four dollars, therefore, would represent the cash 
value to the farm of a ton of cane, which should cost approximately 
two dollars and fifty cents when delivered at the sugar-mill. This 
means twenty-one dollars profit per acre, or 30 per cent/interest upon 
seventy dollars invested in farming-land. 

A forty-ton sugar-house can be planned to work field sorghum for 
approximately two dollars and sixty cents per ton : with four dollars 
per ton as the company's share of the products a balance would 
remain of one dollar and forty cents per ton, or fifty-six dollars per 
day. Seventy days' work under such conditions would leave thirty- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



137 



nine hundred dollars in the treasury at the close of the season. The 
capital necessary to build and equip a house of the above size is 
estimated roughly at $15,000. 

It is certainly desirable that every effort should be made to improve 
the quality of sorghum ; but it is evident that the vital problems to- 
day are : 

1. lo limit the waste of sugar, in sugar-house manipulations, to ten 
per cent, of the total amount present in normal cane. 

2. To limit sugar-house expenses to two dollars and sixty cents per 
ton of field cane. 

These problems were selected for study during the season of 1888. 
They involve radical changes in the capacity of nearly every machine 
in the Rio Grande Sugar-House, and called for new boilers of the 
Babcock or some other economical pattern. 

The spring was spent in fruitless efforts to secure capital ; but in 
May a plan was suggested which promised to provide means for pur- 
chasing the diffusion battery and the open evaporator, and for making 
a number of inexpensive improvements. Money for the purchase of 
new boilers could not be obtained, and, as a substitute, it was decided 
that coal-oil burners must be used in concentrating diffusion juices in 
an open evaporator. This, with one or two minor economies in the 
use of steam, encouraged Mr. Hughes to attempt a second season. 

Attention was then directed towards the cane crop. Corn had 
already been planted, and experienced men urged that it was too late 
in the season to plant sorghum. Forty- four acres were, however, 
pledged to the sugar-house by nearly as many different farmers, and 
sorghum seed was at once distributed among them. Mr. Hughes 
leased approximately twenty acres of land in the name of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, and succeeded in planting this tract on 
the 20th of May. Money for the payment of the rent and of the 
fertilizer bills was furnished by the Station. The farming and har- 
vesting expenses were paid by the sugar company, who also had the 
whole crop. 

The contract between the Agricultural College Experiment Station 
and the Hughes Sugar-House Company, by which money was to be 
supplied to the latter for the proposed improvements, was not exe- 
cuted. 

Financial aid was then sought and secured from Commissioner 



138 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Colman, of the United States Department of Agriculture; but the 
funds from this source were not available before July 1st, and it was 
then thought to be inadvisable either to construct a larger diffusion 
battery or to improve the apparatus for shredding cane. A new 
evaporator, with the necessary shelter, was, however, provided, and 
an eleventh cell was added to the small diffusion battery which had 
been used during the season of 1887. 

The maximum capacity of this battery was estimated at fourteen 
tons of field cane in twenty-two hours ; the minimum pay-roll of the 
house for twenty-two hours exceeded thirty-three dollars ; the outlay 
for labor on one ton of cane consequently could be calculated at two 
dollars and thirty-five cents. With a battery properly equipped for 
its work a forty-ton sugar-house can be operated at an expense for 
labor of twenty-eight dollars per day, or for seventy cents per ton of 
cane. It was, therefore, evident before the season began, that the 
capacity of this diffusion battery excluded all hopes of financial suc- 
cess. After one week's work it was also evident that faults in the 
construction of this battery not only prevented the extraction of 
ninety per cent, of the sugar present in the cane, but also caused very 
serious losses of diffusion juice. The expectation of solving either of 
the above-mentioned problems, this season, was, therefore, abandoned, 
and attention was directed : 

1. To Recording the Changes and Improvements made in the 
Hughes Sugar-House and its Machinery during the past year. 

2. To Recording the Chemical Analyses of the Cane, of the Dif- 
fusion juice, of the Products from the Open Evaporator, and of the 
Exhausted Chips or Diffusion Bagasse. 

3. To Noting the Tonnage of Cane per Acre, the Farming Expenses, 
and the Yield and Value of the Sugar Products per ton of Field 
Cane. 

4. To Securing Data for Comparing the Modified Battery in use 
at Rio Grande with the German Battery in use at Magnolia, 
Louisiana, and at Fort Scott, Kansas. 

5. To Experiments Planned to Determine the Cost of Concentrat- 
ing Diffusion Juice by the use of Fuel Oil, and the Effect of this 
Treatment upon the Sugar in said Juice. 

6. To Recording all Facts and Opinions which may be of value in 
Demonstrating that with Present Market Prices and with the. 
Apparatus now in use, Financial Success can be Attained when Nor- 
mal Sorghum Averages Nine per cent, of Sugar in its Juices. 



140 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



1. 

THE CHANGES AND IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN THE HUGHES 
SUGAR-HOUSE AND IN ITS MACHINERY. 

This house is located at Rio Grande, Cape May county, within a 
few feet of the West Jersey railroad. It is described in the last 
annual report of this Station, as follows : " The main building is 
thirty- three feet high and thirty feet square. Its walls for the first 
eighteen feet are built of brick, and above this point the entire struc- 
ture is sheathed with corrugated iron," etc. The photo-engraving on 
the preceding page represents it as it appears to-day, and shows that, 
during the past year, the building has been increased in size by the 
corrugated iron annex, which serves as a boiler-house and as a shelter 
for the open evaporator. This annex can be seen on the right of the 
photograph. 

The shed built directly in front of the sugar-house protects the 
sorghum from the sun or rain. Its dimensions are 20 ft. X 20 ft. X 9 
ft., and its capacity is approximately twelve tons of field cane. The 
carrier, which transports the sorghum from this shed to the section 
cutter, on the highest floor of the sugar-house, is moved at the rate of 
twenty-one feet per minute. It makes an angle of thirty- five degrees 
with the ground. This arrangement of shed and carrier was used for 
the first time in 1888. It reduced the laboring force by two men or 
boys ; it allowed work to progress as usual during heavy rain storms, 
and in every respect it was regarded as thoroughly satisfactory. 

The section cutter, described in detail in the report for 1887, was 
not modified in any manner. The fans, by means of which the cane 
sections are separated from the leaves, etc., the shredding-knife and 
the cells and baskets of the diffusion battery were also used again, 
without alterations or improvements. A new hydraulic with a plunger 
ten and one-half inches in diameter was, however, substituted for the 
smaller one used, in 1887, in elevating and lowering the crane upon 
which the diffusion baskets hang ; this hydraulic was operated by 
means of a Worthington boiler feed-pump of medium size. As has 
been already stated, an eleventh cell was added to the battery. The 
relative position of this ceil, and a general idea of the entire appa- 
ratus, can be learned from the photo-engraving upon a subsequent 
page. 

In one ton of normal field sorghum there is at least one thousand 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



141 



two hundred and fifty pounds of juice, of which nearly one thousand 
and fifty pounds is water • more than ninety-five per cent, of this 
water must be boiled away before crystallized sugar can be secured in 
paying quantities. The open evaporator can be used in driving oif 
one-half of this water, but a further concentration of the juice can 
be gained, without loss of sugar, only with the aid of a vacuum ap- 
paratus. Last season the evaporation in the open pan was accom- 
plished with steam j it was found, however, that the boilers were not 
large enough to generate a sufficient supply, and much lost time was 
the result. As new boilers could not be purchased this year, coal oil 
was burned under the evaporator, and direct firing therefore took the 
place of steam. 

This evaporator may be regarded as a boiler-iron box, thirty feet 
long, four feet wide and twelve inches deep, supported upon walls of 
masonry, two feet high and twelve inches thick, faced on the inside 
with fire-brick. The end of this pan directly over the oil burners, 
is raised slightly, in order to secure a constant movement of the boil- 
ing juice towards the outlet at the lower end. The usual arrange- 
ments of partial partitions, six inches high, divide the evaporator 
into forty-five compartments, each eight inches wide and four feet 
long. The juice is forced by gravity through each of these compart- 
ments ; its course, therefore, from one end to the other of a pan* thirty 
feet long, causes it to flow in a shallow stream, over one hundred and 
sixty feet of heated iron, during which it loses one-half of its volume 
by evaporation. With inlet and outlet valves properly adjusted, and 
with a constant supply of diffusion juice, the oil burners need little 
or no attention. 

Three of these burners were in position, side by side, under one end 
of the evaporator ; as a rule, one only was in use, rarely two, and 
never three. The principle on which these burners work can be 
explained, without entering into a detailed description of their con- 
struction ; it is enough to state that they are made of a very few feet 
of ordinary iron pipe, varying in diameter from one-quarter of an 
inch to two inches. The supply of fuel oil is stored in an elevated 
tank, at some distance from the building ; it flows by gravity, to the 
burner, through a two-inch pipe, and, in passing through a red-hot 
iron coil, it is converted into illuminating gas. This gas, mixed with 
air, is forced by superheated steam through a two-inch tube constructed 
like a Bunsen burner — an intense heat is developed by its combustion. 

A smoke-stack, two feet in diameter, and nearly twenty-five feet 



142 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



high, is built into the masonry upon which the lower end of the 
evaporator rests. It draws the flame of burning gas along the bot- 
tom of the pan, thereby distributing the heat uniformly, and also 
removing the risks of explosion, which might follow in a confined 
space. The evaporator has its place in the annex to the sugar-house ; 
one end of it is within a few feet of the door to be seen on the 
x extreme right of the photograph ; the smoke-stack connected with its 
lower end can be seen rising from the rear of the building. The 
peculiar form of the roof over the pan, allows the steam from the 
boiling juice to escape freely, regardless of the direction of the wind. 
A full discussion of the expense of operating this apparatus, and a 
record of the amount aDd kind of work accomplished by it, will be 
found in a subsequent chapter. 

Last season an attempt was made to filter the diffusion juice through 
sand. The results were unsatisfactory, partly because the apparatus 
used was hastily and imperfectly constructed, and partly because it 
was not always properly cleaned and arranged by the boy in charge. 
Saw-dust was substituted for sand in 1888, and a man was detailed to 
keep the filters in order. The general appearance, the color and the 
flavor, both of the sugar and molasses, were noticeably improved by 
this treatment. 

2. 

RECORD OF THE ANALYSES MADE AT RIO GRANDE DURING THE 

SEASON OF 1888. 

In addition to studying the construction, the arrangement and the 
management of the machinery, the chemist of this Station attempted 
to determine, at least once each day, the percentage of sugar in the 
sorghum, as well as the percentage of sugar in the products, from 
«ach piece of apparatus used in this house. Breaks occur in this 
record whenever it was necessary for him either to return for a day to 
New Brunswick, or to devote his entire attention to some one point of 
special interest. , 

The house was not opened for work until the 26th of September, 
and a few of the samples of cane analyzed about the 20th of that 
month, were taken from the crop standing in the fields. Such samples 
were stripped and topped by hand. All of the other samples were 
drawn from cane which was cleaned by machinery. They represent, 
in each case, approximately, one thousand pounds of well-mixed 
shreds. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



143 



The varieties of sorghum planted were : Early Amber on field 
Number 1, Late Orange on that portion of field Number 12 which 
was worked after the 23d of October, White African on a portion of 
field Number 2, harvested on the 27th inst., and Kansas Orange in 
all other case<. 

The exhausted chips were sampled as fast as they were removed 
from the battery ; a roughly-measured quantity being taken in each 
case from each one of ten baskets. These portions were subsequently 
mixed, subsampled and milled in the usual manner. 

With a few exceptions, the samples of diffusion juice were, in all 
cases, drawn from a tank holding three hundred gallons. The samples 
of the evaporator product were also drawn from a similar tank. The 
record in detail is shown on the following page. 

The averages drawn in this table prove that the cane crop in 1888, 
relative to that of 1887, was poorer in sugar by 0.75 per cent., and 
lower in purity by 5.6 degrees. The farmers' explanations for this 
are, first, late planting ; second, early frosts. In some cases the seed 
w 7 ere dropped after June 1st, and in all cases the leaves were killed by 
the frosts which occurred this year on the 4th of October, or ten days 
earlier than usual. Late Orange sorghum, in particular, seems to have 
suffered by these conditions, for while the cane was very large and 
apparently well developed, its juice averaged less than 6.5 per cent, of 
sugar. Its seed crop was practically worthless, for a very small pro- 
portion of tops had matured. In 1887 this variety was well developed 
when the first frost killed the cane leaves. Its juice then contained, 
approximately, ten per cent, of sugar. 

A comparison of the analyses credited to the cane and to the dif- 
fusion juices leads to the following calculations : One hundred pounds 
of solid matter, i. e. sugar, &c, existed on the average in seven hundred 
and fifteen pounds of cane juice, or in nine hundred and twenty pounds 
of diffusion juice ; that is, cane juice was diluted 28.6 per cent, by the 
diffusion process. If a similar calculation is made from the records 
for the season of 1887, the dilution will be fixed at 25.4 per cent. 
The decreased purity of the diffusion juice was, each year, identical ; 
it amounted to 2!l degrees. 

The exhausted chips or diffusion bagasse, which represented one ton 
of field sorghum, contained on the average, in 1887, forty and three- 
tenths pounds of sugar, or thirty-five per cent, of the total amount 
present in the cane. In 1888 the losses of sugar in exhausted chips 



144 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



TABLE No. 1. 



Sept. 



Oct. 

Sept. 
Oct. 



FRESH CHIPS. DIFFUSION JUICE. EVAP. PRODUCT. EXHAUSTED CHIPS 



Averages, 1888... 



♦Averages, 1887... 



12.96 
13.38 
13.70 
18.55 
17.81 
15.40 



1600 



14.75 
14.10 
14.00 
13.43 
14.03 
15.37 
15.57 
14.46 
14.46 



14.79 



14.70 
12.64 
12.80 
13.40 
14.00 
13.50 
12.85 
13 06 
12.43 
12.69 
11.42 
12 67 
12.76 
12.36 



6.62 
6.84 
7.35 
12.53 
1230 
9.58 



9.56 



8.92 
8.38 
8.62 
7.90 
7.89 
8.72 
9.06 
8.66 
8.37 

9.19 



8.10 
7.48 
7.91 
850 
8.37 
8.25 
7.48 
7.91 
7.69 
7.23 
5.78 
6.94 
6.63 
6.54 



13.99 8.23 



51.1 
51.1 
53.6 
67.5 
69.0 
62.2 



59.4 



60 5 
59.1 
61.6 
58.8 
56.1 
56.7 
58.8 
59.8 
578 



62.1 



55.1 
59.1 
61.8 
63.4 
59.8 
61.1 
58.4 
60.6 
61.9 
57.0 
50.6 
54.8 
52.0 
52.9 



58.5 



11.50 
11.61 



12.15 
11.95 
12.37 
11.69 



10.60 
10.00 
10.90 
11.21 



12.30 
11.25 
10.60 



9.92 



11.82 
9.58 



8.90 
10.30 

9.88 

8.80 
11 90 
10.21 
10 27 
12.32 
11.96 
11.83 

8.88 
10.61 



10.87 



5.88 
6.02 



7.23 
7.23 
7.19 
7.01 



5.98 
5.70 
5.99 
6.48 



7 45 
6.58 
6.10 



5.96 



6.61 
5.61 



5.96 
5.23 
6.15 
5.51 
5.03 
5.95 
5.65 
5.06 
6.70 
6.21 
6.02 
4 68 
5.59 



6.10 



1102 8.98 64.1 11.18 6.93 62.0 32.40 18.68 



51.1 
51.9 



59.5 
60.5 
58.1 
59.8 



56.4 
57.0 
55.0 
57.8 



60.5 
58.6 
58.5 



60.1 



55.9 
58.5 



60.8 
58.7 
59.7 
55.7 
57.2 
57.7 
55.3 
49.2 
54.4 
51.9 
50 9 
52.7 
52.7 



;6.4 



29.20 



29.60 
23.45 



25.88 
20.04 
20.00 
28.28 
24.85 



26.80 
22.40 
22.66 
20.44 
22.87 
22.66 
20.51 
22.43 
22.26 
22.78 
25.06 



22.69 
24.18 



17.77 
24.80 



23.55 



15.13 



17.78 
13.75 



15.01 
11.20 
11.06 
15.60 
13.58 



15.24 
13.09 
13.13 
11.52 
J 2.35 
12.36 
11.13 
12.33 
12 30 
12.93 
13.65 



12.60 
12.76 



51.8 



60.1 



58.6 



58.0 
55.8 
55.3 
55.1 
54.7 



57.0 
58.4 
57.9 
56.4 
54.9 
54 6 
54.3 
55.0 
55.2 
56.8 
54.5 



55.5 
52.8 



9.58 
12.49 



13.06 



53.8 
50.3 



55.5 



57.7 



2.27 



2.56 



2.09 
2.21 
2.70 
3.40 



3 56 
2.60 



3.82 



2.80 
2.20 
2.11 
2.00 
2.56 
1.97 
1.54 
2.16 
2.56 
3.49 
2.77 
1.96 



2.58 



4.03 



1.18 



1.50 



1.21 
1.38 
1.56 
1.66 



2.07 
1.29 



1.96 



1.96 



1.71 
1.22 
1.24 
1.14 
1.39 
105 
0.92 
1.20 
1.20 
1.58 
0.91 
0.S2 



1.37 



52.0 



60.1 



57.9 
62.1 
57.7 
48.8 



58.1 



54.4 



51.6 



61.0 
55.0 
58.7 
57.0 
54.3 
53.3 
60.0 
55.6- 
46.5 
45.2 
32.8 
41.8 



53.3 



2.46 61.0 



* See Bulletin 18, p. 20, United States Department of Agriculture. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



145 



amounted to twenty-two and four-tenths pounds, or twenty-one per 
cent, of the total amount present in the average cane for that year. 

In 1887 the diffusion juice was concentrated in an open evaporator 
with the aid of steam ; it was reduced by this treatment to a fraction 
more than one-third of its original volume, at an expense of 4.3 de- 
grees of purity, which was probably due to inversion of its sugar by 
heat. In 1888 the flame from burning fuel oil came in contact with 
the bottom of the evaporator ; the diffusion juice passed in an unbroken 
stream over this heated surface, and was thereby reduced to less than 
one-half of its original volume. Its purity was decreased on the 
average by less than one degree. 

The following will serve as a summary : In 1887, 65 per cent., in 
1888, 79 per cent, of the total sugar in the cane was extracted. In 
this respect, therefore, the improvement has been very great. The 
diffusion process, in 1887, diluted cane juice by 25.4 percent.; in 
1888 this dilution amounted to 28.6 per cent. 

The purity of the cane juice was influenced each year in the same 
manner and to the same extent, viz., decreased by 2.1 degrees. The 
concentration of the diffusion juice was accomplished in 1888, with 
considerably less than the usual losses by inversion. 

3. 

THE TONNAGE OF CANE PER ACRE, THE FARMING EXPENSES, AND 
THE YIELD AND VALUE OF SUGAR PRODUCTS PER 
TON OF FIELD CANE. 

It has been stated that forty-four acres of sorghum were pledged to 
the sugar-house by farmers. Much of this acreage, however, was not 
planted, because of the feeling which prevailed in May, that the sugar- 
house would probably remain closed in the fail. White African seed 
failed to germinate on one relatively large plot, and the crops on sev- 
eral acres were not worth the trouble and expense of harvesting j in 
fact, very few fields bore any resemblance to the last year's crops. 

As a rule, farming expenses were not recorded, and the exact areas 
of land planted could not be reported with certainty. An exception 
to the above statement is furnished by Mr. E. Hildreth and by Mr. 
Hughes. The former planted a trifle more than an acre, and the latter 
harvested the cane from 18.5 acres. 

Mr. Hildreth's record is as follows : 

10 



146 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Area planted 1.11 acres. 

Yield of field cane 11.3 tons per acre. 



Date of planting, June 1st ; variety of cane, Kansas Orange. 

Expense for manure, @ $1.00 per load $7 00 

Plowing 1 50 

Planting 75 

Thinning, cultivating and hoeing 3 00 

Cutting and hauling 8 00 

Rent of land 6 00 



Total cost per plot $26 25 

Total cost per acre 23 60 

Total cost per ton of cane 2 09 

Yield of sugar per ton (test, 85 per cent.), 69.5 lbs. @ 5|-c $4 18 

Yield of molasses per ton, 11.4 gals. @ 23c 2 62 



Total value of sugar and molasses per ton of cane $6 80 

Assumed value of the seed per ton of cane 60 



Total value of all merchantable products per ton of cane $7 40 

Cash value of Mr. Hildreth's share $3 70 



The net profits to Mr. Hildreth amounted to $1.61 per ton of cane, 
or $18.19 per acre. 

This is by far the best record of the year. The men in charge of 
the battery had profited by three weeks' experience, wastes were 
reduced to a minimum, and the cane juice, though containing only 
8.3 per cent, of sugar, was, in regard to purity, above the average for 
the season. Eighty-three per cent, of the total sugar present in the 
crop was extracted, and more than eighty per cent, of the total 
amount was found in the melada. The losses of extracted sugar 
amounted to 2.75 per cent, of the total sugar in the cane. This loss 
includes sugar which had been inverted and which remains in the 
molasses and aids in making it a merchantable product. 

Mr. Hughes' fields were accurately surveyed after three-fourths of 
the cane had been harvested. The areas were as follows : 

Yield of tons 
per acre. 



Nichol Tract — 1.85 acres *. Early Amber cane 10.2 

Smith Tract — 3.58 acres: Kansas Orange and White African...!.... 9.7 

Cresse Tract — 6 87 acres : Kansas Orange 7.5 

Cresse Tract — 6.23 acres : Late Orange > 7.1 

Cane planted May 19th, 1888. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 147 



EXPENSE ACCOUNT. 

The labor account for above area $134 72 

Fertilizer, viz., 1 ton Dissolved Bone $30 00 

3,163 lbs. Muriate of Potash 63 26 

93 26 

The rent of land . 103 94 

Harvesting expenses, © f 0c. per ton, 149.4 tons 74 70 



Total expense for 18.5 acres $411 62 

Total expense per acre 22 25 

Total expense per ton of cane 2 75 



The Nichol field has been planted with sorghum every season since 
1880. Last year its crop averaged nearly twenty tons per acre ; this 
year it yielded only 10.2 tons. This cane was also of very inferior 
quality; its juice contained less than 6.75 pe^' cent, of sugar, with a 
purity of 51 degrees only. No sugar crystals would form in the 
melada, and the entire product consequently was put into the syrup 
tank. The yield was sixteen gallons per ton of cane, worth twenty- 
three cents per gallon, making §3.68 per ton as the total value for the 
sugar-house products. The seed yields are not known, but probably 
-did not exceed a cash value of sixty cents per ton. The farmer's 
share of all products on this valuation would amount to $2.12 only, 
per ton of cane, leaving a loss of sixty-two cents per ton, or $6,20 
per acre. 

In the case of the Late Orange sorghum, the results are even more 
discouraging. Its leaves were killed by the frost of October 4th, and 
on that date the deterioration of this immature cane seems to have 
begun. The average per cent, of sugar in its juice was six and one- 
half only ; the purity of its juice was approximately 52.5°. Crystals 
formed in its melada, but in such small amounts that the attempt to 
separate them from the syrup was abandoned. The melada secured 
from 6.23 acres, when diluted to 72° Brix, will yield six hundred and 
fifty gallons of syrup, worth, in round numbers, $150, an amount 
barely sufficient to pay farming expenses, leaving the sugar-house 
work a total loss. 

This field seems to have been entirely unfit for sorghum; a very 
considerable portion of it produced no cane whatever, being, as far as 
the eje can judge, little better than drift sand, upon which beach-burrs 
only appear to thrive. It was leased for this work because it was the 
only available tract within hauling distance from the sugar-house, all 



148 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



first-class ground in the neighborhood having been planted before 
plans for a sorghum crop had been prepared. 

The variety of Late Orange cane occupied less than one-half of 
this field, 6.87 acres having been planted with the Kansas Orange 
seed. The yield was 51.2 tons of field cane, testing 8.3 per cent, of 
sugar in its juice; purity, 59.8. Forty pounds of raw sugar and 
eight and one-tenth gallons of raw molasses were secured per ton of 
field cane. Including sixty cents' worth of seed, the above products 
have a market value of $4.81 only, one-half of which must be 
credited to the sugar-house account. This leaves $2.40 per ton with 
which to pay farming expenses aggregating $2.75. The deficit on 
this account is consequently thirty-five cents per ton of field cane. 

The iSmith tract of 3.58 acres has now produced eight consecutive 
crops of sorghum. In *1 887, fourteen acres of this land averaged 
fifteen tons of field cane per acre. In 1888, the average yield was 
nine and seven-tenths tons. The purity of the juice from this cane 
was nearly sixty-one degrees ; its sugar test was 9.57 per cent. Forty- 
eight pounds of raw sugar and eight and one-tenth gallons of raw 
molasses were secured per ton. Including sixty cents' worth of seed, 
these products have a market value of $5.29. On crediting one-half 
of this amount to the fields, it will be seen that a balance of eleven 
cents per ton must be charged as a loss on the farming account. 

The examination of the exhausted chips or bagasse from the cane 
grown on the Cresse and Smith fields, proves that more than eighty- 
two per cent, of the total sugar in this crop was extracted by the 
diffusion battery. The melada records indicate, however, that fifty- 
three per cent, only of the total sugar in the fresh cane was secured in 
merchantable forms ; nearly twenty-nine per cent, of the total sugar 
is, therefore, missing. A relatively small portion of this loss can be 
charged to invert sugar; the greater portion of it, however, was 
probably caused by mechanical defects in the construction of the bat- 
tery, by which diffusion juice was wasted. This opinion is strength- 
ened by the fact that an unexplained loss of sugar, varying from 18.5 
per cent, to 30 per cent, of the total amount present in the cane, is 
charged against the crop from every field for which complete records 
exist. The only exception to this rule is furnished by the Hildreth 
crop. In this case special care was taken to avoid losses from this 
source, and in this case, as above mentioned, the deficit amounted to 
2.75 per cent. only. 



150 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



4. 

EXPERIMENTS MADE TO SECURE DATA FOR COMPARING THE MODI- 
FIED DIFFUSION BATTERY IN USE AT RIO GRANDE, WITH 
THE GERMAN DIFFUSION BATTERY USED IN MAGNOLIA, 
LOUISIANA, AND IN FORT SCOTT, KANSAS. 

The photo- engraving on the preceding page represents the modified 
diffusion battery used in the Hughes Sugar-House, at Rio Grande. 
Its description, taken in part from the eighth annual report of thia 
Station, is as follows : 

This apparatus includes, first, the main battery, second, the eleventh 
cell. The main battery consists of: 

I. Ten copper tanks or cells, marked B in the diagram, surrounded 
by a water-tight boiler-iron steam jacket. Each of these cells is- 
twenty- six inches in diameter at the bottom, thirty inches in diameter 
at the top, and nine inches deep ; when filled to a depth of seven 
inches, each cell holds twenty gallons of water. 

II. Ten or more baskets of perforated copper, one of which, marked 
C, can be seen in the engraving. These baskets are of such shape 
and size that one can easily be placed within a cell and leave little or 
no waste room ; with thorough packing, each basket holds, approxi- 
mately, one hundred and five pounds of cane shreds. 

III. A crane or derrick, marked A in the engraving. This derrick 
has ten arms, one for each cell in the battery ; these arms radiate from 
the central shaft like spokes in a wheel, and are connected by heavy 
iron rods, so that their relative positions cannot be disturbed; conse- 
quently, the movement of any one of them, in any direction, involves 
a corresponding motion of the entire system. This derrick can be 
raised or lowered through a space of eighteen inches, by means of a 
hydraulic press j it can also be revolved by hand, around its shaft, as 
fast and as far as the foreman desires. 

The copper cells or tanks are arranged in a circle ten feet in 
diameter. Each tank is provided with a two-inch outlet, and with 
the steam fittings necessary to heat its contents to 212° Fahr. 

The derrick shaft forms the center of this circle. It is a four-inch 
pipe, approximately twelve feet long ; its lower end rests on the 
plunger of the hydraulic press, and its upper end is chained to a 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 151 



counterpoise. The engraving shows that the baskets of cane chips 
j are attached to the derrick by means of bent rods, pivoted upon the 
i ends of the arms ; this arrangement allows the baskets to be swung 
i outside of the circle of the tanks, for convenience in handling. 

The eleventh cell is located outside of the circle of the main battery ; 
in size and shape it is identical with the tanks already described ; 
baskets which are immersed in it, are subsequently transferred to the 
cells of the main battery. It is provided with a draining board, 
marked 2), and with a small crane and hydraulic, marked F. 

Assume that the apparatus has not been in use ; the first step will 
be to draw twenty gallons of hot water into each cell of the main 
battery. A covered basket, containing one hundred pounds of cane 
shreds is then hung upon an arm of the crane, and immediately low- 
ered into cell Number 1. After a delay of one minute, the crane is 
raised and revolved, so that basket Number 1 hangs over cell Number 
2. A second basket is then hung upon the arm over cell Number 1, 
and the crane is lowered. Whenever it is raised it is also revolved, 
and an empty arm is thereby brought over cell Number 1. A basket 
of fresh shreds is always hung upon this arm, and immersed in cell 
Number 1, when the crane is lowered. This process is repeated until 
a basket of chips hangs from each of the arms. When this point is 
reached, the basket on arm Number 1 will have been dipped into ten 
different cells full of hot water ; its contents will have been thoroughly 
leached, and the exhausted chips can then be emptied upon the bagasse 
pile. 

The contents of cells Numbers 1 and 2 will be relatively strong 
solutions of sugar; these solutions are allowed to flow and mix in a 
tank placed under the battery, from which the mixture is afterwards 
pumped into a second tank, elevated several feet above the eleventh 
cell. The pipe through which this juice is carried into this cell, is 
marked G in the engraving. 

When approximately twenty-two gallons of this juice has been 
collected in the eleventh cell, two baskets of fresh cane are successively 
soaked in it, and then transferred in turn to cell Number 3 in the main 
battery ; cells 1 and 2 in the meantime having been filled with hot 
water in order to finish the leaching process on baskets Numbers 2 
and 3. The work of extracting the sugar, begun in this manner, is 
then carried on without interruption from Monday morning until 
Saturday night. The juice from the eleventh cell flows directly into 
the evaporator. 



152 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



This apparatus was tested on the 23d of November, 1887. The 
cane was then frozen, and many of the ruling conditions were not 
under control. A second test was made on the 27th of October, 1888. 

The cane used was immature Orange. In passing through the 
stripping and topping process, it suffered a loss of 22.2 per cent. 
Contrary to custom, this cane was shredded twice, in order to secure 
as favorable diffusion as possible. One result of this step was that 
the shreds were packed much closer than usual in the baskets, which, 
of necessity, caused an increased concentration of the diffusion juice. 
The analytical results are as follows : 





Brix. 


Per cent, of 
Sugar. 


Purity. 




12.36 


6.54 


52.S° 


Diffusion juice drawn into the eleventh cell, 


11.16 


5.63 


50.4° 


Diffusion juice discharged from the eleventh 










11.83 


6.02 


50.9° 




1.96 


0.82 


41.8° 




4.46 


1.85 


41.4° 



Data relating to the weight of cane used in each basket, and to the 
volume of water or juice in each cell, records of the temperature of 
the solutions and of the time of immersion and drainage, &c, <fcc, 
are given in detail in the table on the following page. 

From the data contained in these tables the following conclusions 
can be drawn : 

1. One ton of cleaned cane shreds contained 117.7 lbs. sugar. 

2. The bagasse from one ton of cleaned cane shreds contained 17.6 lbs. 

sugar. 

3. Extraction of sugar, 85 per cent. 

4. One hundred pounds of solids found in 809 pounds of cane juice. 

5. One hundred pounds of solids found in 846 pounds of diffusion juice. 



6. Per cent, of dilution 4.6 

7. Purity of cane juice 52.90° 

8. Purity of diffusion juice 50.90° 

9. Lossin purity 2 00° 



A close study of the data given in Table Number 2 shows that the 
volume of the mixed juices, from the so-called thick and thin cells, dis- 
charged at the same time from the main battery, amounts, in several 
cases, to more than twenty-seven gallons ; the eleventh cell, into which 
this juice must be pumped, can take, on the average, twenty-three gal- 



* Sections of leaf sheath were separated from the diffusion bagasse and milled ; the purity of 
the juice aroused a suspicion that most of the sugar, lost in this bagasse, was stored in said 
sheaths. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 153 



TABLE No. 2. 

TRIAL OF THE DIFFUSION BATTERY, MADE OCTOBER 27TH, 1888. 



ELEVENTH CELL RECORD. 



Number of Baskets. 


Time of Immersion. 


iJ 

60 

a 
"3 

E 
£5 

o 
a> 
a 
? 


Temperature after 
First Dip. 


Temperature after 
Second Dip. 


Number of Gallons 
Drawn in. 


Number of Gallons 
Discharged. 




If. 


M. 


C. 


C. 


gal. 


gal. 


land 2 


3 


1 


78 


73 


24.0 


20.8 


3 and 4 


3 


1 


75 


72 


24 0 


16.0 


5 and 6 


3 


1 


72 


70 


22.4 


18.1 


7 and 8 


3 


1 


72 


80 


22.4 


16.7 


9 and 10 


3 


1 


75 


76 


24.0 


18.5 


11 and 12 


3 


1 


70 


80 


20.1 


15.7 


13 and 14 


3 


1 


75 


78 


22.8 


18.1 


15 and 16 


3 


1 


73 


73 


24.4 


20.1 


17 and 18 


3 


1 


72 


70 


21.6 


15.3 


19 and 20 


3 


1 


75 


75 


23.2 


21.6 


21 and 22 


3 


1 


72 


75 


22.4 


17.1 


23 and 24 


3 


1 


75 


5 


22.4 


17.4 


25 and 26 


3 


1 


78 


7o 


22.4 


16.7 


27 and 28 


3 


1 


68 


75 


22.4 


18.1 


29 and 30 


3 


1 


69 


74 


22.4 


17.7 



MAIN BATTERY RECORD. 



WEIGHTS OF CANE BEFORE AND AFTER 
DIFFUSION. 



3 go 



Z6 28 I* 



^3 



13 ! 52 



— -. 



13 I 52 

19 I 52 

20 I 52 

21 52 

22 52 

23 52 

24 62 

25 52 

26 hi 

27 52 

28 I 52 

29 52 

30 52 



lbs. 



160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
160 
I 160 
I 160 
i 160 
160 
' 160 
; 160 
160 
I 160 
! 160 
1 160 
160 
! 160 
| 160 
160 
160 



lbs. 
182 
180 
176 
181 
181 
182 
180 
180 
180 
180 
180 
175 
175 
175 
178 
178 
178 
180 
178 
175 



■s-s I 



*1 



• H 



a? o 



lbs. 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 
108 



AtJ 52 I 160 I 178.91 108 



lbs. 
130 
128 
124 
129 
129 
130 
128 
128 
128 
128 
128 
123 
123 
123 
126 
126 
126 
128 
126 
123 



126.7 



20.4 
18.5 
14.8 
19.4 
19.4 
20.4 
18.5 
18.5 
18.5 
18.5 
18.5 
13.9 
13.9 
13.9 
16.6 
16.6 
16.6 
18.5 
16.6 
13.9 



17.3 



A. M. 
11.175 
11.20 
11.24 
11.27 
11.295 
11.335 
11.365 
11.39 
11.43 
11.465 
11.49 
11.52 
11.56 
11.595 
P. M. 
12.045 
12.08 
12.13 
12.17 
12.20 
12.225 
12.265 
12.295 
12.32 
12.35 
12 39 
12.425 
12.47 
12.50 
12.54 
12.58 
1.01 
1.04 
1.08 
1.125 
1.16 
1.19 
1.24 
1.275 
1.305 
1.33 
1.37 
1.40 
1.43 
1.455 
1.475 
1.49 
1.52 
1.545 
1.57 









fl 


Crane Raised. 


Baskets Immersec 


Baskets Drained. 


Gallons of Water i 
Last Cell. 


A. M. 
11.19 


M. 
1.5 


M 
1 


gal. 
18.5 


11.23 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


11.26 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


11.285 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


11.325 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


11.355 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


11.38 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


11.42 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


11.455 


2.5 


1 


18.5 


11.48 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


11.51 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


11.55 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


11.585 


2.5 




18.5 


12.035 


4.0 


1 


18.5 


P M 
12.07* 


2.5 


1 


18.5 


12.12 


4.0 


1 


18.5 


12.16 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


12.19 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


12.215 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


12.255 


8.0 


1 


18.5 


12.285 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


12.31 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


12.34 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


12.38 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


12.415 


2.5 


1 


18.5 


12.46 


3.5 


1 


18.5 


12.49 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


12.53 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


12.57 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


1.00 


20 


1 


18.5 


1.03 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


1.07 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


1.115 


3.5 


1 


18.5 


1.15 


2.5 


1 


18.5 


1.18 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


1.23 


4.0 


1 


18.5 


1.265 


2.5 


1 


18.5 


1.295 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


1.32 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


1.36 


3.0 


1 


18.5 


1.39 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


1.42 


2.0 


1 


18.5- 


1.445 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


1.465 


1.0 


1 


18.5 


1.48 


0.5 


1 


18.6 


LSI 


2.0 


1 


18.5 


1.535 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


1.56 


1.5 


1 


18.5 


1.59 


2.0 


1 


18.5 



s-s 



gal. 



10.4 



Sf 

,fl 

fl fl 
.22 

o 



1*° 

p. 



a,t-i 
Eh 



gal. C. 



14.6 



12.4 



11.8 



13.0 



10.3 



12.8 



13.1 



14.5 



10.3 



11.6 



14.3 



65° 



14.3 



70° 



10.0 



14.6 



65° 



13.3 



65° 



65° 



13.1 



14.6 



65° 



70° 



15.9 



68° 



154 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 

Ions only; it follows, therefore, that an accumulation of this juice 
must result, and that at the end of each hour there will be at least 
one charge of twenty-three gallons which cannot be treated in the 
eleventh cell, and must be transferred to the evaporator without 
further concentration. It is also well known that in a battery free 
from mechanical defects this accumulation will be considerably in- 
creased, by preventing the losses of diffusion juice which have char- 
acterized this season's work. The data available at present indicate 
that, when due allowance is made for these conditions, the dilution 
need not exceed seven and one-half per cent. There is also a strong 
probability that it can be reduced considerably below this point. 

This battery has been subjected to friendly criticism from various 
sources, the principal objections being : 

1. The expense of raising and lowering the crane. 

2. The effect, exercised by the air, upon the sugar in the juice. 

3. The relatively incomplete extraction of sugar. 

The expense of raising and lowering the loaded crane is very much 
less than an ordinary observer would imagine ; it can be calculated 
roughly as follows : 

The crane proper is practically counterpoised ; the load which must 
be raised by steam is the weight of ten baskets full of chips. In a 
battery with a daily capacity of forty tons of field-cane, each basket 
should contain two hundred and seventy-five pounds of shreds; in- 
cluding the weight of the ten baskets, the load will approximate four 
thousand pounds. This must be raised and lowered twenty times per 
hour, or four hundred and forty times per day of twenty- two hours. 

It is not probable that it will be necessary to raise the crane exactly 
thirty-six inches ; for convenience of calculation, however, the height 
may be fixed at three feet. To raise four thousand pounds three feet 
high is equivalent to raising twelve thousand pounds one foot high. 
The management of the battery requires that this shall be done twenty 
times per hour, consequently the work done is equivalent to raising 
two hundred and forty thousand pounds one foot high per hour, or 
four thousand pounds one foot high per minute. As a horse-power is 
the energy used in lifting thirty- three thousand pounds one foot high 
per minute, the'energy used in operating the loaded crane may be esti- 
mated approximately at one-eighth of one-horse power. A horse- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



155 



power in large boilers calls for, approximately, two pounds of hard 
coal per hour; in small plants of from eight to ten-horse, the con- 
sumption amounts in practice to, approximately, five and one-half 
pounds per horse-power per hour; the cost of coal per horse-power 
per hour ranges, therefore, from one-half of one cent to one and one- 
quarter cents, when coal costs five dollars per ton. The coal used in 
operating a crane which requires one-eighth of one horse-power is 
consequently inappreciable. 

In studying the second and third objections to the Hughes appa- 
ratus, it has been thought best to compare its work with that of the 
German battery, which at present is the only other form in use in the 
sorghum sugar industry. % This comparison has been drawn by tabu- 
lating the data published by Dr. Wiley, the chemist of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. This data can be found in Bul- 
letin 18 of the chemical division. It covers the experimental work 
carried out at Magnolia, Louisiana, under Dr. Wiley's personal super- 
vision, and also the commercial work in the sugar- house at Fort Scott, 
Kansas, recorded daily by Dr. Crampton, assistant chemist of the 
United States Department of Agriculture. The Rio Grande records 
were taken by the chemist of this Station. The tabulation will be 
found on the next page. 

The points for comparison have been printed in black-faced type- 
They are — 

1. The relative purity of the cane and of the diffusion juices. 

2. The absolute losses of sugar per ton of cleaned cane. 

3. The percentage of extraction. 

In the work at Magnolia the average decrease in purity of the 
diffusion juice was 1.8 degrees. At Fort Scott an increase of 1.2 
degrees is noted, and at Rio Grande a decrease in the first case of 1.35 
degrees, and in the second of 2.0 degrees. If the air, acting upon 
the sugar in the cane chips during the process of diffusion in the Rio 
Grande battery, caused inversion, this inversion could have been no 
greater than that caused by other agencies upon the sugar in the 
tropical cane of Louisiana. The increased purity in the diffusion 
juice at Fort Scott is claimed to be due to the use of carbonate of 
lime in the battery ; this fact excludes this record from the comparison. 

The absolute amount of sugar left in the exhausted chips, corre- 
sponding to one ton of cleaned cane, could be obtained from the data. 



156 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



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EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 157 



given in Bulletin 18, only by learning the weight of these chips when 
they were removed from the battery. Accurate records at Rio Grande 
shew that one hundred pounds of cleaned cane, on the average of 
two series of determinations, make one hundred and eighteen pounds 
of diffusion bagasse, and this has been assumed to be approximately 
true for the Kansas and Louisiana cane ; as this cane is claimed to 
have ten per cent, of fiber and ninety per cent, of juice, it can be 
calculated that the one hundred and eighteen pounds of exhausted 
chips contain one hundred and eight pounds of juice, or that there 
will be two thousand one hundred and sixty pounds of chip juice 
from two thousand pounds of original fresh cane. The analytical 
data applied in these calculations gave the absolute weight of pure 
sugar left in the chips from each ton of cleaned shreds. At Mag- 
nolia, in one experiment, involving several hundred tons of cane, 
this loss is seen to be 9.5 pounds only per ton of chips ; in the other 
cases on record it ranges from 15.8 pounds to 19.6 pounds of sugar 
per ton of cane. At Fort Scott the average for the season amounts 
to 14.9 pounds, and at Rio Grande one experiment indicated 16.8 
pounds, and the other 17.6 pounds of sugar. 

The extraction recorded against the Rio Grande apparatus is in one 
case 89.8 per cent, and in the other 85 per cent. The Magnolia 
records range from approximately 92 to 96 per cent, and average 94.5 
per cent. Fort Scott is credited with 91.33 per cent. From this 
standpoint the Rio Grande battery appears at a disadvantage ; it must, 
however, be remembered that this percentage expression is secured by 
dividing the absolute loss of sugar by the total amount of sugar 
present in the fresh cane and subtracting the quotient from 100. If 
the loss is fixed at sixteen pounds of sugar per ton of cane, the 
percentage of extraction will be high or low in proportion to the 
amount of sugar in the fresh sorghum. It is very high in the Mag- 
nolia record on cane carrying from two hundred and eight to two 
hundred and sixty pounds of sugar per ton, and is low in the Rio 
Grande record, where the cane contained one hundred and seventeen 
and seven-tenths pounds only of sugar per ton. 

As regards the purity of the juices and the extraction of sugar, 
there seems to be very little difference in favor of either form of bat- 
tery. The principal difference is seen in the dilution of the juice. 
At Magnolia the average dilution was 51.5 per cent. ; at Fort Scott 
it was 45.9 per cent. ; at Rio Grande in one case it was 10.7 per cent.. 



158 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



and in the other case 4.6 per cent., with a possible increase to 7.5 per 
cent., as noted on a previous page. The full meaning of this argu- 
ment in favor of the Rio Grande battery will be illustrated by the 
following report on the experiments with the open evaporator. 

5. 

THE COST OF CONCENTRATING DIFFUSION JUICE WITH FUEL OIL 
BURNERS AND THE EFFECTS OF THIS TREATMENT 
ON THE QUALITY OF THE PRODUCT. 

A description of the open evaporator and of the oil burners has 
already been given, and it has also been shown that on the average 
for the season this apparatus removed more than one-half of the 
water in the diffusion juice, causing thereby a loss in the purity of 
said juice of approximately one degree only. 

Accurate records for the season indicated that thirty barrels of fuel 
oil, in one case, evaporated the product from ninety-seven tons of field 
cane, and in a second case thirty barrels of oil were used in handling 
the product from one hundred and four tons. At two and one-half 
cents per gallon, a barrel of oil costs one dollar and twenty-five cents. 
Sixty barrels of oil, worth seventy-five dollars, were, consequently, 
used for two hundred and one tons of field cane. The oil burned in 
evaporating one-half of the water in the diffusion juice cost, there- 
fore, at wholesale, thirty-seven cents per ton of cane. 

These records include all losses and wastes which invariably occur 
when new machinery is used by inexperienced men. In order, there- 
fore, to secure a more exact record and to detect, if possible, defects 
in arrangement and management of this apparatus, two trials were 
personally carried out by Mr. Hughes and the chemist of this Station. 
The diffusion juice, the semi-syrup and the oil were weighed ; the 
time occupied by the work was noted, and the chemical analyses of 
both juice and semi-syrup were carried out in the usual manner. 



The results are as follows : 

OCTOBER 29th, 1888. 

Pounds of diffusion juice used 5,086 

Pounds of semi-syrup secured 2,556 

Pounds of water evaporated 2,530 

Pounds of oil burned 498 

Pounds of water evaporated per pound of oil burned 5.1 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



159 



Analysis of diffusion juice. 

Analysis of semi-syrup 

Time of experiment 



Per cent, of 
Brix. Sugar. Purity. 

8.9 4 7 52 8° 
17.8 9.6 53.9° 
1 hour, 24 minutes. 



cctobee 3Cth, 1888. 

Pounds of diffusion juice used 

Pounds of semi-syrup secured 

Pounds of water evaporated 

Pounds of oil burned 

Pounds of water evaporated per pound of oil burned 

Per cent, of 
Brix. Sugar. Purity. 

Analysis of the diffusion juice 10.6 5.6 52 8° 

Analysis of the semi-syrup 24 8 12.5 50.4° 

Time of experiment 3 hours, 28 minutes. 

In the first experiment two burners were used. The valves were 
of such a form that the complete coutrol of the flow of oil was im- 
possible ; the work was done rapidly and without injury to the quality 
of the juice, but the waste of oil was excessive. In the second 
experiment one burner only was used. This was provided with a 
globe valve for regulating the flow of oil, a change which resulted in 
a very noticeable saving in fuel, and an equally marked injury to the 
quality of the juice. If the evaporation had been hastened by the 
use of two burners, or if the acidity of the juice had been neutralized 
by passing it through layers af finely-ground carbonate of lime, it is 
believed the inversion of the sugar would have been reduced to a 
minimum. 

It has been stated on a preceding page that a ton of field cane con- 
tains twelve hundred and fifty pounds of juice, of which one hundred 
and seventy-five pounds is sugar and other solids, and ten hundred 
and seventy- five pounds is water. Ninety per cent, of this juice can 
be extracted, and if this work could be accomplished without dilution, 
the fuel-oil burners would be called upon to evaporate four hundred 
and eighty-four pounds of water for each ton of cane worked in the 
house. Under the conditions of the second experiment, this could be 
accomplished by burning sixty-three pounds or nine gallons of oil, 
worth twenty-three cents. The semi-syrup from one ton of field 
cane would still contain four hundred and eighty-four pounds of 
water. 



6.C07 
2,343 

3,664 
476 
7.7 



160 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Ninety per cent, of the assumed quantity of juice in one ton of 
field cane is eleven hundred and twenty-five pounds. If this pro- 
duct is diluted by fifty per cent, during the diffusion process, it will 
weigh sixteen hundred and eighty-eight pounds, and will contain 
fifteen hundred and thirty- one pounds of water. This involves the 
evaporation of ten hundred and forty-seven pounds in order to reduce 
this juice to a semi-syrup containing one-half of the water present in 
the original cane juice. Under the conditions of the second experi- 
ment, this would call for one hundred and thirty -six pounds of fuel 
oil, or more than nineteen gallons, worth at wholesale forty-eight 
cents. 

A dilution of diffusion juice, amounting to fifty per cent., would 
more than double the expense for evaporation, or would cause an 
additional outlay for fuel of twenty-five cents per ton of cane. 

With a dilution of diffusion juice of seven per cent., a calculation 
similar to the above will indicate the use of ten and one-half gallons 
of oil, worth twenty-six cents. 

If the arrangements for evaporation now in use at Rio Grande 
remained unchanged, the replacement of the present battery with one 
similar to that used in Magnolia would involve an actual increase in 
the expense account of twenty-two cents per ton of cane, or nearly nine 
dollars per day. 

6. 

NOTES WHICH MAY BE OF VALUE IN DEMONSTRATING THAT 
FINANCIAL SUCCESS CAN BE SECURED UNDER PRESENT 
COMMERCIAL CONDITIONS, WITH SORGHUM CONTAIN- 
ING NINE PER CENT. OF SUGAR IN ITS JUICE. 

It has been stated that a sorghum sugar-house, with a daily capacity 
of forty tons of field cane, can be equipped in such a manner that 
its labor account need not exceed seventy cents per ton. Diagrams of" 
nearly all of the machines needed in this work have been printed 
either in the Station's eighth annual report, or in the present report. 
The question as to the sizes and arrangements of this machinery is a 
matter dependent largely upon experience. The following notes were 
taken this year, and are recorded for the benefit of those who may, in 
the future, turn their attention towards this industry. 

It has been demonstrated that the cane carrier can transport un- 
.stripped and untopped cane on an angle of thirty-five degrees, without 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



requiriDg that said cane shall be bundled or bound with rope " slings." 

!This simplifies the field work, and slightly increases that of unloading 
the cane at the sugar-house. To overcome this trouble, every teamster 
should be provided with six rope slings, each long enough to bundle 

(four hundred pounds of cane. A " Turk's head " on each end of the 

t lower shaft of the cane carrier would convert it into a steam winch, 

| by means of which the bundles could be lifted from the wagons and 

i drawn into the cane-shed. 

The topping and cleaning apparatus can be somewhat improved in 

I one or two respects, particularly by increasing its speed from eighty- 
eight to one hundred and fifty revolutions per minute. Belts should 

jbe substituted for chains in operating the fans, and an increase to 
perhaps 500 revolutions per minute would probably add to their 

I efficiency. 

The shredding apparatus requires to be so modified that the cane 
shall be made to pass through at least two sets of knives. Mr. 
I Hughes' plans for this change have been developed, and will doubtless 
! lead to satisfactory results. 

An arrangement for transferring the cane shreds to the baskets is 
t needed, which will necessitate the employment of one man only, whose 
duty it should be to pack, to weigh and to immerse the baskets in the 
eleventh cell. A small carrier, running across the bottom of the 
shred- bin, and ending directly over the basket, promises at present to 
solve this problem. 

An apparatus modeled after a turnstile has been planned by Mr. 
Hughes, with which to transfer the baskets from the crane of the 
eleventh cell to the draining-board, and later to the derrick-arm of 
the main battery. 

The cells of the diffusion battery may be made either of wood or 
of cast iron ; in either case they must be provided with steam coils. 
If these cells are made thirty-six inches deep, and large enough to 
just admit baskets thirty-one and a half inches in diameter at the top, 
twenty-eight and a half inches at the bottom, and twenty-one and a 
half inches deep, they will doubtless contain the solutions used in 
extracting the sugar from portions of chips weighing two hundred 
and seventy-five pounds each. 

It is believed that the baskets of exhausted chips should be swung 
into the space inside the circle of the tanks, in order that the chips 
may be discharged automatically upon a carrier and removed from 

11 



162 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



the house by steam-power ; this would effect a saviug of four dollars 
daily, the amount now paid for men and teams employed in disposing 
of this bagasse. Should this plan be adopted, the following modifi- 
cation may be found to be serviceable. The engraving of the diffu- 
sion battery on a preceding page, indicates the manner in which the 
handle or bail is attached to the basket ; an iron rod connects the ends 
of the bail, and serves as a support for the covers used to prevent the 
shreds from floating out of the basket during the diffusion process. 
If the baskets were cut into halves down the sides, and across the 
bottoms, directly under the bail, then this rod could be used as a hinge 
upon which the halves of the baskets could be raised or lowered at 
will. If a loaded basket were suspended from two points on its rim 
diametrically opposite to each other, and at right angles to the bail, 
then the weight of the load would cause the halves of said basket to 
divide and discharge its contents automatically ; the transfer of the 
point of attachment of a basket from one of its bails to the other, 
could, of course, be accomplished with simple machinery. 

If the bagasse can be discharged automatically, in the manner above 
described, the force necessary to operate a forty- ton battery can be 
reduced to three men per shift. 

The seed-tops can be handled by steam power in the following 
manner : A bin made of slats, like an ordinary corn- crib, narrow at 
the bottom, relatively broad at the top, and ten or twelve feet high, 
should be built near the sugar-house ; a carrier could be made along 
the top of this bin, upon which the cane-seed could be transferred and 
dropped at will, into any portion of said crib. By making this bin 
relatively narrow and high, the seed-tops would be dried by the 
wind and sheltered from the rain. It is believed that this arrange- 
ment would largely increase the amount of seed at present secured 
per ton of cane, and improve its quality, by preventing the changes 
caused by heating and moulding. 

A. T. NEALE. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



163 



REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST. 



OYSTER INTERESTS OF NEW JERSEY. 

The Biologist first became connected with the Station in September, 
L888. At the suggestion of the Director, Prof. Geo. H. Cook, the 
condition and capabilities of the fishery industries first engaged our 
attention. 

From Vol. I. of the final report of the State Geologist, 1888, we 
earn (p. 94) that the water area of the State is one-tenth of the land 
irea (454,423 acres water ; 4,809,218 acres land). The relative im- 
x>rtance of these two areas is by no means expressed by this ratio. 
Ifoch of the land is rocky, much is arid, much is swampy ; and these 
tracts are sparsely populated, and can yield only a poor return for 
man's sustenance without very extended labor being bestowed upon 
their cultivation. On the other hand, the presence of bodies of water 
enhances the value of the farms in their vicinity, furnishing moisture 
to the soil, and drink for man and beast. Mountainous regions, 
because of the presence of lakes and cataracts, become noted resorts, 
where mind and body are recuperated by viewing the beauty of the 
scenery and sporting upon and in the waters. 

We shall be interested in these bodies of water only from the point 
of view of food production they are capable of furnishing, though we 
have only hinted at a few of the other directions in which they are 
serviceable. A great zoologist once said that the land is the home of 
plants; the water is the home of animals. But we must re/member 
that all animals are ultimately dependent upon vegetable food. There 
most, therefore, be enough vegetation in the water to support its 
animal life. This vegetation consists principally of microscopically- 
small organisms upon which the lower forms of animal life feed, and 
in turn furnish food for larger and carnivorous species, and so on. 



164 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



How is it that the waters are so much more populous with life thai* 
the air ? Because water is heavier than the air, and can sustain the 
living things in it at all depths ; because it holds air in solution, and' 
also the inorganic principles dissolved out of the soil by the rains and 
drainage of rivers, in fact all that the plants need for food. Not so 
the air. Upon dry land the vegetation is confined to the earth's sur- 
face, and so are the beasts and creeping things. Only birds and insects 
live in the air ; but these also depend upon the ground for food. 

Thus, it comes about that in estimating the productive value of 
water and land areas respectively, we must not overlook the fact that 
the latter should be estimated by the surface ; the former by the surface 
multiplied into its average depth. It is yet to be determined how 
thick the sheet of water should be to yield the same food per acre as 
the land. 

Another fact should not be overlooked, viz., that the waters of 
the State are mostly in communication with the ocean, whose vast 
content no monopoly can claim, so that the freely-migratory fishes, 
which we capture for food upon our shores, have access to the food of 
the entire ocean. There can be no exhaustion from lack of fertilizers 
as happens with the land. Even the stationary forms of life on our 
shores have the currents sweeping in upon them laden with food as 
fast as it is needed. It is true that if a few thousand bushels of oys- 
ters are made to feed from one acre of shoal water, the ground is so 
exhausted as to require a year's rest. But that one year is sufficient 
for its restoration, proving how recuperative are the forces of nature 
in the sea. We have to learn the limits of nature's endurance and 
not drive her too fast. 

It would be no surprising fact if it should be ascertained that the 
water area of our State was equal to or exceeded the land area in pro- 
ductive value. 

Four-fifths of the water area, or 361,967 acres, are tidal waters.* 
Of this, probably, 200,000 acres are adapted to growing oysters. This 
fact, as well as the fact that our. oyster industry is the most important 
of all our fisheries, led the investigator to inquire into the state of 
this business. Accordingly, all the principal oyster points on the 
coast have been visited, and the more important planters consulted. 
These planters have had over thirty years' experience in the business, 
most of them having grown up to the trade. This opportunity is 



♦Final Rep. Geol., p. 111. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 165 



taken of thanking these gentlemen publicly. They have always been 
courteous and very willing to give as much information as was in 
their power. The relations established between us have been of a 
most agreeable nature. As a class, the planters are well-to-do, own 
comfortable and refined homes, and constitute an important part of 
the intelligent people of our population. 

The tabulated summary submitted at the close of this report shows 
that less than 15,000 acres are held by the planters, yielding an annual 
revenue of two and a quarter million dollars to the people of the 
State, or an average of §140 per acre. Of course, a larger sum is 
realized from the ground as actually harvested, but only about a third 
of the above acreage actually is harvested in any one year. A planter 
requires considerable extra ground, because it takes at least three years 
for an oyster to become marketable ; and besides, if he plants thickly, 
the ground must rest every fourth year. Some oysters mature more 
rapidly than others, or are more mature when first put down, or again, 
do not exhaust the ground so rapidly, that a planter has some ground 
from which he realizes profit each year, and other ground on which he 
reaps only every fourth or fifth year. If all the ground is good 
ground the average annual revenue from a farm should be $250 per 
acre (at least $200). Let it be supposed, however, that the above 
200,000 acres, if cultivated scientifically, will produce only $100 per 
acre, the annual income to the planters so holding it would mount up 
to 820,000,000 — a sum ten times as great as that now realized. 

It will be objected that the demand for these oysters will not be 
sufficient to keep up the prices, and moreover, that neighboring States, 
such as Maryland, have even better facilities for producing oysters, so 
that the market will be glutted. To this we reply that the oyster pro- 
duct of Maryland is dependent upon its natural beds, that these are 
surely being destroyed, and that it will require a considerable time 
before people who have been used to taking oysters from natural beds 
will become educated so as to allow a planting industry to spring up* 
Meanwhile the population of the country is increasing, and the demand 
for good oysters will never cease. The community which moves to 
the front first, in producing easily and abundantly a superior oyster, 
will reap the benefits. 

There is, of course, plenty of room for improvement in the cul- 
ture of oysters. The Experiment Station has been established for 
the purpose of ascertaining just how such improvement can be effected. 



166 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



The real labors of the Biologist lie in this direction. The present 
report is simply preliminary and introductory. The obtaining of 
statistics as to the extent of the oyster business has been only inci- 
dental to ulterior purposes. 

Legislation can do much to encourage this industry by enacting 
wise laws, and especially by the repeal of, or the refraining from 
enacting, laws which are a hindrance and work mischief. While 
this report makes certain suggestions with reference to legislative 
movements, it is not committed to the enactment of any particular 
measure now before the people, or that may so come at any future 
time. The writer advises caution and deliberation; advises better 
co-operation and patience on the part of the oystermen themselves, 
until all classes concerned shall thoroughly understand the various 
aspects of the questions involved. Then, when conflicting interests 
shall have become adjusted and the welfare of the people as opposed 
to the demands of private interests of a smaller or larger class of 
citizens shall be clearly understood, the unified and intelligent action 
of the parties interested will secure the proper legislation without the 
friction now supposed to be inseparably connected with the passage of 
a law. 

Of our tidal waters, an area of 100,000 acres produces clams to an 
extent of nearly $200,000 per annum. This is a source of revenue 
to thousands of poor people who, under the present conditions of 
depletion of the oyster-beds, have no other means of earning a liveli- 
hood. This industry of gathering clams continues during the greater 
portion of the year. At certain seasons only, is there a special demand 
for labor connected with the oyster industry. If means could be 
devised for securing to these people the ownership of small farms 
from the area now devoted to clamming, and these farms were planted 
with oysters, it is plain that the income of these people would be 
increased one hundred times. 

It is customary in reports of this sort to obtain an estimate of the- 
number of people directly engaged in planting, shifting and taking 
up the oysters; the figures thus obtained are said to represent the . 
number of persons supported by, or dependent upon, this industry. 
We must not forget that the presence of these persons, with their 
earnings, calls for the erection and furnishing of their houses; that 
merchants and mechanics are drawn thither; and that flourishing 
towns have grown up where there is absolutely no resource for the- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 167 



people except these fisheries. The land along the greater part of our 
coast is arid to the extreme. We have summed up the population of 
the townships that border the coasts where oysters abound, from 
Perth Amboy southward, deducting the population of the sea-side 
resorts, and find that we have 62,389 persons dependent upon the sea 
fisheries of this extent of coast. When we remember that all who 
bestow necessary labor upon any product, until it reaches the con- 
sumer, are dependent upon the fact that the consumer wants such 
product and is willing to pay to get it, it becomes plain that, as most 
of these oysters are exported to other parts of the United States, the 
above figures represent only those who are supported by the first 
handling of the product. Perhaps more than 100,000 people are 
dependent upon the yield of oysters from Jersey waters. 

In this report we first call attention to some facts in the natural 
history of the oyster, the knowledge of which enables us to 
breed oysters as we do fish or cattle. It is pointed out that oyster 
culture will ultimately develop more and more into similarity with 
agriculture in general, and should be encouraged to do so. 

In Section 3 the natural beds are considered. These are now in a 
state of great depletion, and yield less than 25 bushels to the acre of 
very small oysters, such as need to lie three or four years longer upon 
artificial beds to be fit for market. Even this small seed is scarce and 
growing scarcer and higher priced, so that the planters are apprehen- 
sive concerning the future of the business. We recommend that the 
State allow private enterprise to cultivate these beds, for cultivated 
they require to be to produce sufficient seed, and public enterprise, it 
is feared, will be as unsuccessful in securing the perpetuation of these 
beds under new laws as has occurred under the operation of the old 
laws looking to their preservation. 

In Section 4 the clamming industry is considered. It is ascertained 
that, important as this industry is with reference to the livelihood of 
many citizens, the yield of the clamming grounds of the State is 
much less than for the same area covered by natural oysters, while if 
it were cultivated by the clammers themselves and devoted to oyster- 
raising, the income per individual would be vastly greater. 

In Section 5 the extent and condition of the planting industry is 
considered. First, the general methods of planting are explained and 
reasons are given for estimating the productive value of the tidal 
waters of the State as potentially $200 per acre (when considered as 



168 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



producing oysters by the methods of cultivation and planting now in 
use). Next, the planting grounds are taken up in detail, and in the 
summary we find that only two and a quarter million dollars (instead 
of the twenty million dollars per year, of revenue, the waters are 
capable of yielding) is the yearly income to the people, while this 
income is produced from land that should pay a tax to the State and 
should in all respects be treated like other agricultural land. Such a 
change as this is in harmony with the progress of the industry else- 
where and beneficial to the interests here, and finally, harmonious 
with the fact that oyster culture, properly undertaken, is exactly par- 
alleled by agricultural processes. 

In Section 6 we develop a scheme for experimental research, in 
which the planters are asked to co-operate for the production of seed 
artificially and the culture of the oyster bathymetrically, which, if 
successful, will revolutionize oyster-cultural methods. Finally, we 
give a summary in a table, and close by once more bespeaking the 
good will of oystermen and their aid in our work. 

2. 

SOME POINTS OF PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE IN THE NATURAL 
HISTORY OF THE OYSTER. 

The oyster is a near relative of the clam, resembling it in having 
two valves to its shell, two pairs of gill folds and the same type of 
internal structure generally. It differs from the clam in that the two 
valves are unequally developed, the left being larger and bellied out, 
upon whioh the animal lies, while the right or upper valve is flat, or 
even hollow ; also, in having no muscular, plough-shaped u foot," so 
that it does not move about as can the clam ; and finally, in having 
but one muscle with which to close the shell, and which corresponds 
to the posterior one of the clam. 

It is now believed that there are several species of oyster, of which 
two, at least, flourish in European waters — Ostrea edulis, the French 
oyster, and 0. angulata, the Portuguese oyster. The former is her- 
maphrodite — that is, both eggs and spermatozoa are produced in one 
and the same individual. As is usual in such cases, these generative 
products do not become ripe at the same time in any one individual, 
so that cross-fertilization is secured, and the close inbreeding which 
would result, should an oyster impregnate its own eggs, is prevented. 

Ostrea angulata, like the American oyster (0, Virginica), is 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 169 



uniseocual — that is, during any one spawning season a specimen is 
either a male (producing spermatozoa) or a female (producing ova). 
Whether the sex remains constant throughout the life of an indi- 
vidual is, so far as the writer knows, undetermined. 

0. edulis is also viviparous as well as hermaphrodite — that is, the 
eggs are impregnated and undergo development to a considerable 
extent before they leave the body of the mother, or are " spawned " 
out to shift for themselves. 0. Virginica, as was first shown by 
Brooks in 1879, is oviparous, like ordinary fishes, in that the eggs, as 
well as the milt, are spawned into the water, there to take the chances 
of being found by the spermatozoa and fertilized. If not fertilized, 
the sea-water rapidly destroys them. 

These ova are exceedingly minute, being only of an inch in 
diameter, and as many as 60,000,000 can come from one large 
spawner. The individual cells or spores of the milt are many times 
smaller and more numerous. This vast number is required, to be in 
proportion to the chances that any one oyster will not survive to be 
marketed for the delectation of the epicure. If the chances are that 
the oysters, by the action of various enemies and mud, are likely to 
be decimated the last year that they lie on the beds, the chances are 
that a fourth will perish from these causes the preceding year, and so 
on, the increase in mortality rising to prodigious proportion as the 
oysters are smaller and smaller. We may be thankful if, in a state 
of nature, one out of a million young, lives to be of marketable size. 
While the oyster is minute, the number of small enemies that wait to 
«at it is practically unlimited. Then, too, a sudden change in tem- 
perature, a storm, &c, will slaughter the spawn by the wholesale. 
No wonder that there are seasons when no catch or set of spawn 
occurs. 

After fertilization, the egg develops rapidly into a little swimming 
embryo, and in a few days it seeks a place to settle down for life. 
This place must be some clean shell or pebble or stake. Even then, 
should a sediment as thin as a sheet of paper settle upon it, it is 
smothered. 

Ah it grow3 there are larger enemies waiting for a savory mouthful, 
such as starfishes, drumfish (Pogonias chromis), the small black 
winkle ( Trittia triviltata), the "drill/' or " borer" ( Urosalpinx cinerea), 
and other fish and shellfish ; also sponges, and worms, and eel grass, 
Ac. When crowded, the oyster becomes its own enemy, and in the 



170 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 

struggle for existence the topmost oysters overspread and crowd down 
into the mud to smother, their less favored brethren. 

Such are the wasteful methods of nature. Man was created to 
subdue the earth, to cultivate the forces of nature to his own advan- 
tage, and, in so doing, not only does he reap the physical reward of 
his labor, but, by the exercise of mind needful to understand the 
laws of nature, his intellectual and spiritual endowments are increased, 
new capacities for enjoyment are possible, and new wants arise that 
lead to new industries for the support and benefit of the increasing 
population. We find everywhere the verdict of history is that pro- 
gress from barbarism to civilization has resulted in proportion as 
man has cultivated, has controlled the forces of nature. 

Where nature furnishes food that can be procured with the least 
mental effort, there the people are low in the scale of civilization. 
The Indians of our country relied on what nature furnished, and! 
cultivated the ground only in the rudest manner. They came and 
gathered from the natural beds such oysters as they wanted, and were- 
content. The Indian has given way before the intelligent European, 
who tills the soil and harvests his crop, and breeds his cattle in 
accordance with scientific principles, and who experiments to learn 
more about nature's methods. 

It is precisely in the earliest stages of the life of the oyster where- 
the care and culture of man will count for most. Here, as in other 
directions, the rewards for such care will be great. 

The history of the oyster industry has been, in the oldest and most 
intelligent communities, as follows : First, the natural beds were 
drawn on until they only furnished seed. Then this seed was trans- 
planted and handled scientifically by planters. Next the natural 
beds became utterly depleted, and the planters were forced to raise 
seed of their own, first by placing " spat collectors," such as shells, 
brush, <fcc, in natural waters, to catch, at random, the spawn fur- 
nished by nature, later by putting " spawners " with such collectors 
to insure a catch, and lastly by approaching the methods used in 
modern fish-hatching, where each step of the process is carefully 
guided, the eggs artificially fertilized, the young placed in appropriate 
waters, and finally distributed to the points where wanted. 

Oyster culture approaches more nearly to agriculture than does fish 
culture, in that, like the vegetable, the oyster is a stationary organism- 
It therefore becomes necessary, and of advantage, to cultivate it 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



171 



under similar conditions. Private farms have been granted (in the 
progressive countries), paying taxes like other farming land, and 
owned and transferred like real estate. The change in oyster culture 
from its primitive conditions to these conditions has thus been similar 
to what took place when the American Indian was supplanted by the 
European farmer. 

The inevitable result, viz., the depletion and ultimate destruction 
of the natural beds of oysters, leads to an improved method of rear- 
ing oysters and to the advance of civilization. Hence, the remedy to 
be applied whenever such a fact as the deterioration of oyster-beds 
becomes patent, is not for the State to restore the natural beds (which 
is of the nature of a work of charity and only of temporary benefit),, 
but to encourage the more stable methods of oyster culture by exper- 
iments leading to the discovery of practicable methods of raising 
oysters artificially and by appropriate legislation, granting farms to 
oyster planters, from the tidal areas. 

It is, therefore, a happy occurrence that the natural beds are being 
destroyed; a primitive method of living by simply picking up food 
becomes superseded by intelligent farming. The different pests and 
enemies that attack oysters are to become as much a subject for study 
as are the pests of the crops of the inland farmer. A knowledge of 
the laws of reproduction of plants and animals has led to the intel- 
ligent breeding and the establishment of races of valuable domestic 
species. This is to be duplicated in oyster culture. Here, as else- 
where, the highest sort of scientific investigation, often looked upon 
by the uninformed as " theoretical/' has the widest practical applica- 
tion. It was the most theoretical and philosophical of American 
zoologists who made the discovery, according to which it is now pos- 
sible to rear oysters artificially. 

In all respects, therefore, oyster culture and agriculture are similar 
and require similar legislative conditions and relations to the State. 
The State is entitled to a revenue from its tidal waters, when culti- 
vated, as well as from its farming lands. 

3. 

EXTENT, PRODUCT AND CONDITION OF THE NATURAL BEDS. 

A " natural " oyster-bed is a ground where oysters grow, without 
any assistance from man, in sufficient quantities to pay for gathering 
oysters from it for commercial purposes. What no man has been 



172 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



concerned in producing belongs equally to all, when upon public land. 
This does not refer to the ground, but to the crop upon the ground. 
If from any cause, as from excessive tonging, the oysters be taken 
away and no new ones appear naturally in their places, the bed, as an 
oyster-bed, ceases to exist, as has happened in Europe and on our north- 
ern coasts, and at Shrewsbury in our own State, and will happen at 
no distant day in the Chesapeake. 

The reasons why the bed exists, or existed originally, are these, 
viz. : Suitable objects, such as stones, to which the young oyster could 
fasten, were present on the bottom, and when once the "set" has been 
made, the shells of preceding generations serve as collectors for the 
succeeding ones. 

Wherever the water is of proper saltiness (at least 3 per cent.) and 
the ground is washed by the outpourings of fresh-water streams, 
there the oyster will flourish. The reason that all such waters are not 
stocked with oysters by nature is because, firstly, the currents do not 
run so as to sweep "spawn" thither from already- established beds, 
or secondly, if they do, there are no suitable "collectors" for the 
"spat" present. 

Clearly, if shells be placed in such situations, a bed will be estab- 
lished. However, nobody will take the trouble to do this while the 
public consider such bed as common property. The State could under- 
take the work and thus largely increase the available supply of oysters. 
This is sometimes advocated under the plea that the poor would there- 
by be benefited, while the planters could get cheaper and more abun- 
dant seed. We think the State can pursue a wiser course by handing 
over such work to private enterprise, which is "the most efficient 
agent for the preservation and development of natural wealth." * 

We shall now consider the natural beds in detail. 

Newark Bay. — Here are natural beds extending from a little ways 
up the Passaic and Hackensack rivers, down through the sound and 
Arthur Kill to near Perth Amboy.^ Natural oysters are found all 
the way up the Hudson as far as the State line, but no beds, in the 
proper sense of the term, exist now. In Newark bay itself, accord- 
ing to Captain Joseph Ellsworth, only one-fourth of the area, or 
about 1,000 acres, is occupied by natural beds. Here, as elsewhere, 
the supply has been so persistently drawn on, the oysters being taken 

*See p. 105 of Brooks' Report on the Development and Protection of the Oyster in Maryland. 
1884. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 173- 



j away as fast as a "set" is established, to furnish seed to be planted 
i in the Raritan bay, &c, that the amount of seed obtainable depends 
upon the extent of the set, so great is the demand, which always 
outruns the supply. Last season there was no set in the bay proper,, 
j so that what was taken belonged to the set of the previous season, 
i The large oysters found here are not marketed until they have lain 
i a season upon artificial beds to correct their " greenness." 

Some seed from these beds is shipped by J. & J. Ellsworth to 
! California. Only the smallest-sized seed is so shipped. In 1886 v 
i 30,000 bushels were shipped. In 1888 only 11,000, owing to scarcity 
j of the supply. It is claimed that the reason there was no set in the 
bay is because the shells have not been stirred up enough to keep 
: them bright (no dredging being allowed, except in Delaware bay). 
I On the other hand, we may feel confident that the beds were not 
worked, because of scarcity of oysters upon them. Even if the law,, 
which requires that dead shells be thrown back upon the bed, were 
observed (which is far from being the case), still the number of shells 
available as "spat collectors" must steadily decrease while the de- 
mand for seed is so great. This demand is not likely to lessen, but 
rather to increase, while everywhere the supply is rapidly falling offV 
The result is to raise the price of seed, and of oysters generally, and' 
to make the raising of seed by artificial means so profitable, that 
many will undertake it until a proper balance is restored. 

Raritan River and Bay. — Practically the natural beds are restricted 
to the Raritan river from Perth Amboy to Sayreville (about 5 miles, of 
an average width of half a mile), perhaps 1,000 acres when the channel 
is subtracted; but not nearly so much seed is produced here as in the 
waters just discussed. Probably the acreage* assumed is too large. In 
1886 only 3,000 bushels of seed for the California export was ob- 
tained here. Small beds have been lately discovered at Flynn's 
Knoll, near Sandy Hook, probably produced by the accidental drop- 
ping of shells from a passing boat. The Raritan beds are very much 
depleted. Capt. T. S. R. Brown, of Keyport, informed us that for- 
merly a boat could gather 30 to 40 bushels a day, whereas now only 3 to 
6 bushels can be taken by a boat in one day. The cry of the Perth 
Amboy and Keyport planters is for more seed, and that the State- 
should plant shells upon the beds. 



174 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Barnegat Bay. — Passing southward no natural beds exist until we 
reach Barnegat bay. Here the entire bay, of an average width of 
three miles, south of Toms River to near Barnegat, a distance of 
nearly 10 miles, and including about 19,000 acres, produces oysters 
naturally, though the celebrated Cedar Creek beds are the ones mainly 
relied on. About 13,000 acres may be set apart as including the 
workable beds. According to L. G. Mitchell, of Barnegat, " This 
forms one of the finest natural oyster grounds in the State," but is 
now " almost depleted and likely to remain so unless the State takes 
it in hand. I would heartily recommend that the State make a-sur- 
vey of the ground from Forked River to the railroad bridge (near 
Toms River, a distance of 7 miles, including about 13,000 acres), survey 
it into twenty-acre lots and sell leases to individuals, for, say, 20 years 
at a time, stipulating the same shall be devoted to seed culture, &c. ; 
or else shell the ground itself, and sell the seed at a moderate rate, 
enough to cover expenses of seeding and watching, &c. The first- 
named plan would, I think, be more practical." 

This appears quite plausible ; yet, if a recommendation were made, 
in case, for instance, farmers were dependent upon natural beds of 
potatoes for seed, that the State go into potato culture upon land hith- 
erto considered public property, that it appoint special police to watch 
such grounds, and that it sell potatoes to the farmers so they could 
plant potatoes upon their own grounds, on which they paid no taxes 
to the State, and from which large returns were realized, how would 
it appear to the public ? It is for the interest of oyster culture, and 
thus of the whole people, that the tidal waters of the State be con- 
sidered as is the rest of the land, and be held under similar restrictions, 
modified to suit the conditions of the case. Then • let the oystermen 
work the land as they see fit, with no more legislative restrictions 
than are used in the case of farmers. The planters will work for 
their own interest. If dredging hurts the oyster, there will be no 
necessity for laws against dredging ; and so on for other restrictions. 

If this seems a radical change, let it be remembered that we will 
have to come to this point sometime, that the interests of all con- 
cerned are best promoted by such a change, and the community which 
makes the change first, reaps the benefits. Let the oystermen 
discuss this point ; let them consider the question from this broad out- 
look upon the future, and when they shall agree as to what is best, let 
them move to secure appropriate legislation. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



175 



According to Joseph P. Haywood, of West Creek, the seed that 
x>mes from Cedar Creek is better culled than any other. If this be 
I :rue and still the grounds are being depleted, what can legislation do 
co avert the result? 

The beds of the Chesapeake are being depleted so that Lieut. Wins- 
low, in 1878, found only. 5 bushels (at 400 oysters to the bushel) of 
i oysters to the acre in Tangier sound, and, on the same ground, Dr. 
Brooks, in 1884, found only half as many. These beds, to start with, 
Iwere doubtless like many other beds that years ago were reported as 
i having a layer of oysters on them " several feet thick." 

Mullica River, Egg Harbor, <Scc. — In Little Egg Harbor are about 
5 acres of natural oysters; but it is in the Mullica river that the 
[extensive beds, known as the " Graveiings," are situated. The 
bottom is composed of gravel, to which the spat fastens, and hence 
there is no need of shelling this bed. According to Ernest Ingersoll, 
in his report on the Oyster Industry, in 1880, these beds cover sev- 
eral square miles in Great bay, as well as extend several miles up the 
river. According to John T. Burton, of Tuckerton, they contain, at 
present, 50 acres, and extend from Bass river to Oyster creek. If we 
consider the latter estimate as being the area of the beds themselves, 
and not the area of the entire surface including the beds, we may 
provisionally assume 4,000 acres as being this including area. If this 
estimate is too high, it will only decrease the number of bushels, 
which, in the final estimate, we have calculated are produced per 
acre from the natural beds. As this is a great clamming point, where 
the clammers look with distrust and antagonism upon the encroach- 
ments and growth of the oyster industry, this large area is taken, that 
in estimating the relative value of oyster land as compared with 
clamming ground, there shall be left no cause for supposing that the 
value per acre of the oyster ground has been put too high, it being 
borne in mind that in reaching this estimate the yield is divided by 
the area. 

In Great Egg Harbor, several years ago, 100 to 200 bushels could 
be taken by one boat, without a change of moorings. Now, the cry 
is, " more seed." Further south, in the creeks of Cape May county, 
there are natural oysters ; but the water lacks lime and saline 
material, and the oysters are ill-shapen and not in good repute among 
planters. The amount taken is only nominal. 



176 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Delaware Bay. — Here the Datural beds extend from Egg Island 
point to Stony point, on the Delaware river, a distance of 30 miles,, 
including over 60,000 acres in Jersey waters. The beds included in 
Delaware State are so inferior in their yield that Delaware planters 
obtain seed from the Jersey side, the seed being first run to Philadel- 
phia and sold there, to evade a technical point in the law. Some 
Jerseymen plant also on the Delaware side. Ingersoll estimated that 
the amount of seed planted in Delaware waters from these beds 
amounted to two and a half million bushels. These figures were 
obtained by considering that 300 vessels were registered as working 
in the beds in transporting and planting seed, and that each delivered 
20 deck-loads of 400 bushels each. It is plain that if each of these 
factors is excessive, the error will be multiplied accordingly in the- 
result. We have reason to believe this estimate is excessive. 

Capt. L. E. Yates informs me that one and a quarter million 
bushels, in round numbers, were obtained this past season, of which 
312,500 bushels were transferred to the Delaware side. Mean- 
while, since^ngersoll's report was written, there has been an increase 
in the business, the number of large planters has increased from 8 to 
20, the number of boats registered at Port Norris is now 385, the 
ground has been extended from the 6,000 acres in 1880, until now 
an area of 70 square miles is covered by the operations, and " more 
seed is planted now than ever before," to quote Capt. Hearn, of Port 
Norris. We can take the estimate of L. E. Yates as probably correct. 
Two hundred boats are engaged in taking the seed from the beds ; al- 
lowing each 200 bushels to the load, 30 trips by each and every one of 
these boats are required to transport the million and a quarter bushels. 
These operations extend through A^ril and May to June 15th. This 
allows 740 trips being made, on the basis of one trip per day for each 
fair day, estimating four fair days' per week. 

Here, as elsewhere, the cry is "more seed." Some advocate that 
the State close the beds for two years 1 , to allow the ground to recuper- 
ate. But it would take only one year to deplete it again. Others 
think there would be seed sufficient, if the planters did not plant so 
thickly, and if the law were better observed with reference to stop- 
ping June 15th and to culling back the shells. Dredging is also 
supposed to injure the young and tender shells, and so the seed that 
is planted dies, which compels the planters to "sow thick." 

The general remarks we have made under the preceding heads* 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 177 



apply also here, viz., that it is of advantage that the business should 
increase, and that more people should engage in it and share the profits,, 
so long as each makes a comfortable living. This is of benefit to the 
State, much more than if a few reap large profits. The State should., 
while strengthening the oyster-planter in his title to the land he cul- 
tivates, also see to it that no one planter be allowed to monopolize 
a large extent of territory. 

Summary. — The total area of natural oyster ground in the State 
is about 80,000 acres. The production of seed is in round numbers 
2,000,000 bushels, giving 25 bushels to the acre, which at 25 cents 
a bushel, the average price of seed, gives us such ground as yielding 
$5 per acre per annum. But it must be remembered that the oysters 
are scattered over this area in patches, so the yield, per acre, of actual 
ovster ground is much greater. 

The whole of this ground, if planted with oysters and under cul- 
tivation, would yield a revenue forty times as great as it now yields. 
Even if one-half of this area were devoted, by private enterprise, 
to seed-raising alone, it would yield seed sufficient for a long time 
to come. 

But if this be advocated, what will the average " 'longshoreman " 
say? It is evident that as many of these people as possible should 
be allowed and encouraged to take up farms, and be instructed in 
their management, &c. With those who were still too restless to 
settle down to so regular and scientific a business, a compromise could 
be made. The best clamming ground could be set apart for a series 
of years as public commons, not to be open to planters to place oysters 
upon it, except that those now upon such grounds should not be driven? 
off. There should be allowed no trespassing of oystermen upon the 
clamming grounds, under penalty of forfeiture of stock so planted, 
and on the other hand no clammer should ever be allowed to search 
for clams upon private oyster-beds if the owner objected. There are 
other compromise measures thinkable, such as dividing the natural 
bedfl into alternate strips of "commons" and private grounds; or, the 
natural beds could be open to the public for a short period each year 
under the proviso that oysters taken should be of a certain size and 
not -mailer. The private owner could be left to treat his own farm 
pleased, raising seed or marketable oysters at his discretion; or, 
according to the* suggestion of L. G. Mitchell, of Barnegat, he could 
be required to devote his lot to seed-raising. 

12 



178 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



We shall hereafter discuss a plan for getting seed more in accord- 
ance with agricultural methods. In agriculture, each man raises his 
own seed, or else he buys of some one who raises it as a specialty. 
The product of a single spawner is sufficient for a pretty large farm, 
if properly reared and taken care of in the early stages. 

4. 

THE CLAMMING GROUNDS. 

Whereas oysters are taken only at stated times, clams are gathered 
all the year round, excepting when the bays and creeks are frozen. 
Many a poor man depends upon this occupation for a livelihood, 
although his daily earnings from this source are sometimes very 
meager. No wonder he views with alarm the encroachments of the 
oyster-planter and feels tempted to hunt for his clams upon his 
favorite ground after the planter has sown it with oysters. It is 
admitted, even by the planters themselves, that the clammers gen- 
erally leave the oysters alone, but some planters have had their oysters 
injured and buried in the mud by the operations of the clammers, 
and they say that more dollars' worth of oysters are destroyed than 
dimes' worth of clams are obtained. They claim to have offered to 
pay the clammers in advance as much as they expected to gain by 
going upon the beds, if they would keep off, but with no success. 

We now take up a more detailed consideration of the clamming 
grounds. 

Earitan Bay. — According to Capt. Beadle and T. S. R. Brown, of 
Key port, four-fifths of the ground between Sandy Hook and East 
Point is used by the clammers. This makes an area of 28 square 
miles or 18,000 acres (nearly) of clamming grounds. In the Keyport 
Enterprise of October 23d, 1886 (loaned me through the kindness of 
the editor, Mr. Fred. Armstrong), is a list of 109 boats operated by 
about 300 men, including the captains, engaged in taking clams every 
fair day during a period of about 40 weeks each year. 

Each boat is estimated to average $10 per day, which, allowing 160 
working days (an average of four fair days per week), aggregates the 
sum of $1,600 per year for each boat. There are also 30 smaller 
boats that average $3 a day, or $480 a year. It is always 
difficult to get an average just right. If it is a little too large, the 
error is correspondingly multiplied in the result. It is much more 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 179 



i accurate to guess at the total and from that to compute the average. 

! Capt. Brown estimated that about 80 sloops were engaged upon the 
above ground in taking clams, realizing $1,000 apiece. Besides 
these, there are from 300 to 1,500 small boats, that take one-fourth as 

I much more. This estimate is for last season, which was poorer than 
the average. 

According to the first estimate, in round numbers, $200,000 per 
year is annually earned by Keyport men in clamming. According 
to the latter estimate, the product of the entire area amounted to 
$100,000 for the past season. This appears the more probable esti- 
i mate, as it is doubtful if a majority of the sloops actually realized as 
much as $1,000. Assuming, however, that the figures could be dou- 
j bled for a good season, we will place the average at $150,000. This 
, gives an income of less than $12 per acre, which compares favorably 
with the income per acre from the natural oyster-beds, but is only a 
; twentieth of what could be realized if the ground were cultivated for 
| oysters. Estimates of the clam production in other parts of the State, 
I compared with the above estimates, show that the Raritan beds are 
! four to six times as valuable as any other. This is improbable, hence 
the above figures must be considered to be excessive. 

Little Egg Harbor, Great Bay and southward to Cape May. — The 
principal grounds are at Little Egg Harbor and Great bay. People 
from as far south as Cape May come here to " clam." The clams are 
shipped from Tuckerton, Absecon, Pleasantville and Somers Point. 
According to F.'R. Austen, the export from Tuckerton the past sea- 
son reached 11,000,000 clams, worth $20,000. Clams are worth 60 
cents a bushel, at 300 clams to the bushel. A bushel of oysters aver- 
ages 250 oysters at $1. The above 37,000 bushels (or less) of 
clams, fa the equivalent of 20,000 bushels of oysters, so far as the in- 
come is concerned. The income from clams is held to be more im- 
portant, because it is distributed among many more men, and through- 
out a larger portion of the year. 

The extent of the clamming ground could not be ascertained, 
except that the " clams are found about everywhere." The area of 
Little Egg Harbor and Great bay is, for both together, less than 
30,000 acres. Might not these figures be taken to represent the area 
of clamming ground along the whole ocean shore? As we have esti- 
mates only of the clams that leave Tuckerton and the above-men- 



18© NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



tioned points, let us assume that all the clams thus exported come 
from 20,000 acres of ground in Little Egg Harbor and in Great 
bay. From Absecon a "half car-load of clams and oysters leaves- 
each day from September 1st to June 1st." In the summer the 
principal shipment is oysters. This estimate gives, then, 7,500,000' 
clams, as shipped from this point each year. Next let us take 
Pleasantville. According to S. Fish, of Smith's Landing, the clam- 
ming interests have declined to one-third of what they were in 1880.. 
Only 1,000,000 clams, worth $2,000, are exported, one-tenth 
coming from 200 acres of clamming ground in Lake's bay, the bulk 
coming from up the coast as far as thirty miles away. Next pass to 
Somers Point. According to W. H. Keates, the shipping agent of 
the West Jersey railroad station here, 5,000,000 clams is the maxi- 
mum shipment in a year, the amount being but 3,500,000 the past 
season. The grand total is 25,000,000 clams, worth $50,000, which, 
if all are considered as produced from 20,000 acres, gives the maxi- 
mum income from the clamming grounds at $2.50 per acre. Even 
the lowest estimate for Raritan bay gives $4 per acre, which, if 
true, makes the latter grounds twice as valuable as those near Tuck- 
• erton. If the grounds be supposed of equal value, we must conclude 
that only about one-third of the ground in Little Egg Harbor and 
Great bay is good clamming ground, or else that the number of acres 
for Raritan bay is taken several times too large. These calculations 
make us seriously to suspect that the clamming grounds of the State 
are worth much less than the natural oyster-beds per acre — less than 
half as much. But the oyster grounds yield only a tenth or a 
twentieth of what they ought to yield and can reasonably be expected 
to yield if cultivated. 

Delaware Bay. — No clamming interests are involved in Maurice 
river cove operations. The clamming grounds lie to the east, near 
Cape May. Both the oysters and clams of this region are largely 
used at the Cape May hotels. We lack $30,000 to round out our 
clamming estimate for the State to $200,000. This value of clams 
requires about 20 square miles, or roughly, 15,000 acres, which pretty 
well covers one-half the area of that part of the bay. In the 
absence of data from which to determine an estimate for this region,, 
we may take the above figures as very likely more than covering the 
actual harvest. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 181 



Summary. — We thus have, at a minimal estimate, 70,000 acres of 
tidal waters in the State that produce clams in such abundance as to 
furnish an industry to the people. As a maximum estimate the value 
of these clams is §200,000, which gives $3 an acre as the maximum 
revenue derived from this area; $1 per acre being a minimal esti- 
mate and S2 an average. It is plain, even if these estimates be con- 
sidered as varying widely from the truth, if such were possible to 
attain, that by no sort of calculation can clamming ground be made 
to exceed in value our natural oyster grounds. It is easily seen that 
our natural oyster grounds are not one-tenth as productive as the 
cultivated oyster lands. Whatever, then, be the sentiment of the 
clammers themselves, if it were possible for them to own a part of 
the clamming ground and could be induced to plant it with oysters, 
they would reap an income many times greater than they do now. 



5. 

EXTENT AND CONDITION OF THE OYSTER-PLANTING INDUSTRY. 

Why Oysters are Planted. — Upon the natural beds the spat fastens 
upon the shells of the former generations, so that the new crop 
smothers the old. The new set is itself crowded, so that the oysters 
in Wunches, struggling for existence, grow long and "straggling." 
When such bunches are broken apart and the oysters are scattered 
over new ground, in salter water, they are stimulated to grow faster, 
to fatten into condition for the market, with better flavor and a better 
shape. Under fair conditions an oyster is marketable when three 
years old. The spawning season begins about June 15th and lasts 
about two months. Planters get their seed either in the spring, 
during April and May, or in the fall. If the seed is obtained in the 
spring the youngest oysters present are nearly a year old, if in the 
fall they are only a couple of months old. One month after spawn- 
ing the young brood is visible as " blisters " upon the shells to which 
they have attached themselves. It is plain that the older or larger 
an oyster Lb when taken from the natural bed, the shorter time it 
needs to lie before being marketable. Hence, when oystermen first 
planted from the natural beds the oysters matured in much shorter 
time than they do now, that the natural beds are kept depleted, and 
the age of the seed averages but one year or less. 



182 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



When oysters are taken up for market they are separated into lots 
of various sizes, to be sold at prices varying with the size and condi- 
tion of the oyster. Young seed, when abundant, sells at 10 cents a 
bushel ; the older seed, when " culled" — that is, when dead shells have 
been picked out of it — sells at 40 cents, and sometimes 60 cents, if 
scarcity prevails. The average price of seed may be put at 25 cents. 
In the same way, averaging the prices of the oysters marketed, an 
average of $1 per bushel will not be far from the true average, 
when a large amount, as when the product of the entire State, is con- 
sidered. The smaller oysters are either exported to Europe or are 
sold to the hotels at the sea-side, where they are kept for several months 
on the bars to further fatten and grow. If a planter raises oysters 
for such a market as the one last mentioned, and can obtain seed of 
fair size, he allows it to lie only one year upon the beds. 

Another factor also must be considered. Some seed grows faster 
than others ; southern oysters in northern waters outgrow the " na- 
tives," and soft-shelled oysters grow faster than those with hard shells. 
Then, too, if oysters are planted as thickly as 1,000 to 2,000 bushels 
to the acre, the amount of food available for each oyster, especially 
if it is near the center of a large field, is small, and the growth is 
less than if oysters are planted as thinly as 200 to 300 bushels to the 
acre, and in small and widely-separated lots. All these questions 
must be taken into consideration in oyster-planting. 

The nature of the ground, whether sandy or muddy, has much to 
do with the rate of an oyster's growth. More food, especially of a 
diatomaceous character, is found upon mud flats than over sand. The 
diatom forms the principal part of the food obtained by oysters lying 
upon the sea bottom. What the oysters that live upon piles and rocks, 
in elevated positions, live on, has yet to be determined. 

As a general rule, the longer an oyster lies the more valuable he 
becomes, so that it pays better to buy small seed and raise large oys- 
ters than to let oysters lie only one year, the increase in price being 
faster than the increment in time. An oyster one year old may be 
considered worth 25 cents to the bushel ; when two years old the 
price is 60 cents j and when three years old it is $1. The actual rate 
of increase in value is, of course, much greater ; for it takes fewer 
oysters to make a bushel at a dollar than at 60 or 25 cents respectively. 

There is, however, more risk connected with allowing an oyster to 
lie three years upon the same bed, than if it lies only one year. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



183 



The risk is much greater in winter than in summer. The principal 
enemy of the oyster is mud and shifting sand. As the oyster cannot 
move, it is smothered when covered up by mud or sand, it requiring 
much less to kill a young oyster than an old one. Thus it happens 
that the mortality is so great that, taking the product of the State in 
it? various conditions, we can expect that the crop harvested will not 
exceed, but will nearly equal, the amount in bushels of seed planted. 

At the present prices the increase in value of oysters as they be- 
come three and four years old is so great that planting pays, even 
when the same number of bushels are harvested as are put down. 
Those who sow thickly expect a less increase than those who sow 
thinly, but have a correspondingly small area to cultivate. 

It would seem at first sight, if a planter harvest 2,000 bushels from 
an acre, that the income from an acre of oyster land should be $2,000, 
the profits of which would be found by subtracting cost of seed, plant- 
ing, harvesting and marketing. Such is not the case. The average 
annual income for all planted ground may be placed at $250 per acre. 
This can be made plain as follows : 

If the planter has just harvested a crop, and he proceeds to plant 
the ground thus laid bare, it will be at least three years before this new 
crop can be harvested. To have a harvest every year he must have 
several plots of ground which have been planted successively. If the 
practice has been to plant thickly, the oysters, as they grow, will crowd 
each other and will require to be shifted upon new ground of larger 
extent. This shifting is done the last season to prepare them for 
market. The oyster is also benefited by the change. So that in the 
history of a marketed oyster, it has twice been artificially shifted or 
transplanted — first, at the beginning of its career, and secondly near 
the close. Nor can ground that has been thickly planted be used 
when cleared of the crop which has lain upon it two or three years, 
bat in practice it is allowed a year's rest. Thus it happens that, in 
cultivating native oysters from the seed, when 1,000 bushels are 
placed upon an acre, that two acres of ground are required before it is 
marketed, and that to market 2,000 bushels, supposed to result from 
1,000 bushels of seed, every year, requires as many times more ground 
as it takes years to mature the oyster. The ground upon which the 
last shift IB made is used every year; and in general when oysters are 
to lie but one year the ground is not allowed to rest as often. Hence 
it comes about that, for the whole State, an area of ground for all oys- 



184 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



ter operations (so long as seed is grown to a greater or less maturity 
elsewhere before it is planted) that three times as much ground must 
be held as is harvested each year. 

For the full operation of raising native oysters from the spat, 
seven acres are needed for every acre put to seed, as can be seen from 
the following diagram, which illustrates the practice at Keyport as 
explained to me by Captain Beadle : 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 



Let this diagram represent an oyster farm just claimed and not yet 
under cultivation. The planter, if he wishes to plant an equal 
amount of seed each year, first plants lot 1 ; the next year lot 2 is 
planted, the third year lot 3 is planted, and the fourth year lot 4 is 
planted, and the three-year-old oysters on lot 1 are taken and spread 
upon 6 and 7. The next spring lot 1 has had only a winter's rest, 
and so lot 5 must be planted. The oysters upon 6 and 7 lie only 
during the summer, but sometimes also the winter, too, when they 
are marketed the next- summer and not in the fall. When 6 and 7 is 
clear and has had its winter's rest, the oysters on 2 are shifted to 
at and lot 1 is planted, while 2 rests and so on, year after year, the 
planting being done in the spring and the harvesting in the fall. 
Under this system oysters are nearly one .year old when first planted 
and four years old when marketed ; but they are technically known 
as three years old, because they have been that long under cultivation. 

Southern seed is supposed by some to exhaust the ground faster 
than native seed. It grows faster and is planted more thickly, but 
does not endure the northern winters well, though in Barnegat bay 
where it spawns so profusely as to injure the planted oysters, it is 
claimed that the offspring of the southern oyster are better acclimated. 
In Raritan bay and northward it has not been known to spawn. 
About one-fourth as much southern seed is planted in New Jersey as 
native seed (the amount growing less year by year). This gives about 
2,250,000 bushels as the total annual plant for the State. Ingersoll 
gave the same figures eight years ago ; but there is evidence of nearly 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 185 



| a one-third increase in the amount planted since 1880, when planters' 
• estimates of growth of the industry at different points have been 
averaged. 

Granting that the lots in the above diagram are acres and that 2,000 
bushels are harvested each year from 6 and 7, a farmer then realizes 
82,000 from 7 acres each year. That is nearly $300 per acre. If 
he gets back an amount equal to the seed he planted, the returns will 
be S150. This figure must be increased by considering the fact that 
one-third of the plants are on the same ground every year, so that 
$250 to the acre is considered an average yield. If the estimate of 
all the ground planted is compared with the total product of the 
State, we get $140 per acre as the result. Our estimate includes more 
than the actual ground under cultivation, but also the entire ground 
held or operated upon (as it were in patches), so that we have no hes- 
itancy, in view of these facts, in placing the productive value of 
ground capable of raising oysters at $200, as the business is at present 
conducted. 

Upon the natural beds each succeeding year's crop struggles for 
existence with the preceding year's crops upon the same ground. 
Under the system of cultivation each season's crop is given its own 
ground, and if all the seed lived it would become necessary to increase 
the area of the plant by shifting each year until the oystere were mar- 
ketable. Such, practically, is not necessary, except to the extent of 
doubling the area planted in the final shifting. Under a system of 
planting to be described further on, this increase in the area for the 
final shifting becomes unnecessary. 

It must always remain a fact that the oyster requires to be shifted, 
and that new ground must be had for the new generations until the 
old generations are marketed. This ground must be paid for, and 
when an oysterman buys southern seed he is paying the southern oys- 
terman for devoting ground to the raising of it. As an offset, he has 
so much more ground himself for the further maturing of the oyster. 
But always the same ratio of ground to the amount raised must be 
maintained. If it should happen that it is more profitable to raise 
rs in their later years than in their earlier, it would follow that 
no one would try to raise seed, and so scarcity would ensue until the 
price of seed rose to a figure to make it profitable to raise it. Matters 
will thus tend naturally to make the increment of value of the oyster 
more nearly correspondent with its age. If certain localities are bet- 



186 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



ter adapted for raising seed than other localities, such localities will 
win in the competition and get the market ; thus it may happen that, 
as in agriculture, seed will be produced by specialists. 

We call attention to these points as bearing upon the consideration 
of the natural beds. The most- efficient way of raising oysters is to 
have but one crop upon the ground at the same time. The demand 
upon the natural beds is so great that each season's crop is taken as 
fast as produced. This result is inevitable, and when reached, it is 
the ideal condition of things. The only question is, can enough seed 
be raised by natural methods upon these beds? We must answer no. 
The beds must be put under cultivation for the purpose of raising 
seed. That this branch of industry, when put into private hands, 
will pay, is evident. 

From the report of the shell-fish commissioners of Connecticut for 
1883, we learn that millions of bushels of shells have been planted on 
private farms and have become covered with blisters, and that " one 
cultivator alone looks for no less than 1,000,000 bushels of market- 
able natives from his own grounds." In this way, in favorable locali- 
ties, each planter can convert his farm into the same sort of a bed as 
a natural bed is before it is depleted. 

Now, the question is, shall our cultivated beds be transformed into 
such beds, where each succeeding generation " blisters " the preceding? 
Shall our waters, when given over to private enterprise, become a vast 
natural bed which is kept from depletion because the private owner is 
interested in keeping it well supplied with shells, or shall certain 
planters " shell " afresh a certain patch each year, catch the spawn and 
sell it as seed to other planters ? Shall there be specialization, or shall 
the primitive condition of things be restored, except that the oyster- 
beds are monopolized by the few ? 

We don't believe that the latter plan is best. What an immense 
amount of culling must be done when the artificial imitation of a 
natural bed is dredged ! What a lot of blistered oysters ! We don't 
think this looks like scientific farming. We propose to develop a 
different plan and leave time to decide which is the more profitable. 
We propose to turn all natural beds into beds to receive seed in suc- 
cessive additions and to have but one crop upon the ground at a time. 
Our plan is not original. It has been in operation for years in 
Europe ; and in America experiments that show its feasibility have 
actually been performed several years ago by John Ryder, of the 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 187 



Fish Commission. But we leave the development and application of 
these methods to the next section. 

Meanwhile we turn to consider our planting grounds in detail : 

Perth Amboy. — I am indebted to David and James Noe for infor- 
mation on the planting, and to Captain John C. Heney for statistics 
on the production the past season at this point. 100 acres are under 
cultivation and some additional plots near Keyport. 45,000 bushels 
of Raritan and Newark bay seed were planted and 60,000 bushels 
harvested last season. Three-fourths of the shipment goes away by 
rail, including some raised on the Staten Island side (Wjhich is not 
counted in the above figures). The planters here wish the mud strips 
that separate the natural beds, could be shelled, either by the State or 
that the State encourage some one to do it as a private venture. 
There are more men now in the business than ten years ago and the 
competition is sharper, and the amount of seed available is scarcer. 
The flavor of the oysters is not up to standard, supposed to be due to 
the effect of the refuse from factories. A steam dredge is hired at 
$40 a day to take up oysters. Mud is the worst enemy and prevents 
a large extent of ground from being used. 

Ingersoll's figures for Perth Amboy are 100,000 bushels for 
1880. Probably the Staten Island product is included. 

Keyport. — I am indebted to Captain Beadle, T. S. R. Brown, T. 
C. Mason and William De Groff for information at this point. 

The cultivated area forms a patch opposite the town, containing two 
and one-half square miles (according to a survey made by George 
Cooper, of Red Bank), about 1,600 acres, not all of which is under' 
cultivation. There are over 40 planters, owning each from 2 to 10 
acres. About 200 acres are devoted to southern stock, and of the 
remainder probably only 800 acres are planted with " natives." East 
river seed is not in favor here, the theory being that an oyster to do 
well must be planted into water salter than that from which it came, 
or at least not fresher. 

The business the past season is not up to the average, although 
there has been a slight increase over 8 years ago. Summing up the 
amounts produced by the different planters gives 210,000 baskets of 
5 pecks each, equaling 262,500 bushels. But one-third of what was 
expected was dead when harvested, the real amount taken up being 



188 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



toward 400,000 bushels. The amount of Chesapeakes handled may 
roughly be taken as equal to this extra third, and so we can place the 
amount of native seed represented in the above harvest at 200,009 
bushels, at an average cost of 40 eents. 

IngersolFs figures for 8 years ago give 25,000 bushels natives, 
160,000 bushels southern, besides what was operated by New York 
©apital through agents who were citizens of New Jersey. 

The steam dredge is used in waters over 3 fathoms deep. 

There is a desire here to have the State enact laws with reference to 
the exportation of oysters of a size below a given standard, making 
it illegal to export seed, as in Delaware. This might give slight, 
though temporary relief, but let everything be done that can possibly 
be suggested, so long as the natural beds are public property they 
must not only continue depleted, but finally disappear, and the in- 
creasing supplies of seed needed must be obtained from other sources. 
For the present, the planting of shells by certain parties will give 
those parties enough seed, and possibly some to spare. Still, it is to 
be feared that by this method alone the price of seed will rise so as to 
drive out of business many planters, prevent others from entering 
business, and cause a smaller amount to be planted each year until the 
oyster product of New Jersey will not equal its present extent. Other 
States that have let out all the waters to private culture will supply 
the world's markets with the bulk of oysters consumed, and New 
Jersey will not keep in the front rank. In 1880 New Jersey ranked 
third in the amount of oysters produced, Maryland leading with 
10,000,000 bushels, and Virginia coming next in order. The product 
in the South will gradually decrease, and, because of the great natural 
advantages, artificial cultivation will be long delayed. There is no 
reason why New Jersey should not, within a few years, if a wise, pro- 
gressive course be pursued, step to the front in the rank of oyster 
production. 

Give the oysterman privileges like those of the ordinary agricul- 
turist, and his private interests will coincide with those of the com- 
munity. If he finds it more profitable to export seed, the community 
will be benefited because he is benefited. Only under a system of 
restrictive legislation is it necessary to be continually regulating the 
industry ^ 

Shrewsbury River. — I am indebted to Capt. Rhodes, of Red Bank, 
and George B. Snyder, of Fair Haven, for information here. The 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 189 



( North Shrewsbury or Navesink river is the principal seat of oyster- 
i planting. The planters have comfortable homes on the banks of the 
I river opposite their plantations. About 600 acres are under cultiva- 
i tion, held by about 15 planters, in lots of 10 to 100 acres each. 
| Each day for 9 months from 30 to 125 barrels of oysters are shipped 
j by rail, or an average of 50 barrels per day, at $5 per barrel. About 
i as many go away by water, so that 70,000 bushels, worth over 
| $100,000, may be regarded as the annual export. Ingersoll's estimate 
of 8200,000 must be regarded as excessive. 

Here the borer is the principal enemy. The clammers are also 
charged with foraging upon oyster-beds. In the upper part of the 
river in July a sort of " fermentation " of the bottom takes place, *by 
which a poisonous scum is produced that kills the oyster. One 
planter at the head of the tidal area lost $10,000 worth through this 
cause, combined with the coming on of a freshet of water. This 
" fermentation " needs more careful study. It is probably not all 
due to simple decay of vegetation, though that in itself is a process 
due to the action of living germs, and thus a biological phenomenon. 

BamegaL — At this point I am indebted to L. G. Mitchell, George 
Hollingsworth and L. W. Bugby for information. 

About 125 acres are under cultivation, but "there are thousands 
of acres of good ground unused." Much ground, especially that in 
the bay (for here the planters hug the shore), is not used, because there 
is a lack of current and an invasion of eel grass, which, in decaying, 
settles upon the oysters. The bay is quite shallow. The business 
has increased much of late, the newer planters planting more than 
their predecessors combined. Eight years ago the product was 8,000 
bushels. Three years ago a Connecticut planter invested $75,000 in 
the business at this point, planted 14,000 bushels, and also laid down 
shells upon which he obtained a good set. This gave a stimulus to 
the business. The other planters extended their operations and laid 
down shells for spat with success. In fact, the spawn catches too 
well, and the old crop is in danger of being smothered and so can't be 
marketed before the new crop is ready. This is especially true of the 
Chesapeakes. Seed costs 40 cents a bushel. The product this year 
was below the average, but estimated on the number of acres the 
product should be 30,000 bushels. 



190 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Manahawkin. — Here I met Messrs. Jesse Wilkins and Throck- 
morton. There being no set on the natural beds, the scarcity of home 
seed compelled the use of foreign stock, which does not market so 
readily as the native. The business is thought to have doubled since 
1880. The product is thus 10,000 bushels, requiring 50 acres. 

The oysters this year were poor, though some found on the piles 
of the railroad bridge were extra good. Mr. Throckmorton experi- 
mented by planting brush, upon which spat fastened. When winter 
approached the decayed twigs were broken off at the level of low 
water, so the ice did not carry them off. The next year the oysters 
had dropped off and were found upon the bottom in rows where the 
brush had been. The decay of wood generally causes oysters to drop 
off, after having been fastened some time to it. The excellent condi- 
tion of these oysters that grow up from the bottom is worthy of note. 
The minute life of the ocean is generally richest near the surface, 
except when inclement weather drives it down. This gives the oyster 
that is raised up from the bottom a chance at the food before it 
reaches the bottom. Besides, if . the oyster could remain in its 
elevated position, at least through its younger stages, the danger of 
being smothered by mud is very much decreased. It has been found 
of advantage in planting shells to catch spat, to throw them in heaps. 
An enemy not so easily controlled is the decaying sea-weed, which 
causes a sulphurous or other distillation product, which kills the 
oyster and blackens the white paint on boats. 

West Creek. — Here I met the station agent, who gave estimates of 
the export, and George Seaman, R. J. Rutter and Joseph P. Hay- 
wood furnished additional information. Four planters alone have 
45,000 bushels of seed planted. This fall not many oysters were fit 
for market. Last season's shipment by rail was 27,000 bushels, said 
to be about one-half of all the oysters produced, many going away 
in boats to Atlantic City, &c. 

The planted beds extend from Long Point on the north, to Edge 
Cove and opposite Barrel Island on the south, and include about 640 
acres. About 300 bushels are planted to the acre and the same 
amount is expected as a product. " Nine-tenths " of this ground 
is also used for clamming. 

More people are engaged in clamming than in oystering. About 
$500 per week, or $20,000 a year, is the income from this source. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



191 



Southern seed is used in part and does well. Cedar Creek seed 
yields four-fold. A black mussel sometimes invades the bay and is 
supposed to appear in great numbers whenever the oysters are poor, 
and so it is thought to eat the food the oyster lives on. This enemy 
can be turned to some account, as it is taken up by the wagon-load 
and sold as a fertilizer at $1 a load. 

Tuckerton. — The ' following gentlemen furnished information at 
this point : C. A. Ireland, station agent ; John T. Burton, James 
Speck, H. W. Sapp and Ed. Stites, oyster shippers and planters, and 
F. R. Austen, shipper of clams. This is the principal point in New 
Jersey from which clams are shipped, although only a portion of the 
clams produced in the waters in its vicinity are exported from Tuck- 
erton. (See the section on the extent, &c, of the clamming industry.) 
From 200 to 500 men can be seen at one time in Great bay, taking 
clams. They complain much of the encroachments of the oyster 
planters on their grounds. 

The planted oyster grounds cover about 125 acres. Two hundred 
bushels of seed are put upon an acre and 200 bushels of marketable 
oysters are expected. About as many oysters leave by water as by 
rail. The growth of oyster-planting has been rapid here, and the for- 
mer pre-eminence of the clamming interests is now in danger of 
extinction. In 1887 there were 5,321 sacks and some few barrels of 
oysters exported by rail. In 1888, up to October 9th, 6,000 sacks of 
oysters had been shipped. From these data we may estimate the 
product to be about 30,000 bushels. There is a large export by 
water to Atlantic City. One person stated that he thought 20 clams 
were taken to one oyster, which by bushel measure equal's ten times 
as many. Another more moderately put the clam product at four 
times that of the oysters at that point. 

From here south into Cape May county oysters are not allowed to 
be taken up until a month later than elsewhere in the State. Mullica 
river seed (gravel ings) is used, which requires longer to mature (be- 
cause it is hard shelled) than the Cedar Creek seed. When shells are 
planted as spat collectors it is done in August. Small shells are pre- 
ferred as not receiving so many blisters to a bunch. The oysters now 
down, that were ready for market, are badly blistered. When winter 
approaches oysters are transferred into deeper water, to put them out of 
the reach of the ice and cold. 



192 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Absecon. — The freight agent and Elmer Champion were consulted.. 

During the three summer months 900 bushels per day are shipped 1 
by rail. The remainder of the year a half oar-load of oysters and 
clams leaves daily. The yearly shipment may be put at 60,000 busk- 
els, which represents at least 500 acres of cultivated ground. Clams 
are said to be worth only 30 cents, and oysters are more profitable. 
Southern seed used to be planted, but it was so apt to winter-kill that 
Mullica seed is now preferred. Eel grass is the -great enemy, render- 
ing most of the area of the bays unfit for use. The foraging of 
clammers upon the oyster-beds is complained of. 

PUasantville and Lake's Bay. — G. L. Cake, of the West Jersey 
station, and J. Price, of the Reading railroad freight offiee, and A. 
Fish, shipper of oysters and clams from Smith's Landing, were con- 
sulted. 

The bulk of the shipment leaves the Reading station. About 
70,000 bushels are shipped, mostly in the summer; 15,000 of these 
are raised in Lake's bay, where 300 acres are under cultivation. 
Nearly as much more yields clams, and the rest of the bay is invaded 
by eel grass, so as to be unfit for use. 

Somers Point. — The station agent, W. H. Keates, was consulted. 
From 60,000 to 70,000 bushels of oysters are annually shipped, prin- 
cipally in sacks, in early summer and fall. The planting is mostly 
in the creeks, and Virginia seed is most in favor. Over 200 car- 
loads have been planted the past season. 

Cape May County. — This was not investigated as to its oyster pro- 
duction except from neighboring points. But little could be learned. 
The estimate of Ingersoll for 1879-80, of 60,000 bushels, will surely 
cover the extent of the industry at present. One-third of this is used 
by the hotels. Both Southern and native seed (of poor quality) are 
used. 

Maurice River Cove. — The principal shipping point is at Long 
Reach, on the Maurice river, near Port Norris, a spur of the Jersey 
Southern road running thither. On the opposite side of the river at 
Maurice River station, is the terminus of a branch of the West Jersey 
road. At these points the packing-houses are closely crowded together, 
opening upon the river, with its fleet of oyster boats, on one side, and 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 193 



upon the railroad tracks on the other. Twenty of the largest shippers 
were consulted individually. In 1880 there were 8 large planters 
; operating 6,000 acres. Now there are over 20 operating 70 square 
miles. They 'plant now 8 miles from shore, in 24 feet of water, where 
(the boats are exposed to heavy seas. Of the large area included, a 
; large proportion is not in use. The old ground has been largely 
abandoned, as it was found that the oysters grew better on the new 
I ground, farther out. Much of the bottom, too, is shifting and treach- 
lerous, so that, perhaps, not more than 10,000 acres maybe considered 
I as occupied by " plants." 

The Collector of the port, Benjamin F. Campbell, has 385 vessels 
registered as engaged in taking up and planting oysters. About half 
belong to Port Norris people. Each has a capacity ranging from 
150 to 300 baskets, and can fill this each working day from Septem- 
ber 1st to January ; 200 of them run to Philadelphia with oysters 
directly. There are more oysters now planted than ever before, and 
seed is scarce. The quality of the oysters here has not been uni- 
versally as good, for some years back, as formerly, although some of 
the planters do not complain in this direction. In the lower part of 
the bay the borers are bad. A Baltimore company lost 60,000 bush- 
els of seed by this pest one season. The stirring up of the bottom 
by waves and currents buries thousands of bushels. 

The freight agent, W. S. Lambert, estimated that an average of 20 
car-loads left daily during the season, sometimes rising to 40 car-loads, 
the capacity of a car being 100 sacks of 1,000 oysters each (nearly 
four bushels). Thirty-seven years ago only §3,000 was invested. Now 
one of the boats alone is worth $7,000. One year 20,220 sacks of 
oysters were sold from one dock (Captain Stites's). 

Through the kindness of the editor, F. R. Fithian, I received a 
copy of the Bridgeton Chronicle for September 5th, 1888, from 
which I quote as follows: " There are now twenty-five prominent 
shippers and planters who own their own vessels and grounds and 
have invested over 83,000,000 in the industry, employing 430 vessels 
and 2,000 men. Last year they handled 280,000,000 oysters by 
actual count. These were shipped in 3,000 freight cars to all points 
in the Middle States, and some beyond, but principally to Philadel- 
phia, New York, Trenton and Newark. These were worth at the 
wharves about §1,000,000. The oysters are all shipped in sacks 
averaging 1,000 to the sack." 

13 



194 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



A million bushels of oysters represent the average export by rail 
from Delaware bay, and to this we must add a quarter of a million 
bushels that are shipped to Philadelphia by water ; but it must be 
borne in mind that the larger part of the latter is grown on the 
western side of the bay, where Jerseymen also do considerable plant- 
ing, 312,000 bushels of Jersey seed being transferred to the Delaware 
side. 

According to Capt. L. E. Yates, of Port Norris, only about 600,000 
bushels (in round numbers) left Port Norris by rail during the last sea- 
son (which has been an exceptionally poor one) and 80,000 bushels 
were shipped by water. One and a quarter million bushels of native 
Jersey seed were planted on the two sides of the bay. In our statis- 
tical table we have preferred to use the figures for a prosperous 
rather than for an exceptionally poor year, in order to obtain a fair 
idea of the value of oyster land. 

According to Ingersoll, one and a half million bushels left 
Port Norris, mostly by water, in 1880. We see that as the railroad 
shipment has increased, the water export has correspondingly 
decreased. In 1880, it is also reported that two and a half million 
bushels of seed were planted, including southern stock. But now, 
according to Captain Yates, only about 15,000 bushels of southern 
stock are planted on the Jersey side. 

The product the past season was not up to the average. The com- 
petition is very great and some of the planters fear bankruptcy. The 
seed is obtained in April and May, up to June 15th, by sail-boats 
operating dredges. Some contend that dredging benefits the beds by 
breaking up, cleaning and scattering the shells, and others, with good 
reasons, think the young oyster, with its tender shell, is injured so 
that a very large percentage of seed dies after planting, which con- 
sequently requires heavier seeding to be done and hence comes scarcity 
of seed. The great mortality of the seed is ascribed by some to a 
lack of observing the right time for planting it, either planting too 
early, when the weather is too cold, or too late, when it is too warm. 

The oysters have failed of fatness, which some lay to overcrowd- 
ing, and others to easterly weather driving in the clear and Salter 
water and stirring up the bottom. It is surprising how the experi- 
ence of 50 years, which some of these planters have had, has failed 
to make the planter acquainted with the nature of the product he is 
raising, so that each plant is considered a lottery, and if looked at as 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



195 



an experiment, gives contradictory results. No one claims to be able 
beforehand to say that a given plant of seed upon a given bottom, 
will be successful or unsuccessful. Some boats have several grounds, 
so that if one venture fails others may retrieve the loss by being suc- 
cessful. 

All boats pay a tax of 50 cents a ton to maintain a police-boat to 
watch the beds. This is not sufficient, however; some planters aver 
that they would willingly pay three times as much to be sure of pro- 
tection. Here, as at Key port, there is an Oystermen's Association, 
but there is a want of co-operative unity necessary to secure beneficial 
legislative action. Oae planter wants to be allowed to take up his 
oysters at any time, and auother thinks this would increase the op- 
portunities for stealing. 

Delaware boats get seed on the Jersey side ; and again, several Jer- 
seymen plant in Delaware waters. The laws against these things can 
easily be evaded. There is complaint that seed is taken from the 
natural beds during the spawning months. Some desire to be allowed 
to get seed from the creeks. Others think that if no seed were 
allowed to leave the State that there would be seed enough. We have 
seen how small a fraction of seed actually does leave the State, so that, 
even if we retained this, when a slight increase in the amount of oys- 
ters planted, should occur, we would be as hard up for seed as ever. 
Under the present system, even if we had the best observance of the 
laws, and special legislation added to confer local benefits, by shelling 
bed-, &c., there never can be a serious extension of business. If ex- 
tension does occur it will be because, to a greater or less extent, shell- 
ing fur spawn by the oystermen themselves has succeeded. But even 
this method is only a crude makeshift, and not scientific agriculture. 
Think of a florist setting out flower-pots near a plant with ripe seeds, 
that haply some seeds may fall upon his prepared soil and take root ! 

Those who have an abundance of seed planted, advise that the 
natural beds be allowed a two years' rest, so they may recuperate. If 
a bed is not very much depleted it can recover in one year; but a 
single year's operations would again leave it bare. If it be much 
depleted it may require ten or thirty years to restore it to its original 
condition, unless there be present many suitable objects as spat col- 
lectors. 

Summary. — About 14,990 acres, or less, are under cultivation, 
yielding a product of 2,052,000 bushels, or that many dollars. Add- 



196 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



ing the clamming industries, the revenue to the people from its mol- 
luscan fisheries amounts to two and a quarter million dollars annually. 
But the State receives not a cent of tax from the land-property which 
is held by planters in order to yield this income. A great future lies 
before oyster culture. Our waters are capable of yielding ten times 
as great a revenue to the people and a corresponding revenue to the 
State, if the industry be placed legally upon its proper footing, by the 
giving up of the tide- waters to the people to hold and cultivate as 
any other land, and paying the proper taxes thereon. 

6. 

MEANS FOR IMPROVING THE OYSTER-CULTURAL INDUSTRY. 

There are two great, pressing wants felt among oystermen, which,, 
if not overcome in some way, will forever prevent any further growth 
of the business. One is the lack of seed and the other is the lack of 
ground which may be considered safe to plant on. Planting upon 
risky ground — ground which is liable to shift and to bury the oysters — 
is the main cause of the feeling among oystermen that the business is 
a lottery. There are other enemies that come in to help annoy and 
rob the planter, but if the planter could feel sure of his bottom he 
would be in a better condition to cope with secondary enemies. To a 
certain extent, there are practicable methods now in use looking to 
improvement in these directions. In Connecticut, which, with Rhode 
Island, leads America in progressive ostraculture, the raising of 
seed hyl planting shells is a successful and accomplished fact. That 
this method has its limitations, is crude and uses up a great deal of 
ground, must be clear, but it is the quickest way of solving a present 
difficulty, while theorists and scientists are slowly making their dis- 
coveries. 

A great deal can be done to overcome the other difficulties. One 
Connecticut planter lost his oysters from the stirring up of the bottom, 
caused by storms, until he went out into deep water ; he needed 40 
feet of water to keep his oysters safe. That is deeper planting than 
is practiced in New Jersey. A muddy bottom, that is so soft as to 
allow the oysters to sink in it, has been converted into a bottom capable 
of bearing up an oyster by having 200 tons of beach sand per acre 
spread over" it. In some cases, to keep off the sea, breakwaters need 
to be constructed. In case of our own Barnegat bay, it would be an* 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 197 

improvement to cut canals through the beach at different points, to 
increase the current. 

We shall now turn to a consideration of the artificial raising of seed. 

In the seventh century, Sergius Orata is said to have practiced rais- 
ing seed artificially, in enclosed brackish ponds. In later times these 
methods have been used in Fusaro lake, as follows : 

Heaps of stones were made, upon which spawners were placed ; 
a circle of stakes were driven around each heap and bundles of brush- 
wood suspended between the stakes so as to catch all the spawn that 
was sent forth. When the East River seed raiser plants ten bushels 
of spawners to the acre, which has just been covered with shells, he 
acts on the same general principles but goes to work on a grander 
scale, yet with less artificial conditions. In France, specially-prepared 
tiles covered with a coat of whitewash and hydraulic cement, in alter- 
nate layers, have been suspended with the spawners or put upon oyster- 
beds ; and the spat that attached itself could be peeled off. In 1879, 
Lieut. Winslow repeated these experiments successfully in Big An- 
nemessex river. 

In Europe, these experiments are usually conducted in enclosed 
ponds, into which sea-water enters only at the highest point of the tide. 
A sluice gate keeps back the water when the flow occurs. In 1879, 
Brooks discovered that the American oyster was bisexual, and thus 
he was enabled to fertilize the eggs artificially, by mixing the milt 
and roe. (The difference between these two fluids is not discernible 
except to the microscope.) 

By this means we can control conditions so perfectly as to temper- 
ature and state of water, that we can insure the fertilization of every 
egg, which, in a state of nature, is left to chance. Thus, it becomes a 
possibility to rear millions of oysters from a single pair. We can 
guard and nourish the young embryo and give it objects of attach- 
ment. It is possible to conduct these experiments on a small scale, 
but with magnificent results. Seed for several acres can be generated 
in a small tank. This tank can be enclosed in a building with appa- 
ratus for maintaining a proper temperature, so that all the young are 
properly started on their career. It is even possible to experiment in 
the f eeding of these embryos by introducing into the water different salts 
needed for the building of the shell. The field for experiment opens out 
grandly. We shall thus have oyster-hatching houses along our coast, 
from which any area can be stocked with seed, just as now the fresh- 
water ponds and brooks are stocked from the ordinary fish hatchery. 



198 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



In 1883, John A. Ryder, of the United States Fish Commission, 
succeeded in raising spat from artificially-fertilized eggs. Following 
the French method, he had excavated out of a salt marsh near Stock- 
ton, Md., a small pond, which he stocked with the embryos that re- 
sulted from the mixture of milt and roe, and, by inserting tiles in 
this pond, he succeeded in collecting the spat and watching it grow. 

Just as the ordinary fish hatchery has its ponds, so the oyster 
hatchery must have its ponds. The large extent of salt marsh of this 
State, over 200,000 acres, can be covered with ponds for the raising 
of seed. The ponds can easily be stocked, and each planter can have 
a pond near his planting grounds. It would be well to have two 
series of ponds, one series of small extent, which can be protected from 
sudden changes, and in which the early history of the blister is passed j 
then a series of ponds of at least three or four feet depth, and having 
a considerable area, into which the spat can be transferred to pass the 
winter. From these ponds seed one year old can be transferred to the 
planting grounds as ordinarily. 

There remains but one hitch in all this beautiful arrangement — a 
difficulty which no one has succeeded as yet in overcoming. All these 
operations have been successfully carried out on both sides of the At- 
lantic, but the labor of rearing the spat, the expense of furnishing the 
collectors, and other incidental labors, have been so great that, com- 
pared with the method of shelling with intermixed spawners, it has 
cost many times more and yielded a crop of insignificant magnitude, 
because of the cost of the collectors. 

A large portion of the country bordering the coast of New Jersey 
is so sandy as to raise nothing but stunted piues and cedars. To what 
use can these be put ? Growing, as they do, in proximity to the oys- 
ter-beds, why should they not be used as spat collectors ? Mr. Jesse 
Wilkins, of Manahawkin, informed me that the matter had come up 
in a conversation at Toms River, and that he had recommended cedar 
brush, as its bark was less likely to peel off. The thought now de- 
veloped in my mind as follows : Cut the cedars and pines down, trim 
them, sharpen their butts, leave the coarser branches to stick out in 
all directions, for a certain distance, plant these bristling stakes in the 
mud, the deeper the water the longer the stake, and thus capture the 
spawn, as did the mustard-seed tree the fowls of the air, and so raise 
oysters as one would apples. 

Certain things are evident. In the first place, the condition of the 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



199 



bottom would not affect the oyster ; it could not be buried either in 
sand or mud. In the second place, the number of oysters growing 
on each tree would be greater than what could be supported on the 
ground beneath the tree ; and in the third place, the bottom would 
never become worn out. Thus it would require a much smaller area 
to raise a given quantity of oysters, and the oysterman could have his 
choice to get this, for he would not have to consider the bottom. 

Tongs and dredges would have to give way to new machines, adapted 
to planting these trees and taking them up laden with oysters. Each 
planter could have his stamp or name upon his trees, by which they could 
always be recognized ; and so he could claim his goods if he found 
them in possession of a thief. The deeper the water the taller the 
tree, the more oysters to the square yard of sea surface, so that there 
would be some compensation to the 'planter who would have to work 
out far from land. 

This is the cultivation of oysters, no longer upon a surface, but 
vertically in relation to the depth of water, and hence the name 
Bathymetric oyster culture. Suppose it should be found that some 
or many of the oysters let go their hold through the decay of 
the wood, &c., then, of course, the bottom would be also covered with 
oysters, which could be dredged after the poles were pulled. But it 
is possible to treat wood so it won't decay, and it is also possible to 
make wicker-like cages at different heights upon these trees by bind- 
ing the limbs together with grape vine, so that the falling oyster 
would be caught before it reached the ground. This is not a feasible 
plan, but it led to a feasible plan, in my mind. 

Cut off all the branches on the tree and convert the trunk into a 
smooth stake. Next, get galvanized wire netting made into little 
crates. Dip these crates into a viscous paste made of clay and lime, 
gravel, &c. Bake it as tiles are burned and you have an excellent 
apparatus to which the spat will fasten. Use these as spat collectors 
in the oyster hatcheries. While the spat is small they can be pretty 
closely packed. As the spat grows the crates can be attached to 
stakes, which get longer and longer as the crates need to be placed 
further and further apart. As the stake increases in length, so should 
also the depth of the water, and so year by year the oysters march 
out to sea until they are marketable. 

An oyster grove would then appear similar to, and need the same gen- 
eral kind of supervision as a vineyard. The trouble the vine grower 
has with boys who like grapes would find its parallel in that of the 



200 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



planter who lies in wait for the oyster thief. So much for theory ; the 
future is for experiments testing the theory. 

The future is big with developments for this industry, which is so 
like ordinary agriculture, yet so far behind it in its progressive devel- 
opment. We should not be surprised to see the day when we shall 
talk of breeds of oysters, as now we do of hogs. A celebrated 
spawner may come to cost several hundred dollars. The wild boar 
is no more unlike the domestic hog of pure breed than our present 
oyster is like that of the future. 

7." 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF THE OYSTER INDUSTRY OF 
NEW JERSEY. 



LOCALITIES. 


Area in Acres of Nat- 
ural Beds. 


No. of Bushels of Na- 
tive Seed Planted or 
Produced, &c. 


Area of Planted 
Grounds. 


No. of Bushels of Oys- 
ters Marketed. 




1,000 
1,000 


20,000* 
2,000* 
45,000 
200,000 














125 
1,600 
600 
125 
75 
640 
125 


60,000 
262,000 
100,COOf 
20,000 
10,000 
60,000 
30,000 












13000 


15,000 
10,000 
50,000 
15,000 


Manahawkin 


West Creek 








Mullica River 


4,000 


Absecon, &c 


60,000 
15,000 
15,000 
10,000 

1,250,000;}: 


500 
600 
300 
300 

10,000 


60,000 
70,000 
70,000 
60,000 

1,250,0002 


Pleasantville, &c 












Maurice River Cove and 
Delaware Bay 


60,000 


Totals 


79,000 


1,707,000$ 


14,990 


2,052,000|| 


Averages 


| About 20 bus. to acre, \ 
\ worth from $5 to $10. j 


f Nearly $140 income per 
{ acre ^ 




Clams 


( Clams are produced by 100,000 acres, yielding fc an in- 
< come of $2.00 per acre. By this and the oyster 



* Includes only what is produced, that is not planted in State, 
t Includes also South Shrewsbury. 

J This estimate is below the average. It will be safe to place the yield of native oysters in 
the State at 2,000,000 bushels. 

?The yield for 1888 was less than two-thirds of this amount, but was exceptionally small. 
II This may be read either as bushels or as dollars. 

IT The estimate of acres of planted ground is purposely taken as too large. The income 
usually expected is between $200 and $300 per acre. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



201 



The annual income to the people along the coast can be safely 
placed at two and a quarter million dollars, from both the oyster and 
the clam fisheries. The population of the townships bordering the 
beds and the planting grounds, excluding all north of Perth Amboy 
and all sea-side resorts, is 62,389. All of these are not engaged 
directly in these fisheries, but they depend upon them for support, the 
presence of the capital, and the earnings of those who are engaged in 
the business. 

The figures in the above table are only estimates, it being well-nigh 
impossible to obtain data that could be considered as accurate. The 
method by which they were obtained is discussed in separate sections 
and paragraphs of the report. 

The gathering of these statistics was not the chief aim of the Biolo- 
gist, but rather by this means to lead up to higher experimental work 
upon which progress in oyster and fish culture of the future so largely 
depends. The writer believes that all who are interested in oyster 
culture should labor to make this industry resemble farming as far as 
possible. He asks and confidently expects the hearty co-operation of 
intelligent persons interested in the business, in undertaking practical 
and theoretical investigations, seeking a better knowledge of the laws 
of life, growth and reproduction of oysters and other food fish, their 
enemies and their food. 

JULIUS NELSON. 



202 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGIST. 



A Department of Entomology was determined upon early in the- 
season of 1888 and an Entomologist appointed. 

The design of the department is in the main, first, to ascertain the 
habits and history of insects, that the best means may be found for 
preventing the ravages of those that are destructive and for preserv- 
ing those that are beneficial, and second, to establish a museum where 
the insects of the State, in their various stages of development, may 
be seen and the methods of their work and its results be exhibited. 

To the most of people insects are but vermin, sometimes appear- 
ing in such numbers as to be temporarily destructive, but not consid- 
ered of sufficient importance to be worthy of serious study ; indeed, 
an interest in them is by many judged to be evidence of a depraved 
taste, if not an evidence that the one interested is mentally a little 
" off." We will, therefore, be pardoned if we speak a few words at 
this time showing the economic importance of their study in view of 
the destruction caused by them. 

It is probable that the injury done by insects is very much less felt 
in New Jersey than in any other State in the Union. New Jersey 
has very considerable variation in the character of its soil and there 
is a very considerable variation in the altitude of its surface above 
the sea ; because of these it is hardly possible that the State can suffer 
universally from any insect pests. Apart from these, however, there 
is perhaps no other State which has so great a variety of generally- 
cultivated products, or in which the cultivation of the soil is so close 
and continuous. Being, to a great extent, the kitchen garden of New 
York and Philadelphia, a large part of the time and work of its 
agriculturists is given to truck farming, and as a necessity the pro- 
ducts are varied, follow one another rapidly, and constant cultivation 
of the soil is required. A succession of the same crop year after 
year and a comparatively little cultivation of the soil are both favor- 
able to the development of insect life, and the methods and require- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



ments of truck farming are an unintended but constant battle against 
insect pests. It is hardly possible, therefore, that New Jersey can 
experience any such general evil as more or less constantly comes to 
many other States through the ravages of the Hessian fly, the chinch 
bug, the cotton worm and the Rocky Mountain locust. Our farmers 
and gardeners are rarely dependent upon one or very few products, and 
whatever losses may come through insect agency, there is never a loss 
which is entire. 

But while all this is true, insects are neither exterminated nor in- 
active in our State, and the loss by their agency is probably much 
greater than the most of people realize. I have not the data as yet 
upon which to base even an approximate estimate, but from what I 
have learned I am quite confident that the money loss to the State 
through the agency of insects is equal to all losses by all other natural 
agencies of destruction combined, disease only excepted. In certain 
staple crops the annual loss is not less than hundreds of thousands of 
dollars. I am led to believe, for example, that the cranberry crop is 
not half what it would be if it were not for the injuries directly or 
indirectly caused by the web, fire and tip worms. In the vicinity of 
New York many gardeners have entirely given up the endeavor to 
raise early cauliflower, owing to the destruction caused by the root 
worm, and late cabbages on account of the ravages of the caterpillar 
of the cabbage butterfly, among other causes. The apple crop is pretty 
largely a failure by reason of the codling moth, and hardly an 
attempt is made to raise plums, on account of the curculio. 

Besides these and other evils a means of loss every year over nearly 
or quite all of the State, there are every year losses more or less local, 
but whose aggregate is by no means small. The army worm, wire 
worms, cut worms, rose and grape beetles, the peach and apple borers, 
are pretty sure to show themselves as very destructive somewhere. 
We think, therefore, our estimate under, rather than above the truth. 

It is unfortunately true, for various reasons, that many of these 
insects are not under the control of any agencies man may bring to 
bear upon them, and as a consequence little or nothing can be done 
against their ravages. But it is as well true that a very great deal 
of injury may be averted by the watchful energetic farmer. There 
is no greater insect pest than the Colorado potato beetle. If nothing 
were done against it, I have no doubt not a potato would be raised in 
thfc State. But as all know, it is easily kept under control. So, very 
many of our insects may be just as easily guarded against. 



204 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



During the season of 1-888 special research and experiments were 
made upon " the insects injurious to cabbage and the best means of 
preventing their ravages." The results were published in a special 
bulletin (No. 50) of the Experiment Station, which has been dis- 
tributed throughout the State and which may be had at the Experi- 
ment Station, and to this we call special attention. 

A number of other insects have been reported as injurious in various 
parts of the State, the grape in the southern part of the State seeming 
to have come in for more than its share. 

The greater portion of inquiry, however, has been made with 
regard to certain insects which have proved to be especially destructive 
to shade trees in our cities and villages. Of one or more of these the 
various State Entomologists have given detailed histories and have 
published information as to the best methods of destruction ; also, a 
special bulletin upon the subject was issued by the Department of 
Agriculture, in which the most complete information was given. We 
give a summary of the history and point out remedies of a few of the 
worst of these. Those which are the most injurious in New Jersey 
are the white-marked tussock moth [Orgyia leucostigma, A. & S.), 
the bag worm (Thyridopteryx ephemerceformis, Haw.), the elm-leaf 
beetle (Galeruca xanthomelcena, Schrank), and the cottony maple 
scale louse (Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathvon). Of these we will 
give only a very brief outline of history and methods of destruction. 

THE WHITE-MAEKED TUSSOCK MOTH. 

(Orgyia leucostigma, A. & S.) 

The caterpillar of this moth is an almost universal feeder. It has 
something of a preference for the horse-chestnut, but in our gardens 
freely devours the leaves of apple, pear and quince trees. We have 
seen a number of these trees, the leaves of which were almost entirely 
destroyed. In our latitude the insect is only in part two-brooded, the 
great majority of the eggs laid by the first brood remaining unhatched 
until the following spring. The male is a small moth with broad, 
dark ashen wings, with a somewhat conspicuous white mark on each 
fore wing. The female is entirely wingless, and, emerging from the 
cocoon, rarely leaves its outside. The eggs are laid in a mass on the 
outside of the cocoon from which the female emerges, and, as laid, are 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 205 




Fig. 1. 

The White-Marked Tussock Moth ; Orgyia leucostigma, A. & S. 
a, female on cocoon; b, young larva; c, pupa, female; d, pupa, male; e, moth, male; un- 
lettered figure, larva full grown.— (After U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 

covered with a white, frothy substance, which soon hardens; the 
whole mass forms a conspicuous object. 

The caterpillars, with their tufts of hairs (black, yellow and coral 
red), are most beautiful objects. The English sparrow never touches 
them, and the birds that do — the robin, cuckoo and oriole — are not 
suffered to live by the street gamin with his " bean-shooter," and the 
so-called " hunters" who pour out of our cities on Sundays and holi- 
days ; and all this in contempt and defiance of law. The caterpillars 
are troubled to a comparatively little extent by parasites, though we 
have known whole masses of eggs to be thus destroyed. But alto- 
gether the insects have multiplied until they have become a very great 
pest. Becoming full grown, the caterpillars make a loose cocoon of 
the hairs which cover their bodies, locating it between leaves on the 
trees, but generally in cracks of the bark, in convenient tree boxes, 
and along fences and buildings. 

REMEDIES. 

In the winter-time it is easy to collect and destroy the greater por- 
tion of the egg masses. We would advise, however, what would be 



206 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



very much better, namely, collect them, and, without destroying, 
remove them to some raft or float entirely surrounded with water and 
leave them till the following summer. The caterpillars hatching 
would starve and die, but the parasites hatching and having the power 
of flight would be spared to destroy the eggs of those that had not 
been collected, and thus so decidedly add to the work of destroying 
the insects that it might be years before they would again assume the 
form of a pest. 

As is the case with all leaf-eating caterpillars, they can be easily 
destroyed by spraying the infested trees with arsenical poisons. 




Fig. 2. 
THE BAG WORM. 



(Thyridopteryx ephemerceformis, Haw) 

a, larva; b, pupa, male; c, moth, female; d, moth, male; e, bag cut open to show eggs; 
/, full-grown larva with bag ; g, young larvae with conical coverings.— (After U. S. Department 
of Agriculture.) 

This insect, in the caterpillar state, lives in a bag composed of bits 
of leaves bound together with a mass of silk. It is an almost uni- 
versal feeder, rather preferring cedar and arbor vita?, though seem- 
ingly fond of Norway and silver maple. It is single-brooded and the 
moths appear in early September. 

The male is blackish, having wings for the most part transparent. 
The female is wingless, grub-like, and never leaves its basket. The 
sexes mate, and the fertilized eggs remain within the basket which 
held the female, till the following spring. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 207 



REMEDIES. 

These are the same as for the white-marked tussock moth. The 
baskets are to be collected in winter, when they can very easily be 
seen hanging to the twigs at the extremity of the limbs of the tree or 
shrub. While eating, the caterpillars can be easily destroyed by 
spraying the food plant with arsenical poisons. 




Fig. 3. 



THE IMPORTED ELM-LEAF BEETLE. 

(Galleruca xanthomeloma, Schrank.) 

a, eggs; b, larvae; c, adult; e, eggs (enlarged) ; /, sculpture of eggs; g, larva (enlarged); h, 
side view of greatly enlarged segment of larva ; i, dorsal view of same ; /, pupa (enlarged) ; 
k, beetle (enlarged) ; I, portion of wing cover of beetle (greatly enlarged).— (After U. S. Depart- 
ment of Entomology.) 

This beetle has, during the last few years, become a very decided 
pest, probably in great part through the destruction of insect-eating 
birds, which would serve to keep it in check. 

The beetles hibernate in places which give them convenient dry 



208 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



cover, and emerge from the sleep of winter as the leaves of the elm 
begin to unfold. The period of the life in the beetle state is consid- 
erably extended, in the hibernating brood, reaching at New Brunswick 
nearly to the end of June in many cases, and in midsummer extend- 
ing over two or three weeks. During this time they eat the leaves 
of the elm, cutting round holes generally about one-quarter of an 
inch in diameter. Thus, in the perfect state they do a great deal of 
mischief, and help, through the punctured leaves, to give an unsightly 
appearance to the trees. 

The eggs were found quite plentifully at the beginning of June, and 
the beetles were yet busy laying during the third week in June. The 
eggs are conical, orange-yellow in color, laid on the underside of the- 
leaves in masses side by side, and in number from three to twenty in 
each mass. Those observed hatched in six days. They became full- 
grown and descended the trees for pupating, which is done just below 
the surface of the ground, about the middle of July. They remained 
in the pupal state two weeks. Supposing these to have hatched from 
the eggs earliest laid, from six to eight weeks would be required for 
them to pass through all their history. At New Brunswick and on 
Long Island there are two broods only. 

Owing to the fact that the elm is one of our largest shade trees, 
the destruction of the beetle would seem to be a matter of very great 
difficulty. The trees in the college campus at New Brunswick are 
very good examples of their kind, being perhaps, in some cases, over 
seventy-five feet in height, yet there was no great difficulty in saving 
their foliage from destruction. A good force pump was procured; 
the one obtained was with a tank holding forty gallons attached, and 
a barrow attachment also, so it could be easily moved from tree to 
tree. Any amount of power could be put behind the liquid by the 
pump. How this machine may compare with others we cannot say, 
but it answered our purpose admirably and we could wish for none 
better. It was made by the Gould Manufacturing Co., of Seneca 
Falls, N. Y. A hose, one-half inch in diameter and over fifty feet 
in length, was attached to the pump ; on the other end was secured 
a fine rose nozzle, for spraying, and just below the nozzle the hose 
was lashed to a jointed bamboo pole, eighteen feet long, the whole 
length of the pole. The grub of the beetle eats the underside of the 
leaf, rarely, if ever, cutting through it. It is necessary, therefore, 
that the poison should be placed upon the underside of the leaves. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



209 



To effect this a light twenty-eight-foot ladder was placed against the 
main branches in the interior of the tree, and from its top, by means 
of the long bamboo pole, the poison was directed and sprayed under- 
neath the leaves on the higher parts of the trees. The lower branches, 
to a height of twenty-five or thirty feet, were better sprayed from the 
ground, the pole being disjointed for easy use on those very low. 
Of course, the spraying could not be complete, but no tree sprayed 
was more than slightly disfigured, while two in the middle of the 
rest, and unsprayed, were almost entirely defoliated. 

The poison mostly used was one-half pound London purple to fifty 
gallons of water, with three pounds of flour added. Experiments 
were also made with pyrethrum-water, kerosene emulsion, and with 
these mixed together. We would recommend the use of a compound 
of London purple and the kerosene emulsion as the most effective. It 
is very important to keep the London purple solution well stirred, 
since, if it become somewhat thick — that is, over an average of one 
pound to fifty gallons of water — the leaves of the tree will be burned, 
and the remedy may be as bad as the disease. 

As has been said, the grubs descend to the ground to pupate. Those 
that are not destroyed by the poison may be easily trapped in their 
descent with a coating of tar about the trunk of the tree, or by closely- 
fitting boxes containing tar or some other substance which they can- 
not pass. 

THE COTTONY SCALE LOUSE". 

(Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathvcm.) 

We are not able to give anything concerning this insect based upon 
personal experiment. It is very common in Newark and Jersey City, 
as also in Brooklyn, L. I. The most effectual remedy is the kerosene 
emulsion. The leaves, limbs and trunk of the tree must be thoroughly 
saturated. The best time is in early Summer, after cutting back the 
tree the Winter previous. 

We also call brief attention to a few of the worst of our fruit- 
destroying insects. 

14 



210 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 




Fig. 4. 

The Cottony Scale Louse; Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathvon. 
-a, leaf with male scales— natural size; b, single male scale; c, male— enlarged.— (After Forbes.) 




Fig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



The Cottony Scale Louse; The Cottony Scale Louse; 

Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathvon. Pulvinaria innumerabilis, Rathvon. 

a, female scales in Autumn ; 6, view from above ; a, females with egg masses in late Spring on Maple leaf; 

c, view from below— enlarged.— (After U. S. Depart- b, the same on stem of maclura.— (After Riley.) 
ment of Agriculture.) 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 211 



THE CODLING MOTH 
(Carpocapsa pomonella, Linn.), 

AND THE 

PLUM CUECULIO 

(Conotrachelus nenuphar, Herbst.) 

It has been repeatedly proved during the last few years, by experi- 
ments carefully conducted by entomologists, especially those of the 
Western States, that a very large percentage of the apple and plum 
crops can be saved from the ravages of these insects by the use, at the 
proper time, of arsenical poisons. 

The trees should be sprayed, and the fruit at least, thoroughly satu- 
rated with a solution of London purple, about one-half pound of purple 
to fifty gallons of water. This should be done just after the falling 
of the blossom of the apple or plum, and should be repeated after ten 
or twelve days. This will save the bulk of the fruit from becoming 
wormy. 

THE ROSE BEETLE. 
(Macrodactylus subspinosus, Fabr ) 

This beetle has become a great pest in the southern part of the 
State, very seriously injuring many fruits, and especially proving 
damaging to the grape. We have had no personal experience with it 
at New Brunswick. The egg, grub and pupal stages are passed 
beneath the surface of the ground, and, as a consequence, all destruc- 
tive agencies must be used against the perfect beetle. 

Prof. A. J. Cook, of Michigan, recommends the use of pure 
pyrethrum powder. This would have to be repeated every day or 
two. Prof. C. V. Riley, of Washington, says the use of Bordeaux- 
water has served as a preventive. 

In conclusion, we would urge upon our farmers and gardeners the 
extreme importance of keeping a continual watch for the first appear- 
ance of any injury done to their trees or crops by insects. As a rule, 
the life of an insect in its larval stage is very short, and measures for 
destruction can never be safely delayed. All insects, as a rule, can be 
more easily destroyed when very young than at any later development, 



212 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



and not a few can be successfully combated at no other time. It is 
easier, and, in tke long run, much cheaper to use preventives, that the 
insect may be destroyed as soon as it appears, if it does appear, than 
to wait till its ravages are seen and more or less injury has been and 
must be the result. 

It is the desire of the Entomologist to form, in connection with the 
Station at New Brunswick, a museum giving, first, a systematic col- 
lection of all insects found in the State of New Jersey, and, second, 
a collection of noxious insects in all stages of development, with speci- 
mens showing their methods of doing injury, and also specimens of 
insects parasitic upon them. With this in view, he solicits for this 
purpose donations of duplicate or other material from all collectors. 
Any or all donations will be gratefully received and acknowledged. 

GEORGE D. HULST. 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 213 



REPORT OF THE CHEMICAL GEOLOGIST. 



ON THE INVESTIGATION OF SOILS. 

As the State Experiment Station has decided to add to the work 
•previously pursued an investigation of the soils of the State, it seems 
I advisable at this time to indicate preliminarily and briefly the scope 
of soil investigation in the past, and finally some of the reasons which 
make it desirable to assume this undertaking. 

The Beginning of Soil Investigation. — During the first part of this 
century, while the applications of science were producing profound 
revolutions in the world's varied industries, it seems to have been the 
almost, if not quite, universal belief, that the soil of the earth was 
peculiarly and exclusively the property of the farmer. Whatever 
may have been, from the scientist's point of view, the desirability of 
a scientific encroachment on these vested prerogatives of the tiller of 
the soil, to the farmer, at least, such an undertaking would have ap- 
peared a useless waste of labor and time ; for whatever may have 
been considered to be the qualifications necessary to the successful pur- 
suit of other trades, to the mind of the cultivator of the soil of that 
day, the only knowledge of any advantage to himself was that ob- 
tained by a little practical experience behind the plow. 

It is to Liebig that the scientist, as well as the practical farmer, is 
indebted for the removal of this indifference to the study of soils. 
Exact methods in soil investigation date from the beginning of the 
forties, when he clearly showed that the plants obtain their nourish- 
ment from the soil and the air, and that vegetation can exist only 
where the soil contains the ash ingredients of the plants. 

Encouraged by so competent a leader as Liebig, the investigation of 
soils soon became a popular field of work for a constantly-increasing 
number of chemists, especially among the Germans, his fellow-coun- 
trymen. 



214 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



But though the above-quoted conclusion of Liebig was subsequently 
abundantly verified, it soon became apparent that mere chemical an- 
alysis does not suffice to furnish a reliable index of the fertility of a 
soil ; that there are other conditions beyond the scope of ordinary 
chemical inquiry, which powerfully affect the productive capacity of 
a soil. Scientific experiment had thus far not advanced very far be- 
yond the standpoint of the practical agriculturalist ; it had merely 
reiterated his experience in a more scientific phraseology, viz., that it 
is not always the soil which contains the greatest absolute amount of 
plant-sustaining matter that is capable of supporting the most luxuri- 
ant vegetable growth. The farmer's experience had taught him that 
the two physical soil extremes, sand and clay, no matter how thor- 
oughly they are manured, are neither of them fitted, the one on 
account of its excessive dryness, the other on account of its heaviness 
and the resistance which it offers to the growing rootlets, to the pur- 
poses of agriculture; whereas a loamy soil, a happy mixture of the 
two, is prized as possessing most of the advantageous, and few of the 
disadvantageous properties of both. 

Most soils, including the best, consist, physically speaking, of a 
relatively small amount of clayey matter, intermixed with a largely 
preponderating mass of sand. The latter, made up of almost pure 
quartz, can manifestly contain little or no plant-nourishment, and its 
function is merely that of a skeleton, rendering the soil light and 
porous, and pervious to air and water. 

Mechanical Soil Analysis. — For the purpose, therefore, of gaining 
an insight into the mechanical subdivision of the soil ingredients, and 
with the hope of thus throwing some light on one of the most potent 
conditions controlling the growth of crops, there was rapidly devel- 
oped the so-called mechanical soil analysis — that is, the mechanical 
separation of the soil into several conventionally-chosen grades of fine- 
ness. After the coarser grades have been removed by means of graded 
sieves, the fine sand, together with the clay, is subdivided and sepa- 
rated by the process of elutriation. This process is based upon the 
principle that, if miscellaneous material of the same or approximately 
the same specific gravity be allowed to fall through water, the coarser 
particles sinking faster will accumulate at the bottom, the less and less 
coarse succeeding, while the very finest will be deposited last. 

All elutriators, of which a large number have been devised, may be 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



215 



divided into two classes. In the first and simplest class, of which the 
apparatus designed by Prof. Knop (Knop, Bonitirung der Ackererde 
2 Auf. 50, 51. See, also, " Tobacco Soils," by Dr. Moore, 10th ,U. S. 
Census, Vol. III., pp. 872, 873) is perhaps the best representative, 
the material is allowed to settle a definite length of time, when the 
water, together with the still-suspended particles, is either decanted or 
drawn off. By repetitions of this process, and by varying the time of 
settling, the desired number of separations can be made with approx- 
imate accuracy, though at the cost of considerable time and labor. 

In the second class of elutriators, which are designed to run more 
or less automatically, the material is carried along by a regulated 
current of water. By graduating the current successively to definite, 
known velocities, it is possible to subdivide the fine earth into grades 
of the required diameters, or more exactly, of known hydraulic 
values. 

Of these elutriators the instrument invented and first described by 
Schone (Zeitschrift f. Analytische Chemie, 7, 1868, p. 29), as later 
modified by Orth (Bericht'd. D. Ch. Gesellschaft XIV., p. 3026), 
seems to have met with quite general acceptance among the Germans. 

In the United States, where the subject of soil investigation has as 
yet found fewer votaries, Prof. Hilgard has carried on extensive inves- 
tigations, and has perfected his "churn elutriator" (Am. Jour. Sci., 
Oct. and Nov., 1873), in which he has succeeded in replacing the 
generally-used conical vessels with a cylindrical tube, having first 
clearly shown that the employment of conical vessels inevitably gives 
rise to gross inaccuracies, when used to separate very fine or clayey 
soils. 

Quite recently this branch of soil analysis has received an able and 
thorough overhauling by Dr. T. B. Osborne, at the Connecticut Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. (See Report of Conn. Agr. Ex. St. 
for 1886 and 1887.) 

In his critical review of the best and most widely-employed meth- 
ods of mechanical soil analysis, he not only confirms Prof. Hilgard's 
conclusions as to the effect of conical vessels, but has also pointed out 
the erroneous and misleading results obtained by previously boiling 
the soils, "because it not only abrades and reduces the coarser sedi- 
ments, but dehydrates and coagulates the true clay, and thus essen- 
tially alters the texture and grain of the soil." At the same time, the 
apparently well-founded objection is made to the churning process of 



216 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



Prof. Hilgard, that tke constant and long-continued trituration of the 
soil particles does materially influence the results by unduly increasing 
the percentage of clay and finest silt, at the expense of the coarser 
sediments. 

Not content with mere destructive criticism, Dr. Osborne has given 
us in his so-named " beaker elutriation," a most excellent method 
for the mechanical analysis of soils. He has shown that by a simple 
process of repeated decantations from beakers, controlled by micro- 
scopic examination of the sediments and assisted by occasional pest- 
ling of the partially-separated sediments, it is entirely possible to 
make sharper separations than by any other known method, thereby 
avoiding the inaccuracies incident to boiling and churning, and that, 
too, with an outlay of time and labor no greater than is required for 
hydraulic elutriation. 

Without dwelling longer on the merits of elutriation methods we 
would add, that having enjoyed an opportunity during the previous 
summer to test the "beaker elutriation" method under the kind 
direction of Dr. Osborne, we were thoroughly convinced of the 
advantages claimed for this system, and of the ease with which skill 
in the manipulation of the beakers is acquired and satisfactory results 
are attained. 

Physical Soil Analysis. — Soon after the application of these mechani- 
cal methods to the analysis of soils, the physical properties of soils 
became the object of more thorough examination. Their behavior 
towards liquids and gases, and the influence of changes of temperature, 
<fec, became subjects of repeated and prolonged experimentation. 

The investigation of these laws which exert such an important 
influence upon the fertility of a soil, has taxed the patience and inge- 
nuity of scores of well-equipped experimenters, and the most valuable 
results have been obtained only after long years of tedious painstak- 
ing research. To illustrate the great advantage that may accrue to the 
science of agriculture by these researches, the valuable and remarkable 
papers "On the Power of Soils to Absorb Manure," by J. Thomas 
Way, (Jour. Royal Agr. Soc, Vol. II., 1850, pp. 313-379, and Vol. 
XIII., 1852) may be cited. Among many other and important conclu- 
sions which were the outcome of these papers, those of greatest value to 
the farmer may be summed up as follows : Soils, owing to the presence 
of clay, have the power to absorb from solutions the very substances 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



217 



! that are of the most value to the crops, namely, ammonia, potash and 
phosphoric acid. As far as ammonia is concerned it makes no differ- 
ence which salt is used, as the salt is decomposed and the ammonia 
fixed in the soil. A good soil is capable of retaining sixty times as. 
much ammonia as is necessary at any one manuring, but being once 
fixed it cannot be readily distributed by water, hence the desirability 
of distributing the manure as evenly as possible. For this reason the 
advantage of liquid manure is apparent. On the other hand, sandy 
soils, containing but little clay, are not capable of fixing the valuable 
salts, whence the desirability of manuring such soils often and lightly, 
in order to prevent waste. 

Whether this action of the soil in fixing these important substances, 
in apparent defiance of known chemical laws, is due to the chemical 
affinities of certain alumo silicates, as suggested by Mr. Way in his 
second paper, or whether they are simply physically attached to the 
soil, as Liebig seems to have held (Liebig, Die Chemie in ihrer 
Anwendung auf Agr. u. Physiologie, Bd. II., S. 74) is a matter of 
conjecture ; the value of the results obtained are of equal value to the 
agriculturalist in either case. 

Though it has long been recognized that neither chemical, mechan- 
ical nor physical soil analysis, nor all three combined, can give an 
exact measure of the fertility of a soil, still they may often be of the 
greatest value in specific cases, as for instance, when sterility is caused 
by the presence of some deleterious substance of either organic or 
mineral origin, or when the physical conditions are not favorable to 
the growth of crops. By the aid of these investigations the farmer 
may often learn the cause of the unfruitfulness of his field and be 
enabled to apply the proper remedy, and in many other respects the 
soil analysis may provide data of the utmost consequence, which the 
farmer unaided could never know. 

As an illustration of the important conclusions that may be legiti- 
mately drawn from a careful chemical soil analysis, we will cite a few 
of the analyses made under the auspices of the State Geological Sur- 
vey and published in the report for 1879 : 

Phosphoric 
Potash. Lime. Acid. 

Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. 

I. Natural Soil, woodland, Chester, Morris County 1,393 5,226 4,006 

II. Soil, Virgin, Robert I. Smith, Bloomsbury, Warren 

County 8,187 5,731 2,787 

41. Soil, Natural, east of Whiting's, Ocean County 431 120 431 



218 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



In order to interpret these figures into a language more intelligi- 
ble to a farmer, let us compare them with the total amount of min- 
eral matters taken from an acre of soil in a five years' rotation of the 
following crops: 1, red clover; 2, red clover; 3, Indian corn and 
corn stalks ; 4, Irish potatoes and potato tops ; 5, wheat and wheat 
straw, as given on page 43 of the annual report of the State Geolo- 
gist for the year 1878 : 

Pounds of Potash 581 ] 

Pounds of Lime , 259 }- Total, five years' rotation. 

Pounds of Phosphoric Acid 179 J 

Taking for granted, then, that the above three analyses represent 
all the available nourishing matter of a mineral nature that these soils 
contain, the third or poorest soil (No. 41) does not contain potash 
enough to suffice the five years' rotation of crops, as, at the above 
indicated rate of consumption, all the potash would be exhausted at 
the expiration of a little over three and one-half years. Similarly, 
for the same soil, the lime would last about two and one-third, and 
the phosphoric acid twelve years. 

On the other hand, soil No. 1 would appear to contain the necessary 
potash for twelve years, lime for 107 and phosphoric acid for 112 
years' cultivation. For soil No. 2 the corresponding figures are, for 
potash sixty- two years, for lime 110 years and for phosphoric acid 
seventy-eight years. 

It is quite manifest from these analyses, that the farmer can 
expect to get from the poorest of these soils only what he puts into 
it in the form of fertilizers, whereas the other two, especially the soil 
from Bloomsbury, hold in reserve a large store of plant-food, which 
can only be exhausted after many years, possibly scores of years, of 
incessant tillage, without receiving any accessions whatever. 

Prospects of Soil Investigation. — Considering the great amount of 
knowledge that has been already attained in the investigation of soils, 
and encouraged by the rapid progress of the last score of years, there 
is good reason to hope that the further pursuit of the subject will 
continue to yield results of the greatest importance, both to science 
and to agriculture. 

Reasons for Encouragement of Soil Investigation in the United 
States. — In a paper on the " Objects and Interpretation of Soil Analy- 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 



219 



ses," published in the American Journal of Science for 1881, Prof. 
Hilgard refers to " two chief factors that have contributed to bring- 
ing soil analyses into disrepute in Europe: one is, the fact that virgin 
soils are there practically non-existent, nearly all the soils analyzed 
having been at some time subjected to cultivation, and, concurrently, 
to the use of manure, thus veiling their original characteristics and 
rendering extremely difficult, to say the least, the taking of any 
sample of soil that shall correctly represent the whole of a large field 
or district. The second is, the absence of systematic investigation of 
the subject since the time of the introduction of the most essential 
improvements in the determination of some of the chiefly important 
mineral soil ingredients." In the subsequent plea he makes for the 
continuation of soil analysis, he urges, and justly, the exceptional con- 
ditions still existing in the United States, where virgin soils that have 
never seen the plow are very common, and from which, if anywhere, 
concordant results may be expected. In his study of the soils of 
Mississippi, Prof. Hilgard finds these expectations fully realized. 
" The first question arising in this particular connection," says he, 
referring to the interpretation of the results of soil analyses to the 
farmer, " is naturally, whether all soils, having what experience proves 
to be high percentages of plant-food when analyzed by the processes 
above given, show a high degree of productiveness. So far as my 
experience goes, this question can, for virgin soils, be unqualifiedly 
answered in the affirmative ; provided only, that improper physical 
conditions do not interfere with the welfare of the plant." 

Virgin soils, however, are by no means confined to the West and 
South, but even in the Eastern States, and in particular in New Jersey, 
there are many regions that have never been cultivated, and where 
the principles laid down by Prof. Hilgard for the study of the soils 
of the West may with great advantage be applied. 

Heretofore we have been dealing with soil from the standpoint of 
the agriculturalist alone, who defines a soil as " the uppermost loose 
and in part earthy layer of the earth's crust, in so far as the same is 
able to support a vegetation, no matter how scanty." 

It is evident, however, that as soon as we enter upon the discussion 
of the origin of a soil, we immediately leave the domain of agricul- 
ture and join hands with the geologist. The geologist as well as the 
agriculturalist lays claim to the soil as belonging peculiarly to his 
realm of investigation, for he it is that brings down the genealogy of 



220 NEW JERSEY STATE AGRICULTURAL 



the soil from its genesis to the present time. It is right, then, and 
desirable that both should labor together for the common good. 

Origin of Soils. — It is evident to a very casual observer that 
the soil, the uppermost layer of the earth, is rarely entirely independ- 
ent, as to its nature, from the underlying material of the earth. In 
the vast majority of cases it has been derived from that underlying 
material by the process of weathering — that is, through the influence 
of heat and cold, and through the chemical activity of air and perco- 
lating water. A knowledge, therefore, of the subjacent rocks from 
which our soils have been derived, and of the chemical and physical 
forces that have first caused the disintegration of the solid rock, then 
gradually converted the debris into a fruitful soil, is of the first im- 
portance to the soil investigator. 

It is a matter of congratulation to learn that the United States Geo- 
logical Survey is turning its earnest attention to preparing soil maps 
in addition to ordinary geological maps of the districts under survey. 
In his report for the last fiscal year the Director of the survey, Major 
Powell, has presented a tentative classification of soils, grouping them 
under two general heads, as follows : 

" Endogenous Soils are those derived from the country rocks, and 
remaining in place." 

" Exogenous Soils are those derived from other sources than the 
country rocks proper to the district where the several soils are situ- 
ated." 

These two groups of soils are well represented in the State of New 
Jersey. North of a line running in irregular course across the State 
from Perth Amboy to Belvidere, the country rock is deeply buried by 
the glacial drift, which has been scraped together far to the north and 
dumped down here in promiscuous confusion. The soils in this part 
of the State naturally partake of the heterogeneous nature of the drift 
from which they are derived. 

To the south of the afore-mentioned line the soils belong mostly to 
the u endogenous soils," and here it is where the most important 
results are to be looked for. In this respect New Jersey has a great 
advantage over the more northerly- situated drift-covered States. 

The Geological Survey of the State of New Jersey has already 



EXPERIMENT STATION REPORT. 221 



made a good start in the investigation of the soils of the State. The 
annual report of the State Geologist for the year 1878 contains a 
" Preliminary description and classification of the soils of New Jersey/' 
in which they are divided, according to their origin, into the follow- 
ing kinds, viz. : 

Granitic soils, Clay-district soils, 

Limestone soils, Drift soils, 

Slate soils, Marl-region soils, 

Red sandstone and shale soils, Tertiary soils, 

Trap-rock soils, Alluvial soils. 

The geological formations of the southern and eastern portion of 
the State, which consist of sands, gravels and clays, are themselves the 
debris swept together from pre-existing rock-masses, and have already 
undergone, either before or during their transportation, that disinte- 
gration and decay which must necessarily precede the formation of 
soil. In order, therefore, to study the whole process of soil forma- 
tion, we must seek the more northern portions of the driftless area, 
where the solid country-rock comes to the surface. Such soils are the 
red sandstone, shale, trap-rock and the granitic soils, which are 
homogeneous in texture and composition over extensive areas. Here, 
too, we may find the condition, indicated by Hilgard, of successful 
soil analysis fulfilled, viz., a virgin soil, untouched by the plow and 
unacquainted with manure. 

As no universally-acceptable classification of soils has as yet been 
proposed by soil investigators, the above-given natural and simple 
classification, chosen with special reference to the soils of this State, 
presents a strong claim for recognition, and will, for the present at 
least, with such amplifications as future investigations shall make 
necessary, be adopted by the State Agricultural Experiment Station. 

H. B. PATTON. 



1 



APPENDIX. 



ACT OF INCORPORATION. 

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station was established 
by authority of the following acts of the Legislature of the State : 

CHAPTER CVL 

AX ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AGRI- 
CULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION. 

1. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the 
State of New Jersey, That for the benefit of practical and scientific 
agriculture, and for the development of our unimproved lands, the 
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, with suitable branches, 
is hereby established. 

2. And be it enacted, That the direction and management of this 
institution shall be committed to a Board of Directors, which shall 
consist of the Governor of the State, the Board of Visitors of the 
State Agricultural College, together with the President and the Pro- 
fessor of Agriculture of that institution. 

3. And be it enacted, That the members of this Board shall be 
called together by the Secretary of the Board of Visitors, and shall 
organize by the election of a President and Secretary, who shall 
hold their offices for one year and until their successors are elected ; 
five members shall constitute a quorum. 

4. And be it enacted, That the Board of Directors shall hold a 
meeting each year at Trenton, on the third Tuesday in January, and 
other meetings at the call of the President, at such times and places 
as may best promote the objects of the institution. 

o. And be it enacted, That the Board of Directors shall locate said 
Experiment Station and branches, and shall appoint a Director, who 

(223) 



224 



APEENDIX. 



shall have the general management and oversight of the experiments 
and investigations necessary to carry out the objects of said institu- 
tion, and shall employ competent chemists, and other assistants neces- 
sary to analyze soils, fertilizers and objects of agricultural interest, so 
as to properly carry on the work of the Station, and it shall make an 
annual report of its work to the Governor of the State. 

6. And be it enacted, That a sum not exceeding five thousand dol- 
lars in any one year is hereby appropriated to said New Jersey 
Experiment Station, which money shall be paid out from the State 
Treasury on the presentation of the bills of said Station, properly 
certified by the President and Secretary of the Board of Directors. 

7. And be it enacted, That this act shall take effect immediately. 
Approved March 10th, 1880. 



CHAPTER LXXXI. 

A SUPPLEMENT TO THE ACT ENTITLED "AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR 
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 
STATION," APPROVED MARCH TENTH, ONE THOUSAND EIGHT 
HUNDRED AND EIGHTY. 

1. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the 
State of New Jersey, That from and after the passage of this act, the 
Board of Directors mentioned and created by said act shall be called 
and known as the Board of Managers. 

2. And be it enacted, That in addition to the powers now conferred 
upon said Board, they shall have power to elect a Treasurer, who 
shall hold his office for one year and until his successor shall be 
elected and qualified ; and to appoint such other officers and agents as 
may be necessary to carry on the business of the institution ; and to 
make such rules, by-laws and regulations for the government of the 
Board, and for carrying out the objects, business and purposes of the 
institution, as may, in their judgment, be necessary and proper. 

3. And be it enacted, That the annual appropriation for the sup- 
port of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station be and the 
same is hereby increased from its present sum of five thousand dol- 
lars a year to eight thousand dollars a year. 

4. And be it enacted, That this act shall take effect immediately 
Approved March 9th, 1881. 



APPENDIX. 



225 



LAWS OF NEW JERSEY. 

AN ACT TO REGULATE THE MANUFACTURE AND SALE OF 
FERTILIZERS. 

1. That every commercial fertilizer which shall be offered for sale 
in this State shall be accompanied by an analysis, stating the percent- 
age therein of ammonia, or its equivalent of nitrogen ; of potash, in 
any form or combination, soluble in distilled water ; and of phos- 
phoric acid in any form or combination ; the portion of phosphoric 
acid soluble in distilled water ; that portion soluble in a neutral solu- 
tion of citrate of ammonia at a temperature not exceeding one hun- 
dred degrees Fahrenheit; and that portion of phosphoric acid not 
soluble in either of the above-named fluids, shall each be determined 
separately; and the material from which the phosphoric acid is 
obtained shall also be stated ; a legible statement of such analysis 
shall accompany all packages or lots of over one hundred pounds, 
sold, offered or exposed for sale. 

2. That the Chemist of the State Board of Agriculture shall be 
the Inspector of Fertilizers ; it shall be his duty to analyze one or 
more samples of every kind of commercial fertilizers coming within 
the provisions of this act, which may be offered for sale within the 
State, and of which he shall be informed. 

3. That manufacturers, dealers, and all persons interested, may 
obtain an analysis by notifying the Chemist of the State Board of 
Agriculture, upon which notification he shall be authorized to ana- 
lyze, at his discretion, samples selected by himself, and to furnish 
certified copies of such analysis to the persons on whose application 
they were made ; and it shall also be his duty to report all such 
analyses to the State Board of Agriculture. 

4. That the Chemist of the State Board of Agriculture shall 
receive for each certificate of analysis made by him a sum not to 
exceed fifteen dollars, to be paid by the person or persons applying 
therefor. 

5. That any person selling, offering or exposing for sale any com- 
mercial fertilizer without the analysis required by the first section of 
this act, or with an analysis stating that said fertilizer contains a 

15 



226 



APPENDIX. 



larger percentage of any one or more of the constituents mentioned 
in said section than is contained therein, shall forfeit fifty dollars for 
the first offense and one hundred dollars for each subsequent offense. 
Approved March 24th, 1874. 

SUPPLEMENT. 

Sec. 1. That the penalty or penalties prescribed in section five of 
that act may be sued for and recovered, in an action of debt, in any 
court of competent jurisdiction in this State, in the name of any 
person who will sue for the same, one-half thereof for his own use, 
and the other half to be paid to the County Superintendent of Public 
Schools of the county in which such suit or suits shall be brought, 
for the use of the public schools in their county. 

Approved March 31st, 1875. 



CHAPTER CXIX. 

A SUPPLEMENT TO AN ACT ENTITLED "AN ACT TO REGULATE 
THE MANUFACTURE AND SALE OP FERTILIZERS," APPROVED 
MARCH TWENTY-FOURTH, ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED 
AND SEVENTY-FOUR. 

1. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the 
State of New Jersey, That the fifth section of the act to which this 
act is a supplement, which section now reads as follows : 

" 5. And be it enacted, That any person selling, offering or exposing 
for sale any commercial fertilizer without an analysis required by the 
first section of this act, or with an analysis stating that said fertilizer 
contains a larger percentage of any one or more of the constituents 
mentioned in said section than is contained therein, shall forfeit fifty 
dollars for the first offense and one hundred dollars for each subsequent 
offense," be and the same is hereby amended so as to read as follows : 

5. And be it enacted, That any person selling, offering or exposing 
for sale any commercial fertilizer without an analysis required by the 
first section of this act, or the act to which this act is a supplement, or 
with an analysis stating that the said fertilizer contains a larger per- 



APPENDIX. 



227 



centage of any one or more of the constituents mentioned in said 
section than is contained therein, shall forfeit fifty dollars for the first 
offense and one hundred dollars for each subsequent offense ; provided 
further, that the provisions of this section, or the act to which this act 
is a supplement, shall not apply to any manure sold at a price not 
■exceeding one-half a cent per pound, nor to any imported guanos. 

2. And be it enacted. That this act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved March 27th, 1878. 



CHAPTER CCVIII. 

A SUPPLEMENT TO THE SUPPLEMENT TO AN ACT ENTITLED "AN 
ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF AN AGRICUL- 
TURAL EXPERIMENT STATION," APPROVED MARCH NINTH, 
ONE THOUSAND EIGHT HUNDRED AND EIGHTY-ONE. 

1. Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State 
of New Jersey, That section three of the supplement to the act entitled 
"An act to provide for the establishment of an Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station/' be amended so as to read as follows : 

3. And be it enacted, That the expenses of said Station, when pre- 
sented to the Comptroller of the State, accompanied by the proper 
vouchers, duly certified by the President and Secretary of the Board 
of Directors, shall, upon warrant of said Comptroller, be paid out of 
the State Treasury ; provided, such expenses do not exceed the sum of 
eleven thousand dollars in any year. 

2. And be it enacted, That this act shall take effect immediately. 
Approved Ma> 9th, 1884. 



CHAPTER CCCVII. 

AN ACT TO PROVIDE FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A STATE LA- 
BORATORY FOR THE STATE AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 
STATION. 

1 . Be it enacted by the Senate and General Assembly of the State 
of New Jersey, That the sum of thirty thousand dollars be and hereby 
is appropriated for the construction of a State Laboratory for the use of 



228 APPENDIX. 

the State Agricultural Experiment Station, under the direction of the 
Board of Managers of the State Agricultural Experiment Station, on 
land selected by the said Board of Managers ; provided, such land 
shall be acquired without cost or expense to the State of New Jersey ; 
which sum the Treasurer of this State is hereby authorized to pay for 
such purpose to the Treasurer of said State Agricultural Experiment 
Station, upon the warrant of the Comptroller, as bills therefor shall 
be presented, marked approved by the President and two members of 
the said Board of Managers of said State Agricultural Experiment 
Station. 

2. And be it enacted, That the Chemist or Chemists of the State 
Agricultural Experiment Station shall analyze all samples of milk, 
butter or other farm products, or the imitations thereof, that may be 
sent to said Station by the State Dairy Commissioner and his assist- 
ants and agents, and shall report to the said Commissioner the results 
of such analyses, and the costs thereof shall be paid out of the appro- 
priation made to said Station. 

3. And be it enacted, That this act shall take effect immediately* 
Approved April 23d, 1888. 



APPENDIX. 



229 



DIRECTIONS TO BE FOLLOWED IN SAMPLING FERTILIZERS. 

Inspectors may sample fertilizers found either — 

1. Upon farms ; 

2. In dealers' storehouses; or, 

3. In manufactories. 

The Station prefers that samples should be drawn either upon farms or 
in dealers' storehouses. 

In sampling fertilizers found upon farms, Inspectors should ascertain — 

1. That the samples are not taken from stock of a past season, or 

from stock which is or has been carelessly stored. 

2. That they were received in good condition, and have since been 

so stored that a noticeable gain or loss of moisture has been 
prevented. 

In sampling from dealers' storehouses, Inspectors should also ascertain 
whether the fertilizers are of old (last season's) or of new stock. Prefer- 
ences should always be given to the present season's goods. Circumstances 
may, however, make it advisable to sample old stock; in such cases, this 
fact must be distinctly stated by the Inspector in his report to the Station's 
Director. 

If, for any reason, it is found to be necessary to draw samples at factories, 
Inspectors should decline — 

1. To sample from piles of fertilizers. 

2. To sample from bags which are not distinctly marked with the 

brand, the manufacturer's name and the guaranteed analysis. 

If fertilizers are found stored in piles only, Inspectors should cause six or 
more bags to be filled from different portions of the piles; from these bags 
the samples may be drawn in the usual manner. 

Whenever the mechanical condition will allow, samples should be drawn 
by means of the sampling tube furnished by the Station. 

It is not desirable to sampl-e lots of less than one-half ton of any one 
brand. In such small lots portions may be taken from each bag ; in larger 
lots each fifth or tenth bag may be opened. The several portions represent- 
ing the same brand should then be carefully mixed and a quart fruit jar 
filled, securely closed and marked with labels furnished by the Station. 

As soon as a sample has been taken, and invariably before bags of another 
brand have been opened, the Inspector should carefully fill out the blank 
describing samples. 

He should copy from the bags — 

1. The brand. 

2. The name of the manufacturer. 

3. The guaranteed analysis. 

Other information needed for the description must be got from the owner 
of the fertilizer. 

| j Each sample bottle should be separately wrapped in heavy paper and 
packed for transportation in a wooden box, properly closed. This box 
should be forwarded by express, directed to 

The New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, 
GEORGE H. COOK, Director, 

New Brunswick, N. J. 



230 



APPENDIX. 



FERTILIZERS. 

FORM FOR DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE. 

In taking fair average samples, such as will justly represent the manu- 
facturer as well as the consumer, it is very important that every precaution 
be taken, so that in case of a suit at law the person signing the description 
can testify to its accuracy. The writing should be plain and legible. The 
filled-out form, if wrapped with the sample, will serve as a label. If any 
printed circular, pamphlet, analysis or statement accompanies the fertilizer, 
or is used in its sale, send a copy with the specimen. 

1. Brand of Fertilize 

2. Name and address of Manufacturer 



3. Name and address of Dealer from ivhose stock this sample is taken 



4. Date of taking this sample 

5. Selling price per ton, hundred, bag or barrel 

6. Selling weight claimed for each package weighed 

7. Actual weights of packages opened 

8. Copy of analysis or composition affixed to packages of this Fertilizer, 



9. Signature 

(To be signed in every case by the person taking sample.) 
P. 0. Address * 



APPENDIX. 



231 



FODDERS AND FEEDS. 

FORM FOR DESCRIPTION OF SAMPLE. 

The person sending samples to the Station for analysis without charge, 
will be provided with a form like this for each sample, and mast fill up 
every one of the blank particulars given, so as to make the description 
" complete and definite, and in every case write his signature, as indorsing 
the accuracy of it. As there is much responsibility in taking fair average 
samples, such as will justly represent the manufacturer as well as the con- 
sumer, it is very important that every precaution be taken, so that in case 
of a suit at law the person signing the description can testify to its accu- 
racy. The writing should be plain and legible. The filled-out form, if 
wrapped with the sample, will serve as a label. If any printed circular, 
pamphlet, analysis or statement accompanies the sample, or is used in its 
sale, send a copy with the specimen. 

1. Brand of Fodder or Feed 

2. Name and address of Manufacturer 



3. Name and address of Dealer from whose stock this sample is taken. 

4. Date of taking this sample , 

5. Selling price per ton, hundred, bag or barrel 

6. Selling weight claimed for each package weighed , 

7. Actual weights of packages opened 

8. Copy of Analysis or composition affixed to packages of this sample, 



0. Signature of person taking sample. 

P. 0. Address 



232 



APPENDIX. 



ORDER OF STATION WORK. 



The largest portion of the Station work is in the Analysis of Fer- 
tilizers, Field Experiments, Feeding Experiments, with Analyses of 
Foods, Fodders, Milk, &c. To do these branches of work well, con- 
tinuous and steady attention must be given to each of them while it 
is in progress, and other business has to be laid aside for the time. 
To make this necessary order of work as little disappointing as pos- 
sible for those who desire work at the Station, we publish this state- 
ment of the subjects upon which we propose to work at the different 
periods of the year : 

Feeding Experiments January and February. 

Analyses of Fertilizers March to September 15th. 

Field Experiments April and May. 

Field Experiments Sept. 15th to Nov. 30th. 

Annual Keport December. 

Miscellaneous work of various kinds may arise to interfere with 
the perfect regularity of this plan, but for accomplishing the largest 
amount of work it will be necessary to adhere as closely to it as pos- 
sible. 



APPENDIX. 233 



CATALOGUE OF BULLETINS 

ISSUED BY THE NEW JERSEY AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION FROM ITS 
ORGANIZATION, IN 1880, TO DECEMBER 31ST, 1888. 



1. May 17, 1880. 



2. June 

3. June 

4. July 

5. Aug. 

6. Aug. 

7. Aug. 

8. Sept. 

9. Oct. 

10. Jan. 

11. March 

12. March 

13. May 

14. May 

15. July 

16. Sept. 

17. Nov. 

18. Dec. 

19. Feb. 

20. March 

21. July 

22. July 

23. Oct. 

24. Nov. 

25. Dec. 



4, 1880. 
25, 1880. 
3, 1880. 

9, 1880. 
16, 1880. 
28, 1880. 

6, 1880. 
16, 1880. 
15, 1881. 

7, 1881. 
30, 1881. 

5, 1881. 
26, 1881. 
18, 1881. 

20, 1881. 
12, 1881. 
20, 1881. 
20, 1882. 
30, 1882. 
10, 1882. 
28, 1882. 
10, 1882. 
25, 1882. 

8, 1882. 



26. Jan. 4, 1883. 

27. April 21, 1883. 

28. July 2, 1883. 

29. Aug. 2, 1883. 



Suggestions in Regard to the Cranberry Rot and its 
Cure. 

Raspberry Disease and Suggestions for Overcoming it. 
Analyses of Land Plaster. 

Analyses of Guanos, Superphosphates and Special 

Manures. 
Analyses of Bone Dust. 
Analyses of Various Fertilizers. 
Analyses of Various Fertilizers. 
Analyses of Various Fertilizers. 
Analyses of Various Fertilizers. 
Rational System of Feeding Milch Cows. 
Ensilage. 

Valuation of Fertilizers. 

Land Plaster and Ground Bone. 

Clover-Seed Midge. 

Commercial Fertilizers; their Composition and Valu- 
ations. 
Commercial Fertilizers. 
Commercial Fertilizers. 
Sorghum Sugar Cane. 

Green Fodder Corn ; Dried Fodder Corn ; Ensilage. 

Valuation of Fertilizers. 

Chemical Fertilizers (Incomplete). 

Commercial Fertilizers (Complete and Incomplete). 

Commercial Fertilizers. 

Sorghum ; Feeding Experiments with Sorghum Seed. 
Sorghum and Sugar ; Experiments and Investigations 

of 1882. 
Field Experiments. 

Prices of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potash, and 
Analyses of Incomplete Fertilizers. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Manures and 
Special Fertilizers. 

Analyses and Valuations of Nitrogenous Superphos- 
phates, Ground Bones, Plain Superphosphates, 
Poudrettes and Miscellaneous Fertilizers. 



234 



APPENDIX. 



30. Nov. 16, 1883. 

31. Dec. 22, 1883. 

32. March 28, 1884. 

33. Aug. 2, 1884. 

34. Sept. 27, 1884. 

35. July 1, 1885. 



36. Oct. 2, 1885. 

37. Dec. 7, 1885. 

38. Dec. 21, 1885. 

39. March 19, 1886. 



40. Oct. 

41. Jan. 



16, 1886. 
22, 1887. 



42. Sept. 3, 1887. 

43. Dec. 31, 1887. 

44. March 8, 1888. 



45. March 10, 1888. 

46. May 23, 1888. 

47. June 23, 1888. 

48. Aug. 7, 1888. 

49. Nov. 10, 1888. 



50, Dec. 5, 1888. 

51. Dec. 31, 1888. 



Kesults of Field and Laboratory Experiments with 

Sorghum, for the Season of 1883. 
Nitrate of Soda or Chili Saltpeter as a Top Dressing 

for Wheat. 

Prices of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potash. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers. 

Analyses and Valuations of Incomplete Fertilizers. 

Meaning of Stations' Valuations, Schedule of Trade 
Values for 1885, Chemical Composition, Retail 
Prices and Guaranteed Analyses of Fertilizer 
Supplies. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers. 

Miscellaneous Fertilizers. 

The Rio Grande Sorghum Sugar Works. 

Meaning of Stations' Valuations; Schedule of Trade 
Values for 1886. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers. 

The Extraction of Sugar from Sorghum, at Rio 
Grande, Cape May County, New Jersey. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers, of 
Ground Bones and of Miscellaneous Material. 

Sorghum and Sugar-making; a Report upon Experi- 
ments made at Rio Grande During the Season of 
1887. 

Prices of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potash. 

Insect Pests and the Means for Destroying Them. 

Analyses and Valuations of Incomplete Fertilizers. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers. 

Analyses and Valuations of Complete Fertilizers, 
Ground Bone and Miscellaneous Samples of other 
Fertilizing Materials. 

Insects Injurious to the Cabbage and the Best Means 
of Preventing Their Ravages. 

Sorghum and Sugar-making ; a Report Upon Experi- 
ments Made at Rio Grande During the Season of 
1888. 



INDEX, 1880-4888. 



A. 

Act of Incorporation, 1880, 5 ; 1881, 9 ; 1882, 101 ; 
1883, 99; 1884, 155; 1885, 211; 1886, 195; 
1887, 180; 1888,223. 
Supplement to, 1881, 10; 1882, 102; 1883, 
100; 1884,156; 1885, 212; 1886, 196; 1888, 
224. 

Supplement to the Supplement to, 1884, 
157; 1885, 213 ; 1886, 197; 1888, 227. 
Act to Provide for the Construction of a State 

Laboratory. 1887, 181 ; 1888, 227. 
Act to Regulate the Manufacture and Sale of 
Fertilizers, 1882, 105 ; 1883, 101 ; 1884, 36, 
157 ; 1885, 213 ; 1886, 197 ; 1887, 182 ; 1888, 
45; 1888, 225. 
Supplement to. 1882, 106: 1883, 102; 1884, 
158 ; 1888, 226. 
Adams, Wm. P.. Lyon Fish and Potash, 1887, 
49 ; 1888, 57. 
High-Grade Ammoniated Bone, 1888, 57. 
Pure Raw Bone. 1888, 79. 
Agricultural Experiment Station, Object of, 
1887, 11. 

Agricultural Relations of Fertilizers, 1886, 75 ; 
1887, 75 ; 1888, 82. 

Agricultural Value of a Fertilizer, How Meas- 
ured, 1880, 16. 

Alfalfa, 1886, 168. 

Alfalfa, or Lucern. 1887, 160 ; 1888, 105-113. 
Allen, Alexander B., Pure Ground Bone, 1887, 
73. 

Allen, E,, Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 
Allen's Sons, J. J., Acid Phosphate, New Pro- 
cess, 1886, 37. 

Ammoniated Bone, 1885. 51. 

Bone- Black Superphosphate, 1885, 42. 

Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 1885, 53. 

Dried and Ground Fish, 1887, 49. 

Dried and Ground Fish Guano, 1884, 47. 

Dried Ground Fish, 1886, 68. 

Fish Guano, 1882. 38; 1885, 51. 

Marine Guano, 1880, 27; 1881,47; 1886,53; 
1887, 49 ; 1888, 57. 

Muriate of Potash, 1888, 44. 

Nitrate of Soda. 1888, 39. 

Nitro- Phosphate. 1884 , 47; 1885,51; 1886, 
53 ; 1887, 49 ; 188S, 57. 

Nitro- Phosphate, Ammoniated. 1882, 37. 

Popular Phosphate, 1884, 47 ; 1885, 51 ; 1886, 
53 ; 1887, 49 ; 1888, 57. 

Potato Manure, 1885, 51; 1887, 49; 1888, 
57. 

Quaker City Phosphate, 1884. 47. 
8. C. Rock Superphosphate. 1888, 43. 
Soluble Marine Guano, 1880, 27 ; 1883, 35 ; 

1886, 51. 

Special Fertilizer, 1886, 53. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1888, 39. 

Ten per cent Guano, 1884, 47 ; 1886, 53. 
Allen. R. H., Sampler, 1881, 16, 20. 
Allen's, W. F., Complete Phosphate, 1885, 63. 
Allen, Wm. T., Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 

1887, 49. 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone with Potash, 

1888, 57. 



Allen, Wm. T.— 

Complete Phosphate, 1886, 53; 1887, 49;. 
1888 57 

Potato and Truck Manure, 1886, 53 ; 1888, 
57. 

Allentown Fertilizing Co., Complete Bone 

Manure, 1883. 44. 
Allentown Manufacturing Co., Allentown 
Bone Manure, 1880, 30 ; 1881, 17. 
Allentown Bone Mill, 1883, 41. 
Complete Bone Manure, 1888, 57. 
Complete Bone Phosphate, 1880, 25; 1883, 

41 ; 1887, 49 ; 1888 57. 
Soluble Phosphate and Potash, 1888, 81. 
: Allinson, James, Sampler, 1882, 32, 40. 
Alsike Clover, Analysis of, 1886, 164. 
Alvord, E. B., OnandagaLand Plaster, 1881,30. 
American Chemical Guano, 1888, 21. 
American Fish Guano Co., Ocean Guano, 1887, 
49. 

Virginius Guano, 1887, 49 ; 1888, 57. 

American Oil and Fertilizer Co., Bay Side Fer- 
tilizer, 1886, 55 ; 1887, 49 ; 1888, 57. 

American Oil Co., Cotton Seed Hull Ashes, 
1887, 71. 

Ammonia, Prices of, 1882, 14; 1883, 14; 1881, 
28. 

i Ammonia, Sulphate of, Analyses of, 1886, 32; 

1887, 31. 

Ammonite, Analyses of, 1886, 33; 1887, 32. 
Ammonite, Azotine, etc., Prices of, 1883, 27. 
Ammonite, Prices of, 1884, 32 ; 1885, 29. 
Ammonium Sulphate, Comparison between 

Nitrogen from, and Nitrogen from Wool 

Waste. 1885, 106. 
Ams, Max, Superphosphate, 1888, 57. 
Analyses and Prices, 1882, 13. 
Analyses and Valuations, 1883, 26; 1884, 26; 

1885, 28. 

I Analyses, Form for Description of Samples 
for, 1880, 12 ; 1882, 104 ; 1883, 101 ; 1884, 
161. 

of Ammonite, 1882, 21. 
of Ammonite, etc., 1884, 32. 
[ of Ammonite, Azotine, etc.. 1883, 27. 
of Apple Pomace, 1883, 45, 46. 
of Ashes, 1881, 49, 54. 
of Ashes and Lime, 1881, 34. 
of Azotine, 1885, 29. 
of Black Ash, 1880, 42. 
of Black Grass, 1882, 85. 
of Blood Guano, 1880, 43. 
of Bran and Grain, 1885, 168. 
of Brewers' Grains, 1883, 74; 1884, 107; 

1888, 116, 117. 

of Brown Corn Salad, 1885, 166. 
of Buckwheat Flour, Bran and Grain, 
1885, 168. 

of Castor Pomace, 1883, 27, 74 ; 1884, 32. 
of Clover Ensilage, 1883, 75; 1881, 107. 
of Clover Hay. 1881, 106; 1888, 116. 117. 
of Commercial Fertilizers, 1881, 14; 1882, 

18-40 ; 1883, 26-47 ; 1884, 31-55; 1885, 28-68. 
of Complete Fertilizers, 1881, 26, 27; 1882, 

36, 37, 38; 1883, 34-11; 1881, 40-49; 1885, 

50-63. 

(235) 



236 INDEX, 



Analyses— 

of Corena Settlings, 1880, 42 ; 1883, 45, 46. 

of Corn Bran, 1885, 166. 

of Corn Cobs, 1884, 107. 

of Corn Ensilage, 1883, 75 ; 1884, 106. 

of Corn Meal, 188a, 74 ; 1884, 107; 1885, 164 ; 

1888, 116, 117. 
of Cotton-Hull Ashes, 1888, 81. 
of Cotton-Seed Meal, 1882, 23 ; 1883, 27, 74 ; 

1885, 172 ; 1888, 116, 117. 
of Cow Pea Vine, 1883, 75. 
of Dissolved Bones, 1883, 44; 1884, 50, 51: 

1885, 66. 

of Dried Blood, 1882, 21; 1883, 26; 1884, 31; 
1885, 29. 

of Dried Brewers* Grains, 1883, 74; 1884, 
107. 

of Dried Fish, 1882, 22; 1883, 27; 1884, 32; 

1885, 29. 
of Dried Sorghum, 1884, 106. 
of Dried Stalks, 1882, 81. 
of Ensilage, 1882, 81 ; 1883, 74, 75; 1884, 106, 

107. 

of Field Corn Stalks, 1883, 74; 1884, 107; 

1888, 116. 117. 
•of Fish Guanos, 1880, 31. 
of Flax-Seed Meal, 1885, 172. 
of Floats. 1883, 46. 
of Florida Phosphate, 1884, 55. 
of Fodder Corn, 1884, 106. 
of Fodder Corn (Dried), 1883, 75; 1888, 116, 

117. 

of Fodder Corn (Green), 1883, 75 ; 1888, 116, 
117. 

of Fodder Rye. 1881, 54; 1883, 75. 
of Fodders and Feeds, 1881, 52, 53. 
of Foods and Fodders, 1880, 43-47. 
of German Millet, 1886, 160, 166; 1888, 116, 
117. 

of Gluten Meal, 1884, 107. 

of Green Clover, 1884, 106. 

of Green Corn. 1884, 106. 

of Green Sand Marls, 1882, 45. 

of Green Sorghum, 1883, 75 ; 1884, 106. 

of Green Stalks, 1882, 81. 

of Ground Bone, 1880, 29, 30; 1881, 17 ; 1882, 

32; 1883,42,43; 1884,52,53. 
of Linseed Cake, 1883, 74 ; 1884, 106. 
of Ground Rye, 1885, 170. 
of Guanos, 1880, 27. 
of Hair Manure, 1884, 32. 
of Hair Waste, 1884, 55. 
of Hen Manure, 1881, 36. 
of High-Grade Sulphate of Potash, 1884, 

35. 

of Home-made Fertilizers, 1880, 32-36. 

of Hominy Meal, 1885, 166. 

of Kainite, 1882, 28; 1883, 30; 1884, 35. 

of King Crab Fertilizer, 1880, 43. 

of Leather Waste, 1883, 47. 

of Licorice Residue, 1881, 36. 

of Lime, 1880, 41, 42; 1882, 42; 1883, 48. 

of Linseed Meal, 1883, 74 ; 1884, 106. 

of Linseed Meal, New Process, 1883, 74 ; 

1888, 116, 117. 
of Linseed Meal, Old Process, 1888, 116, 117. 
of Lucern (Green), 1888, 116, 117. 
of Lucern Hay, 1888, 116, 117. 
of Malt Sprouts, 1885, 166; 1888, 116, 117. 
of Marls, 1880, 36-39. 
of Milk of Ayrshire Cows, 1880, 61. 
of Milk of Jersey Cows, 1880, 59. 
of Milk of Native Cows, 1880, 60. 
of Miscellaneous, 1882, 45. 
of Miscellaneous Fertilizers, 1883, 45-48. 
of Miscellaneous Substances, 1880, 42, 43. 
of Mixed Feed, 1885, 168. 
of Muck, 1880, 42 ; 1881, 35. 
of Muriate of Potash, 1880, 42; 1882, 29; 

1883,30; 1884.35; 1885,36. 
of New Feed, 1884, 107. 



1880-1888. 



Analyses— 

of Nitrate of Soda, 1882, 18 ; 1883, 26 ; 1884, 

31 ; 1885, 28. 
of Nitrogenous Fertilizers, 1881, 23. 
of Nitrogenous Superphosphates, 1882, 31 ; 

1883, 44 ; 1884, 50, 51 ; 1885, 66. 

of Nitrogenous Superphosphates, without 

Potash, 1881, 21. 
of Oats, 1885. 172. 
of Oats, Ground, 1888, 116, 117. 
of Oats, Straw, 1888, 116, 117. 
of Oil Meal, 1885, 172. 
of Orchard Grass, 1886, 160, 164 ; 1888, 116, 

117. 

of Orchilla Guano, 1884, 55 ; 1885, 68. 
of Pea Feed, 1885, 166. 
of Pea Meal, 1885, 166. 
of Peat, 1881, 35. 

of Plain Superphosphates, 1881, 19 ; 1882, 
24, 27; 1883, 28, 29; 1884, 33, 34; 1885, 

30—33 

of Plaster, 1880, 39, 40. 

of Porpoise Scrap, 1884, 32. 

of Potash Salts, 1881, 20 ; 1882, 28 ; 1883, 30 ; 

1884, 35 ; 1885, 37. 

of Poudrettes, 1883, 45. 
of Poudrettes (Dried), 1881, 36. 
of Rice Bran, 1883, 74. 
of Rotten Bone, 1883, 45, 46. 
of Rye Bran, 1885, 170. 
of Rye Straw. 1888, 116, 117. 
of Forghum Ensilage, 1883, 75 ; 1884, 106. 
of Sorghum Leaves, 1883, 75. 
of Special Fertilizers, 1882, 35. 
of Starch Feed, Dried and Ground, 1883, 
74. 

of Starch Waste, 1883, 74. 

of Sulphate of Ammonia, 1882, 20 ; 1883, 

26 ; 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28. 
of Superphosphates without Potash, 1880, 

25. 

of Superphosphates with Potash, 1880, 20, 
21. 

of Swamp Muck, 1882, 42. 
of Sweet Potato Vine, 1883, 75. 
of Tankage, 1883, 45, 46 ; 1884, 32. 
of Timothy Hay, 1883, 74; 1888, 116, 117. 
of Wheat Bran, 1885, 166 ; 1888, 116, 117. 
of Wheat Chaff, 1884, 107 ; 1888, 116, 117. 
of Wheat Middlings, 1885, 168 ; 1888, 116, 
117. 

of Wheat Straw, 1883, 74 ; 1888, 116, 117. 

of Winter Wheat Bran, 1883, 74. 

of Wood Ashes, 1881, 34 ; 1883, 46; 1884, 54. 

of Wool Waste, 1883, 47 ; 1884, 55. 
Analytical Methods, A Study of, 1887, 169; 

1888, 131, 132. 
Anderson, J. B., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 

1885, 208. 

Anderson, John, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
201. 

Arnold and Stephens, Field Experiments by, 

1886, 100. 

Arnold, A. P., Field Experiments by, 1886, 86 ; 

1887, 81, 113 ; 1888. 83-89, 98, 99. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Clover, 1885, 84. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Clover and Millet, 1884, 75. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Corn, 1884, 66. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Indian Corn, 1882, 48. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Sweet Potatoes, 1883, 57. 
Field Experiments with Phosphoric Acid 

on Corn, 1885, 93. 
Report on Sweet Potato Growing, 1885, 206. 
Sampler, 1884, 33; 188% 68; 1886, 36. 
Ash, 1882, 72; 1883, 72; 1884, 102; 1888, 115. 
Ashes, 1884, 49. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



237 



Ashes and Lime, 1S81. 83. 
Ashes. Canada Leached. 18S3, 47. 
Ashes. Canada Unleached, Analyses of, 1885, 
68; 1886, 73. 

Ashes, Wood, Analyses of, 1881, 34; 1883, 46; 

1884, 54. 

Ashley Phosphate Co., Ashley Ash Element, 

1885, 67. 

Assistant Chemist of Station, Sampler. 1883, 
34, 40, 42, 44, 45 ; 1884, 48, 52 ; 1885, 30, 58, 
62; 1886, 62, 159, 161, 163, 165 ; 1887, 34, 35, 
58 ; 18S8. 42, 43, 78 80. 

Atkinson and Petit, Phosphate of Potash, 1880, 
20. 

Atlantic and Virginia Fertilizing Co., Acid 

Phosphate. 1883. 29. 
Atman. Frank, Field Experiment with Phos- 

phoral on Turnips, 1885, 100, 101. 
Sampler, 1887, 74. 
Auditing Committee, Report of, 1883, 9; 1SS4, 

9; 1885, 9. 

Average Retail Prices of Fertilizers, 1884, 26; 

1885. 20; 1886, 21 ; 1887, 21; 1888, 28. 
Ayars, E. G.. Sampler, 188 >. 24. 
Ayrshire Cows. Analysis of Milk of, 1880, 61. 
Azotine, Analysis of, 1885, 2y. 



B. 

Bailey. J M., Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 
Bailey, John T. & Co., Phila., Standard Phos- 
phate, 1888. 81. 
Baker. Geo. O , Cotton-Seed Meal, 1881, 23. 
Baker, Geo. W., Ammoniated Phosphate, 1880, 
25; 1883, 39. 
Corena Settlings, 1883, 46. 
Rotten Bone, 1880, 25 ; 1883. 46. 
Rotton Bone Manure, 1886, 73. 
Baker, H. J. & Bro.. A A Ammoniated, 1884, 49. 
AA Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 
1882, 37. 

AA Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1883, 41 ; 

1885, 59; 1886, 57: 1887, 49; 1888, 57. 
Acid Phosphate, 1885, 33; 1886, 37. 
Ammonite and Castor Pomace, ;1887, 32; 

1888, 40. 

Bone Black Superphosphate, 1883. 29 ; 1884, 
33; 1885, 31; 1886, 35, 1887, 34; 1888, 42. ' 

Cabbage Manure. 1887, 49. 

Castor Pomace. 1883, 27 ; 1884, 32; 1886, 33. 

Concentrated Superphosphate, 1883, 29. 

Corn Manure, 1886, 57. 

Double Sulphates of Potash and Magne- 
sia, 1886, 39; 1887, 37. 

English Superphosphate. 1882, 24. 

Forty per cent. Actual Potash, 1887, 86. 

Fruit Tree Manure. 1886, 57. 

Grass Fertilizer, 1883, 35. 

High-Grade Sulphate, 1884, 35. 

High Grade Superphosphate, English, 1884, 
33. 

Kainite, 1883. 30; 1884, 35; 1885, 36; 1886, 

39; 1887, 37; 1888,44. 
Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29; 1883, 30 ; 1884, 

35 ; 1885, 36 ; 1886. 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888, 44. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1882, 18 ; 1883 26; 1884, 31 ; 

1885. 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31 ; 1888, 39. 
Oat and Rye Manure, 1884, 49. 
Oat Manure, 1886, 57. 
Onion Manure, 1886, 57; 1887,49; 1888.59. 
Packard's High-Grade Superphosphate, 

18*6. 36. 

Parkard's Superphosphate, 1885, 33. 
Pelican Bone, 1887, 49; 1888, 57 
Pelican Bone Fertilizer, 1886, 57. 
Plain .Superphosphate from Bone Black, 
1884, 34. 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 

1884, 34. 
Potash 8a Its, 1885, 37 ; 1888, 45. 



Baker, H. J. & Bro.— 

Potato Fertilizer, 18*3. 41. 
Potato Manure, 1882, 35; 1885, 61; 1886, 57 ; 
1888 59 

Pure Ground Bone, 1882. 32 ; 1883, 43. 
S. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1888, 43. 
Special Corn Fertilizer, 1887, 49; 188$ 59. 
Special Potato Manure. 1887, 51. 
Strawberry Manure. li*86, 57 ; 1887, 51. 
Strictly Pure Bone, 18S7, 73. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1882, 20 ; 1883, 26 ; 

1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31 ; 1888, 
39. 

Superphosphate, English. 1883, 29. 
Turnip Fertilizer, 1883, 41. 
Turnip Manure, 1885, 61 
Baker, Theodore F., Sampler, 1881, 16; 1885, 

32. 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 64 ; 1«8R, 34, 36, 50, 52, 

54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 69, 72. 159, 161, 163, 165 ; 

1887, 50, 52, 54, 56, 60, 62, 64, 68 ; 1888, 56, 

60. 

Baltimore Meal, 1882, 71. 
Bannihr, John H , Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
196. 

Barcus, Mr., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 1885, 
207. 

Bateman, A. A., Sampler, 1885, 32. 
Baugh & Sons, A. A. Nitrogen, 1881, 23 ; 1882, 
21; 1883, 27; 1884, 32; 1885, 29; 1886, 33; 

1887. 40. 

Acid Phosphate. 1884,33 ; 1887, 35. 
Acidulated Phosphate Rock, 1885. 33. 
Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1881, 21. 
Ammonite and Castor Pomace, 1887, 32 ; 

1888, 40. 

Bone- Black Superphosphate, 1886, 35 ; 1887, 

34; 1888,42. 
Bone Meal. 1881, 17 ; 1885, 65. 
Dissolved Bones, 1884. 51. 
Dissolved Bones, Strictly Pure, 1885, 66. 
Dissolved Phosphate (S C. Rock), 1881, 19. 
Economical, 1880. 21 ; 1888, 59. 
Economical Fertilizer, 1887, 51. 
Export Bone, 1884, 53. 
High-Grade Tobacco and Grain Manure, 

1885, 61. 

Kainite, 1882, 28, 1883, 30 ; 1886, 39 ; 1887, 

37: 1888, 44. 
Muriate of Potash, 1883, 30 ; 1886, 38; 1887, 

36; 1888, 44. 
New Process 10 per cent. Guano, 1884, 45. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1882, 18; 1883, 26; 1886, 32; 

1887. 31 ; 1888, 39. 
Phosphate, 1881, 21. 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 
1884 34 

Pure Bone Meal, 1882, 32 ; 1883, 43 ; 1886, 70. 
Pure Dissolved Bone, 1881, 21 ; 1882, 31 ; 
1883, 44. 

Raw Bone Superphosphate, 1884, 51, 1885, 

66. 

Special for Tobacco, 1884, 45. 

S. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1888, 43. 

Strictly Pure Raw Bone, 1884, 53. 

Strictly Pure Raw Bone Meal, 1885, 65. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1881, 23; 1882, 20; 
1883. 26; 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ;4887, 
31 ; 1888, 39. 

Tankage, 1888, 41. 

Tobacco Fertilizer, 1883, 37. 

Twentv-five dollar Phosphate, 1880, 25 ; 
1882, 31; 1883, 44 ; 1884, 51; 1885, 66; 1886, 
71; 1887,70; 1888, 81. 
Buckman. Theodore, Sampler, 1883, 28, 34, 46. 
Beans, Thomas J., Sampler. 18>*2, 39. 
Beck. Charles, ReDort on Vinevards, 1885, 200. 
Belcher, J., 8ampler, 1883, 45. 
Benedict. J. L., Sampler, 1881, 20. 
Bennett, J. E., Sampler, 1884, 48. 
Bergen, J., Sampler, 1883 28. 
Berg (?) Never- Failing Bone, 1884, 53. 



238 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



Biugham, Frank, Report on Sweet Potatoes, 

1885, 208. 

Biologist, Report of the, for 1888, 1888, 163-201. 
Black Ash, Analyses of, 1880, 42. 
Black Grass, Analyses of, 1882, 85. 
Black Grass Hay, 1882, 70, 85. 
Black Grass Hay, Analyses of. 1886, 16 i. 
Black Grass Hay (without seed), 1882, 85. 
Black Grass Hay (with seed), 1882, 70, 85. 
Black Grass, Letter from Hon. J. G. W. Havens, 

Concerning, 1882, 86. 
Black Grass, Letter from Joseph W. Killam, 

Esq., Concerning, 1882, 86. 
Blackwell, S.and D. L. . Samplers, 1881, 18, 24, 25. 
Blood, Dried, Analyses of, 1882, 21 ; 1883, 26 ; 

1884, 31 ; 1885, 29 ; 1886, 33. 
Blood Gnano, Analyses of, 1880, 43. 
Board of Managers, 1880, 3 ; 1881, 5 ; 1882, 5 ; 

1883, 5 ; 1884, 5 ; 1885, 5 ; 1886, 5 ; 1887, 5. 
Officers of, 188 L, 7. 
Bog Ashes, 1884, 54. 
Bog Hay, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Bone, Analyses of Ground, 1881, 17. 
Description of Ground, 1881, 16. 
Dissolved, Analyses of, 1883, 44; 1884, 44, 

50, 51 ; 1885, 66. 
Ground, Analyses of, 1880, 29, 30 ; 1883, 42, 

43; 1884,52,53; 1885,64, 65. 
Rotten, Analyses of, 1883, 45, 46. 
Valuation of Ground, 1881, 17. 
Borton, Omar, Sampler, 1885, 165, 167, 169, 171, 

173 ; 1886, 161, 165. 
Bound Brook Woolen Mills, Wool Waste, 

1883, 47. 

Bowers, John & Co., "Blood" Tankage, 1888, 
41. 

Bowker Fertilizer Co., A. B. Phosphate, 1884, 41. 
Acid Phosphate, 1884, 33 ; 1886, 37 ; 1887, 35. 
Acid Phosphate from Land Rock, 1885, 33. 
Acid Phosphate from River Rock, 1885, 33. 
Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 1885, 53; 

1886, 51 ; 1888, 59. 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1885, 53; 

1887, 51. 

Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1886, 51. 

Boue-Black Superphosphate, 1884, 33 ; 1885, 
81 ; 1886, 34 ; 1887, 34 ; 1888, 42. 

Brighton Phosphate, 1883, 39. 

Cotton-Seed Meal, 1882, 23. 

Dissolved Bone, 1883, 37 ; 1886, 51. 

Dissolved Bone-Black, 1883, 29. 

Dissolved S. C. Rock, 1882, 24 ; 1883, 29. 

Double Sulphates of Potash and Mag- 
nesia, 1887, 37. 

Dried Blood, 1883, 26 ; 1886, 33 ; 1887, 32. 

Dried Fish, 1882, 22 ; 1883, 27 ; 1884, 32 ; 1885, 
29 ; 1887, 32; 1888, 40. 

Dried Ground Fish, 1886, 33. 

Fine Ground Bone, 1887, 73. 

Fish and Potash, 1886, 51 ; 1887, 51. 

Garden Truck Fertilizer, 1887, 51. 

High-Grade Sulphate, 1884, 35. 

High-Grade Sulphate of Potash, 1887, 36 ; 

1888, 45. 

Hill and Drill, 1884, 41 ; 1885, 53 ; 1886, 51 ; 
1888 59 

Hill and Drill Fertilizer, 1883, 39. 
Hill and Drill Phosphate, 1882, 36; 1887, 
51. 

Hoof Meal, 1886, 33. 

Kainite, 1883, 30 ; 1884, 35 ; 1886, 39 ; 1887, 

37 ; 1888, 44. 
Manure for Corn, 1880, 20. 
Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29 ; 1883, 30; 1884, 

35 ; lfcS5, 36 ; 1886, 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888, 44. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1883, 26; 1884, 31; 1885, 

28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 32 ; 1888, 39. 
Packard's High-Grade Superphosphate, 

1836, 37. 

Plain Superphosphate from Bone Black, 
1884 , 34. 



Bowker Fertilizer Co.— 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 
1884, 34. 

Potash Salts, 1885, 37 ; 1888, 45. 

Potato Fertilizer (Stockbridge), 1883, 37. 

Potato Manure, 1885, 53. 

S. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1888. 43. 

Stockbridge Manure, 1884, 41 ; 1886, 51. 

Stockbridge Manure for Corn, 1886, 51. 

Stockbridge Manure for Grain, 1881, 26, 27. 

Stockbridge Manure for Potatoes, 1881, 26, 

27 ; 18&7, 51 ; 1888, 59. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1883, 26 ; 1884, 31 ; 

1886, 32 ; 1888, 39. 
Superphosphate without Potash, 1886, 72. 
Superphosphate with Potash, 1888, 81. 
Tankage, 1886, 33 ; 1887, 33. 
Top Dressing for Grass, 1882, 35. 
Union Fish and Potash, 1888, 59. 
Union High-Grade Complete Manure, No. 

I., 1888, 59. 

Bradley Fertilizer Co., Complete Manure for 
Fruit Trees, 1886, 53; 1887, 51. 

Patent Superphosphate of Lime, 1887, 51. 

Potato and Vegetable Manure, 1886, 53. 

Superphosphates, 1885, 63. 

Superphosphate of Lime, 1886, 53. 
Brands & Reed, Peach Tree Special, 1888, 59. 

Pure Ground Bone, Fine, 1888, 79. 

Pure Ground Bone. Coarse, 1888. 79. 

Soluble Bone and Potash. 1888, 59. 

Standard Phosphate 1888, 59. 
Brewers' Grains, Analyses of, 1882, 70; 1883, 
74 ; 1884, 107 ; 1888, 116, 117. 

Dried, Analyses of, 1882, 70; 1883, 74 ; 1884, 
107. 

from Silo, Analyses of, 1883, 74. 
Broach, C. H., Sampler, 1882, 40 ; 1886, 72. 
Broom Corn Seed, Analyses of, 1885, 166. 
Brow, Dr. L. W., Letter of, Concerning Cran- 
berry Scald. 1881, 61. 
Brown, Henry S , Report on Peach Trees, 
1885, 192. 

Browhing Bros., Oak Bark, 1887, 74. 

Bruyere, R. N., Sampler, 1881, 24. 

Buckley Bros., Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 

Buckman, R. K., Sampler, 1885, 167. 

Buckwheat, Field Experiments with Fertil- 
izers on, 1885, 80. 

Buckwheat Flour, Bran and Grain, 1885, 168. 

Buckwheat Straw, Analyses of, 1886, 164, 167. 

Budd, H. I , Sampler, 1880, 19 ; 1884, 33, 40, 42, 
44, 46, 48, 50, 52, 55 ; 1885, 32, 50, 52, 54, 56, 
58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 67, 165, 167, 169, 171 ; 1886, 
34, 36, 50, 54, 56. 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 69, 
71, 72, 159, 161, 163, 165 ; 1887, 48, 50, 54, 
56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 70, 74. 

Budd, J., Jr., Esq., Field Experiments with 
Fertilizers on Sweet Potatoes, 1883, 96. 

Bulletins. 1883, 17 ; 1884, 18 ; 1885, 17. 
Number and Dates of Issue. 1881, 13. 
Number Issued During the Year, 1880, 17 ; 

1882, 12 ; 1883, 19. 
to Whom Sent, 1881, 13. 

Bumm, Wm. & Sons, Kainite, 1884, 35. 

Burrough, Hon. E., Sampler, 1880, 31, 39 ; 1881, 
18, 24. 

Burrough, Samuel L., Sampler, 1880, 29, 31, 39; 

1881, 18, 22, 24, 30 ; 1883, 27, 28, 40. 
Burrough. Samuel S., Sampler, 1880, 31. 
Butter worth, H. W., Sampler, 1884, 55. 



C. 

Cain, N., Sampler, 1881, 24. 
Canada Ashes, Leached, 1683, 47. 
Canada Unleached Ashes, Analysis of, 1885, 68 ; 
1886,73 

Cape May, History of Sorghum Plantation, 
1884, 86. 



INDEX, 



Cape May Porpoise Fishing Co., Porpoise Scrap, 

1884, 32. 

Carbohydrates, 1882, 72; 1883, 72; 1884, 102; 
1888. 115. 

Carey & Bros., Excelsior Fertilizer, 1886, 73; 
1887, 13; 1888, 21. 
No. I , 1888, 61. 

Carib Guano, Analysis of, 1886, 35. 

Carpenter, S. ft, Field Experiments with Phos- 
phoric Acid on Corn, 1885, 93. 

Carteret Chemical Co., Precipitated Phosphate 
of Lime, 1885, 31 ; 1887, 74; 1888, 43. 

Cary, Lewis D., Sampler, 1884, 54. 

Case, Rhutson, Field Experiments by, 1886, 
100. 

Sampler, 1887, 48, 50, 52, 56, 58, 64, 66, 63, 70, 
72. 

Case, W. J., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 191. 
Castor Pomace, Analyses of, 1883, 27 ; 18S4, 32 ; 
1886 33 

Cattle, Different Breeds of, 1880. 54-63. 
Cayman Island Guano, Phosphoric Acid in, 
1887, 92. 

Cayuga Land Plaster, 1880, 40 ; 1881, 30. 
Ceres Manufacturing Co., Ceres Superphos- 
phate, 1885, 51. 
Chalmers, Charles, Report on Sweet Potatoes, 

1885, 209. 

Chemical Geologist, Report of the, 1888, 213- 
* 221. 

Chemist of Station, Sampler, 1883, 28, 34.36, 38, 
40, 42. 44, 45; 1884, 33, 48. 50, 52; 1885, 30, 
32, 54 ; 1886, 34, 36, 159, 161 ; 1887, 34, 35. 

Chew, J. A., Sampler, 1881, 16. 

Chili Saltpeter. 1883, 61. 

Chittenden's Ammoniated Bone, 1885, 53. 
Complete Fertilizer for Potatoes, 1885, 53. 
Fish and Potato, 1885, 53. 

Christopher, J. V. D., Sampler, 1884, 33, 40, 42, 
44, 52. 

Clancy, Terry, Bone Phosphate, 1886, 59. 
Ground Bone, 1882, 32. 
Ground Bone and Meat, 1832, 31. 
Muriate of Potash, 1885, 36. 
Potato Manure, 1885, 51. 
Pondrette, 1883, 45. 

Pure Bone Phosphate, 1884, 45 ; 1885, 51. 
Pure Ground Bone, 1883, 43 ; 1884, 53. 
Clark's Cove Guano Co., Bay State, 1884, 41; 

1885. 55; 1886. 57 ; 1887, 51. 
Bay State Fertilizer. 1882, 36; 1883, 35. 
Defiance Complete Fertilizer, 1888, 59. 
Formula B, Tobacco, Cabbage and Onions, 

1887, 51. 

Great Planet "A." 1884, 41; 1885,53; 1888, 
59. 

Great Planet " B," 1885, 55. 
Great Planet, Formula "A," 1886, 57 ; 1887, 
51. 

Great Planet, Formula "B," 1886, 57. 

King Philip, 1885, 55 ; 1886, 57 ; 1887, 51. 

King Philip Alkaline Guano. 1888, 59. 

Peach and Fruit 8pecial, 1886, 57. 

Peach and Fruit Tree, 1888, 59. 

Peach Tree Fertilizer, 1887, 51. 

Potato Fertilizer, 1883, 41. 

" Unicorn," 1882, 37 ; 1883, 41 ; 1885, 55 ; 1886, 
57 ; 1887, 51. 
Clay, H. T„ Black Marl, 1881, 29. 

Green (Fostertown) Marl, 1881, 29. 

Green Marl, 1881, 29. 
Clover, Analyses of, 1884, 107. 
Clover and Millet, Field Experiments with 

Fertilizers on, 1884, 75. 
Clover Ensilage, 1883, 75, 79; 1884, 107. 
Clover Ensilage. Analyses of, 1884, 75. 
Clover, Field Experiments on, with Wool 

Waste, 1886. 94. 
Clover, Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 

1884,68, 72; 1885, 82,84. 
Clover Hay, 1882, 87 ; 1884, 106. 



1880-1888. 239 



Clover Hay, Analyses of, 1886, 158, 164, 166; 

1888, 116. 117. 
Clover, Red, Field Experiments on, 1886, 110. 
Clover, Second Crop, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Clover-Seed Midge, 1881, 66. 
Clover-Sick Soils, 1885, 210. 
Cob Meal, 1881, 147. 
Cobs. 1884, 107. 

Coe & Richmond, Acid Phosphate, 1884, 33. 
Acidulated Bone Phosphate, 1884, 33. 
Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 1884, 
47. 

Azotized Bone Superphosphate, 1884, 47. 
Excelsior, 1883, 37, 39; 1884, 47. 
Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 
1884, 47. 

Coe Bros , Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 
Coe, E Frank, Acid Phosphate, 1883, 29 ; 1885, 
33 ; 1886, 37. 
Alkaline Bone, 1883, 38 ; 1884, 43; 1885, 59; 

1886, 59; 1887, 53; 1888, 61. 
Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 1880, 

20; 1886, 59. 
Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1884, 43. 
Azotine, 1885, 29. 

Bone- Black Superphosphate, 1884, 33; 1885, 

31 ; 1886, 35. 
Bone Superphosphate, 1883, 39. 
Double Sulphate of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39. 
Dried Blood, 1884, 31 ; 1885, 29. 
Died Fish, 1885, 29. 
Excelsior, 1886, 59. 

Excelsior Guano, 1885, 59 ; 1887, 53 ; 1888, 
61. 

Excelsior Guano, Blue Brand, 1888, 61. 
Excelsior Guano, Red Brand, 1887, 53: 

1888. 61. 
Excelsior Red Brand. 1886, 59. 
Ground Bone, 1883. 43 ; 1888. 61. 
High-Grade Ammoniated Bone, 1885, 59 : 

1886, 59 ; 1887, 51 ; 1888, 61. 
High-Grade Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 

1881, 43. 

High-Grade Knickerbocker, 1886, 59. 
High-Grade Sulphate, 1884, 35. 
Kainite, 1884, 35; 1885, 36; 1886, 39. 
Long Island Bone, 1881, 17. 
Muriate of Potash, 1884, 35 ; 1885, 36 ; 1886, 
38. 

Nitrate of Soda, 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28. 

Peach Tree Fertilizer, 1885, 59; 1886, 59; 

1887, 53 ; 1888, 61. 

Plain Superphosphate from Bone Black. 
1884, 34. 

Potash Salts, 1885, 37. 

Potato Manure, 1886, 59. 

Ralston's Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate, 1886, 59. 

Ralston's Knickerbocker, 1884, 43 ; 1885, 59. 

Ralston's Potato Fertilizer, 1883, 39; 1885, 
59 ; 1887, 53 ; 1888, 61. 

Ralston's Potato Manure, 1884, 43. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 : 
1886, 32. 

Superphosphate of Lime, 1881, 21. 
Tankage, 1886, 33. 

XXV. Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 

1888, 61. 

XXV. Phosphate, 1886, 59. 
Coe, Russell, Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate. 1883. 41 ; 1884, 43. 

Potato Fertilizer, 1883, 37. 

Davidge's Favorite for Cereals, 1883, 41. 
College Farm, Brewers' Grains (direct from 
the brewery), 1880, 46. 

Chaff, 1880, 47. 

Clover Hay, 1880, 46. 

Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 

Corn Ensilage (A), 1881, 55. 

Corn Ensilage (B), 1881, 55. 



240 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



College Farm- 
Corn Meal. 1880, 46. 
Dried Fodder Cora, 1880, 47. 
Field Experiments on Sorghum, 1885, 108- 
116. 

General Description of, 1887, 77. 
Wheat Straw, 1880, 47. 

Collins, Charles, Sampler, 1883, 26, 28, 44 ; 1884, 
33, 50 ; 1885, 30, 32 ; 1886, 165. 

Collins, .lohn S., Sampler. 1880, 29. 

Combs, George, Sampler. 1881, 16. 

Comparison between Field Corn and Ensi- 
laged Fodder Corn, 1884, 114. 

Comparison between Station's Schedule and 
Manufacturers' Prices, 1885, 45 ; 1886, 47 ; 
1887, 44; 1*88, 53. 

Complete Fertilizers, 1882, 33 ; 1883, 33 ; 1881, 
36. 

Analyses of, 1881, 26, 27; 1882, 35-38 ; 1883, 
34-41 ; 1884, 40-49 ; 1885, 50-63 ; 1886, 50-68 ; 

1887, 48-69; 1888, 56-77. 
Description of, 1881, 24, 25. 

List of Manufacturers of, 1886, 49 ; 1887, 46 ; 

1888, 54. 

Valuation of, 1881, 26, 27. 
Commercial Fertilizers, 1880, 17 ; 1882, 13. 
Analyses of, 1881, 14. 
Instructions for Sampling, 1882, 103. 
Valuation of, 1881, 14. 
Commercial Relations of Fertilizers, 1885, 21; 

1886, 22; 1887, 2*; 1888, 30. 
Connetable Island Floats, Analyses of, 1886, 
35. 

Conover, Edward, Dark Green Marl, 1882, 45. 

Light Green Marl, 1882, 45 

Squankum and Freehold Marl, 1880, 36. 

Vincentown Marl, 1880, 36. 
Conover, James J., Sampler, 1882, 25, 39. 
Conrow, Clayton, Sampler, 1880, 26. 
Contents, Table of, 1886, 11 ; 1887, 191. 
Cooke, E. F., Cooke's Blood Guano, 1882, 38. 
Cook, Geo. H., Sampler, 1884, 54. 
Cook, L. D., Sampler, 1882, 39; 1883, 28, 47; 

1884, 46, 54. 
Cooper, Peter, Fine Bone. 1881, 17. 
Cooper, Peter, Glue Co., Bone Meal, 1883, 43. 

Coarse Bone, 1884, 53. 

Ground Bone. 1885, 65. 

Pure Bone. 1884, 53. 

Factory, 1886, 70. 

Factory Bone Dust, No. 1, 1887, 73. 

Factory Bone Dust, No. 2, 1887, 75. 

Factory Fine Bone Dust, 1880, 30. 

Factory Hair Manure, 1887, 74. 

Factory Pure Bone Dust. 1888, 79. 
Cooper, William B., Sampler, 1880, 19. 
Corena Settlings, Analyses of, 1880, 42 ; 1883, 
45, 46. 

Corn Bran, Analyses of, 1885, 166. 

Corn Ensilage, 1881, 58; 1883, 75. 

Corn Ensilage, Analyses of, Allen, E., 1881, 55. 

College Farm, 1881, 55. 

Lippincott, J., Jr.. 1881, 55. 

Mills. C. W.. 1881, 55. 

Morris, F., 1881, 55. 

Neilson, James, 1881, 55. 
Corn Experiments, 1881, 37. 
Corn, Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 

1886, 84, 98; 1887, 80, 111 ; 1888, 100. 
Corn (Indian) Ensilage, Analyses of, 1883, 75; 
1884. 106. 

Corn (Indian), Field Experiments on, 1883, 
1886. 78. 

Corn (Indian), Field Experiments with Fer- 
tilizers on, 1883, 52. 54; 1884, 59, 60, 62, 
63, 65, 66, 67 ; 1885, 70, 72. 

Corn (Indian) Fodder, Dried, 1883, 75; 1884, 
106, 107. 

Corn (Indian), Green Fodder, Analyses of, 1883, 

75; 1884, 106, 107 
Corn (Indian) Meal, Analyses of, 1884, 107. 



Corn Meal, Analyses of, 1882, 71, 87; 1883, 74; 

1885, 16, 41 ; 1888, 116, 117. 
Corn Stalks, Analyses of, 1886, 160, 167. 
Corn, with and without the Cob, 1884, 147. 
Corzine, A. B., Sampler, 1881, 20. 
Cotton, 1882, 91 ; 1883, 92. 
Cotton-Hull Ashes, Analyses of, 1888, 81. 
Cotton-Seed Meal, 1882, 70 ; 1883, 27, 74 ; 1888, 

116, 117. 

Cotton-Seed Meal, Analyses of, 1882, 23 ; 1885, 

172. 

Cows. Description of, 1880, 57. 

Cow Pea, 1882, 71, 87 ; 1883, 94. 

Cow Pea, Aualvses of the Vine of, 1883, 75. 

Cow Pea Vine (Black), 1883, 75. 

Cow Pea Vine (Dried), 1882, 71, 87. 

Cow Pea Vine (Whip-poor- Will), 1883, 75. 

Cox, John T., Sampler, 1881, 30. 

Craig, D. K., Sampler, 1881, 30. 

Cranberry Scald, 1881, 60; 1882, 98. 

Cranberry Scald or Rot, 1880, 65-67. 

Crane, Dennis C, Sampler, 1888, 58, 62, 64, 66, 

68, 70, 76, 78. 
Crane, E. W., Esq., Letters from Concerning 

Cranberry Scald, 1881, 63. 
Crocker Fertilizer Co., Ammoniated Bone [Su- 
perphosphate, 1885, 63 ; 1887, 53; 1888, 61. 
Buffalo Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate, 1886, 53. 
Potato, Hop and Tobacco Fertilizer, 1886, 

53 ; 1887, 53 ; 1888, 61. 
Pure Bone. 1886, 70. 
Pure Ground Bone, 1887, 73 ; 1888, 79. 
Queen City Phosphate, 1886, 53 ; 1887, 53 ; 
1888, 61. 

Vegetable Bone Superphosphate, 1886, 53 ; 

1887, 53; 1888, 61. 

Wheat and Cora Phosphate, 1888, 61. 
Crude Fat, 1882, 69 ; 1883, 71, 72 ; 1884, 102 ; 

1888, 115. 

Crude Fiber, 1882, 72 ; 1883, 72 ; 1884, 102 ; 1888, 
115. 

Crude Proteine, 1888, 115. 

Crude Stock, Wholesale Prices of, 1884, 26. 

Cummings, Alex. G., Maize Oleine, 1885, 63. 

Marrow Bone, 1885, 61. 
Curtis, I. S., Sampler, 1882, 31. 



D. 

Dairy Business, 1885, 177. 
Dairy Business, Financially Considered, 1884,. 
134 

Dalrymple, J. M., Field Experiments by, 1886, 
110. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Corn, 1884, 65 ; 1885, 72. 
Damaged Flax-Seed Meal, 1881, 23. 
Dambmann Bros. & Co., Acid Phosphate, 

1886, 37. 

Alpha Soluble Bone and Potash, 1886, 61. 
Arlington Ammoniated Soluble Phosphate, 

1887, 53. 
Arlington B, 1887, 53. 

Arlington for all Crops 1886, 61 ; 1888, 63. 

Arlington Fertilizer for Truck, 1886, 61. 

Arlington for Truck. 1887, 55 ; 1888, 63. 

Blood Guano, 1887, 53. 

Dissolved Animal Bones, 1887, 70 ; 1888, 81. 

Potato Fertilizer, 1887, 53 ; 1888, 63. 

Pride of Maryland, 1887, 53. 

Special for Vines and Small Fruits, 1887, 55. 

Special Orange and Peach Tree, 1887, 55. 

Wheat, Corn and Oats Brand, 1887, 53; 

1888, 63. 

Wheat, Corn and Oats Fertilizer, 1886, 61 ; 
1887 53. 

Davidge Fertilizer Co., Potato Manure, 1888, 63. 
Vegetator, Fish and Potash, 1888, 63. 
Special Favorite for Cereals, 1888, 63. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



241 



Davidson, Geo., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 

1885, 208. 

Davis, John W., Sampler, 1881, 25. 
Davton. Ezra, Field Experiments bv, 1886, 
100, 108. 

Davton, S. C, Field Experiments bv, 1887, 

102 ; 1888, 97. 
Field Experiments on Corn, 1884, 67. 
Field Experiments on Oats, 1882, 52. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers, 1884, 

59. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Buckwheat, 1885, 80. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Clover. 1883, 58. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Peach Trees, 1888, 90-96. 
Field Experiments with Phosphoric Acid 

on Corn, 1885, 93. 
Sampler. 1881, 39 ; 1883, 28, 38. 
Davton, R., Sampler, 1881, 24, 25 ; 1882, 39. 
Denise. J. H., Sampler. 1886, 36, 50, 52, 54, 56, 
58, 60, 64, 66, 69 ; 1887, 48, 50, 52, 60, 62, 66, 
68 ; 1888, 58, 60, 62, 64. 66, 68, 70, 72, 74, 76. 
Dent Corn, 1J-85, 174. 

Depue, Son & Co., Ammoniated Bone. 1886, 71. 

Bone, Animal Matter, Kainite, etc., 1886, 
67 ; 1887, 55. 

Bone Pnosphate, 1881, 21. 

Extra Bone Phosphate, 1881, 21 ; 1886, 67. 

High-Grade Bone Superphosphate, 1886, 
67 ; 1887, 55. 

Pure Fine-Ground Bone, 1881, 17; 1883, 43. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1881, 17 ; 1886, 70. 

8. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1887 , 55. 

XXX Bone, 1883, 44. 
Depue, James, Sampler, 1881, 16, 20. 
Derousse, L. T., English Superphosphate, 

1886, 37. 

Sampler, 1885, 167, 169, 173. 
Descriptions of Cows, 1880, 57. 
Description of Sample for Analyses, Form for, 

1882, 104; 1883, 104; 1884, 161; 1885, 216; 

1886, 201; 1887, 187; 1888, 230. 
Digestibility of Feeding Stuffs, 1888, 128. 
Dilatush, J. Y., Ground Bone and Hoof Dust, 

1882. 82. 
Pure Ground Bone, 1885, 65. 
Dimensions of a Tenth of Acre Plot, 1882, 99. 
Director of Station, Sampler, 1885, 56, 165, 167, 

169, 173; 1886, 165. 
Disease, Sweet Potato, 1881, 65. 
Dissolved Bones, Analyses of, 1883, 44; 1884, 

50,51; 1885,66; 1886, 71; 1887, 70; 1888, 

80. 

Doran, Charles, Field Experiments with Phos- 
phoric Acid on Corn, 1885, 93. 
Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia, 

Analyses of. 1886, 39 ; 1887, 37 ; 1888, 45. 
Dough ten, G. F., Marl, 1881, 29. 

Peruvian Guano, 1880, 27. 
Dough ten, H. W., Acid Phosphate, 1885, 33. 
Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 1881, 
21. 

Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1886, 57. 
Bone-Black Superphosphate, 1887, 34. 
Dissolved Bone Black,"l885, 31. 
Dissolved S. C. Rock, 1887, 35. 
Ground Marl, 1881, 29. 
Muriate of Potash, 1885, 36; 1887, 36. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1885, 28; 1887, 31. 
Potato Manure, 1885, 57 ; 1886, 57 ; 1887, 55. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1885, 28; 1887. 31. 
Dried Blood, Analyses of, 1882, 21; 1883, 26; 

1884, 31; 1885, 29; 1886, 33; 1887, 32; 1888, 

40. 

Dried Brewers' Grains, 1883, 74. 

Dried Fish, Analyses of, 1882, 22; 1883, 27; 

1884. 32; 1885, 29, 68; 1887, 32; 1888, 40. 
Dried Fodder Corn, Analyses of, 1882, 79; 1883, 

74. 



Dried Fodder, Feeding Experiment with, 1883, 
81. 

Dried Stalks, Analyses of, 1882, 81. 

Du Bois, S. J., Sampler, 1880, 19. 

Du Bois, T. V.. Sampler, 1883, 34, 36 

Dudley, Hon. T. H., Sampler, 1881. 20, 22, 24, 25 ; 

1882, 25, 31, 39, 40 ; 1883, 27. 
Duell, Elmer, Sampler. 1886, 163. 
Duell, Joseph L., Sampler, 1886, 159. 
Dunham, Azariah, Sampler, 18;0, 24 
Duryee, A. W., Sampler, 188*, 38; 1384, 44; 

1885, 62; 1886, 52, 66; 1887. 52, 54, 56, 60. 
Dye, Franklin, Sampler, 18S6, 50, 52. 56, 58, 60, 

62, 64, 66, 71 ; 1887, 48, 50, 52, 58, 60, 62, 64, 

66, 68; 1888, 56, 60, 64, 68, 70, 72, 74, 78, 80. 



E. 

Ebeling Bros., Newark Poudrette, 1886, 59. 

Poudrette, 1883, 45. 
Eckerson, J B., Sampler, 1888, 56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 

66, 68, 74, 78, 80. 
Egbert, Amos, Sampler, 1881, 18 ; 1883, 28, 36. 
Elizabeth Glue Co., Ground Slug, 1880, 30. 

Superphosphate, 1882, 31. 
Elizabethport Glue Works, Ammoniated Su- 
perphosphate, 1884, 51. 

Precipitated Phosphate of Lime, 1885, 31. 

Superphosphate, 1883, 44. 
Elkins, Charles, Sampler, 1886, 161. 
Emmons, E., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 191. 
Emmons, J. A. & Co., Wood Ashes, 1884, 54. 
English Superphosphate, Analysis of, 1885, 
33 

Ensilage, 1880, 64, 65; 1882, 71, 79; 1883, 15, 76 - t 
1884, 113. 

Ensilage, Analyses of, 1882, 81; 1883, 75 ; 

1884, 106, 107. 
Ensilage, Corn, 1881, 58. 
Ensilage, Feeding Experiment with, 1883, 

81. 

Ensilaged Fodder Corn Compared with Field 

Corn, 1884, 114. 
Entomologist, Report of the, 1888, 202-212 
Equitable Fertilizer Co., Esmeralda Bird Gua- 
no, 1883, 35. 
Esmeralda Natural Guano, 1887, 55. 
Esmeralda Potato Compound, 1888, 63. 
Esmeralda Tomato Compound, 1888, 63. 
Fish Guano, 1887, 55. 
Potato Compound, 1886, 55 ; 1887, 55. 
Prime Esmeralda Guano, 1886, 55; 1887, 55. 
Rose Bone Fertilizer, 1886, 55. 
Rose Bone Phosphate, 1886, 51; 1887, 55; 
1888, 63. 

Selected Esmeralda Guano, 1885, 51 ; 1886, 

55; 1888, 63. 
Selected Esmeralda Bird Guano, 1884, 41. 
Selected Natural Esmeralda, 1887, 55. 
Special Esmeralda, 1883. 51. 
Special Esmeralda Guano, 1886, 55; 1887, 

65. 

Evan, Joshua R , Sampler, 1880, 19. 
Evans, Amos, Marl, 1881, 29. 
Evans, Elwood, Sampler, 1881, 39. 
Evans, Thomas S., Sampler, 1880. 19. 
Everett, S. K., Report on Peach Trees, 1885. 
192. 

Excelsior Fertilizing Co., Normal No. 1, 1886, 
67. 

Executive Officers, 1881, 7; 1882, 7; 1883, 7; 
1884, 7; 1885, 7; 1886, 7; 1887, 7; 1888, 11. 



F. 

Farmer, Arnold, Sampler, 1884, 42, 52. 
Farmers' Bone and Fertilizer Co., High Grade 
Superphosphate, 1880, 21. 
Tree, Vine and Plant Fertilizer, 1880, 21. 



16 



242 INDEX, 



Farmers' Fertilizer Co., Reaper Potato Manure, 
1888, 63. 

Farmers' Fair and Square, 1888, 65. 

Raw Bone, Ground, 1880. 30. 

Standard Bone Phosphate, 1888, 63. 

Superphosphate, 1883, 39. 

The Reaper, 1885, 63. 
Fats, 1883. 71, 12 ; 1884, 103. 
Feeding Experiments, 1883, 81. 
Feeding Experiments with Sorghum Seed, 
1882, 75. 

Feeding of Animals. Table for, 1880, 44. 
Feeding Rations, 1885, 148-159. 
Feeding Standards, Table of, 1888, 119. 
Feeding Stuffs, Digestibility of, 1888, 128. 
Feeding Systems, 1885, 143. 
Feeding Value of Corn on the Ear, etc., 1884, 
147. 

Feeds, 1881, 48. 

Feeds and Fodders, 1882, 69; 1883, 71 ; 1884, 102 ; 

1885, 143 ; 1886, 156 ; 1888, 114. 
Analyses of, 1883, 74, 75 ; 1884, 106, 107. 

Feeds, Maximum, Minimum and Average 
Composition of, 1885, 174-176. 

Fenwick, J. A., Esq., Letter from, Concerning 
Cranberry Scald, 1881, 62. 

Ferrell, Hon. T. M., Sampler, 1883, 38. 

Fertilizers, 1884, 24; 1885,18; 1886, 19; 1887, 17; 
1888, 24. 

Act to Regulate Manufacture and Sale of, 
1882,105; 1883, 101; 1884, 101; 1885, 213; 

1886, 197: 1887, 182; 1888, 225. 
Agricultural Relations of, 1883, 49 ; 1884, 56; 

1885, 69 ; 1886, 75 ; 1888, 82. 

Average Retail Prices of, 1884, 26; 1885, 20; 

1886, 21 ; 1887, 21 ; 1888. 28. 
Commercial, 1880, 17; 1882, 13; 1883, 21. 
Commercial Importance, 1884, 24. 
Commercial Relations of, 1885, 21 ; 1886, 22 ; 

1887,23; 1888, 30. 
Comparison of this Year's Trade with that 
of the Four Preceding Years, 1887, 20; 
1888, 27. 

"Comparison of Wholesale and Retail Prices 

of, J 887, 24. 
Complete, Analyses of, 1881, 26, 27; 1882, 

35-38; 1883, 31-41; 1884, 40-49; 1885, 

60-63; 1886, 50-68; 1887, 48-69; 1888, 56- 

77. 

Decline of Average Prices of, 1887, 20. 
Descriptions of Tomplete, 1881, 24, 25. 
Experiments with, on Corn, 1881. 37. 
Extract from State Law Concerning, 1887, 

38 

Field Trials of, 1882, 45; 1883, 51: 1884, 59; 
1885, 70. 

Field Trials of, on Buckwheat, 1885, 80. 
Field Trials of, on Clover, 1883, 58; 1884, 59, 

72; 1885, 82, 84. 
Field Trials of, on Clover and Millet, 1884, 

75. 

Field Trials of, on Indian Corn, 1882, 47, 48, 

50; 1883, 52, 54; 1884, 59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 

67 ; 1885, 70, 72, 85-97. 
Field Trials of, on Oats, 1882, 51, 52, 53 ; 

1884, 59, 69,70; 1885, 73. 
Field Trials of, on Potatoes, 1883, 55 ; 1884, 

77. 

Field Trials of, on Rye, 1885, 78, 85. 
Field Trials of, on Sorghum, 1884, 84. 
Field Trials of, on Sweet Potatoes, 1883, 
57, 96. 

Field Trials of, on Turnips, 1885, 100. 
Field Trials of, on Wheat, 1882, 57 ; 1883, 

60 ; 1884, 73; 1885, 74, 76, 77, 85. 
Formulas for Mixing, 1884, 151. 
Guarantees, 1884, 37 ; 1885, 39, 42. 
Guaranteed Chemical Composition and 

Relative Commercial Values, 1886, 40. 
Incomplete, 1882, 17. 
Instructions for Sampling, 1881, 69. 



1880-1888. 



Fertilizers — 

Manufacturers' Average Retail Cash Prices, 

1883, 25 ; 1884, 25 ; 1885, 39. 

Market Prices of, 1886, 22 ; 1887, 23 ; 1888, 30. 
Method of Obtaining Samples of, 1887, 38. 
Number of Brands Sold , 1887, 11. 
Quality of. 1887, 12 ; 1888, 26. 
Quantity Used During 1887, 1887, 19. 
Relative Commercial Values of, 1884, 28 : 

1885, 39; 1887, 43. 
Sales of, 1883, 21 ; 1884, 24, 25 ; 1885, 18, 19. 
Sales of During 1886, 1886, 19. 
Sampling, 1884, 37 ; 1885, 41, 42; 1886, 41. 
Selling Prices at Factories, 1584, 38. 
Special, 1882, 35. 
Taxation of, 1887, 11. 

Tonnage of, Used in New Jersey, 1887, 21 ; 
1888, 28. 

Valuation of, 1880, 14; 1881, 14. 
Wholesale Prices of, 1883. 23. 
Wholesale Prices of Crude Stock, 1884, 26 ; 
1885, 22. 

Fiedler, Frederick, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
194. 

Field Corn Compared with Ensilaged Fodder 
Corn, 1884, 114. 

Field Corn Stalks, Analyses of, 1882, 70 ; 1883, 
74; 1888,116,117. 

Field Experiments, 1880, 63, 64. 

Field Experiments with Wool Waste, 1886, 94. 

Field Trials of Fertilizers, 1882, 45 ; 1883, 12, 
51; 1884, 59, 69. 

Field Trials of Fertilizers on Corn, 1881, 37. 

Field Trials to Test Various Forms of Phos- 
phoric Acid, 1885, 85. 

Field Trials Upon Wheat, 1888, 101-104. 

Fifield, J. C. & Sons. Potato Manure, 1888, 63. 
Astral Bone, 1888, 63. 
Trucker's Delight, 1888, 63. 
Fish and Potash, 1888, 63. 

Fish, Dried, Analyses of, 1882, 22; 1883, 27; 

1884, 32; 1885, 29, 68; 1887, 32; 1888, 40. 
Fish Guanos, Analyses of, 1880, 31 ; 1885, 68. 
Fisher, L., Dried Fish, 1888, 40. 

Flash & Sons, Cotton-Seed Meal, 1881, 23. 

Sampler, 1881, 22. 
Flax-Seed Meal, Analyses of, 1885, 72. 
Flitcraft, Reeves, Sampler, 1886, 159, 161. 
Floats, Analyses of, 1883, 46 ; 1885, 31. 
Floats, Connetable Island, Analyses of, 1886, 
35. 

Flood, David A., Muck, 1881, 35; 1882, 42. 
Florida Phosphate, Analyses of, 1884, 55. 
Fodder Corn (Dried), Analyses of, 1883, 75 ; 1888, 
116, 117. 

Ensilaged, Compared with Fodder Corn, 

1884, 114. 

(Green), Analyses of, 1888, 116, 117. 
Fodder Rye, 1883, 75. 

Analyses of, 1881, 54. 
Fodders and Feeds, 1881, 48; 1882, 69, 70, 71; 
1883, 71; 1884, 102; 1885, 143; 1886, 156 ; 
1888, 114. 

Analyses of, 1883, 74, 75 ; 1881, 74, 75. 

Comparative Feeding Value of, 1884, 107. 

Table of Analyses of, 1888, 116, 117. 

Maximum, Minimum and Average Com- 
position of, 1888, 122-126. 
Foods and Fodders, Analyses of, 1880, 43-47. 
Force, Wm. M., Linseed Meal, 1880, 47. 

Linseed Meal, " Extracted," 1880, 47. 
Formulas for Mixing Fertilizers, 1884, 151. 
Forrester, Geo. B., Bi-Sulphate of Potash, 1886, 
38 

Bon'e-Black Superphosphate, 1884, 33, 34; 

1885, 31 ; 1886. 35 ; 1888, 42. 
Cabbage Fertilizer, 1883, 39. 

Cabbage Manure, 1884, 45 ; 1885, 63 ; 1887, 
55. 

Corn Manure, 1882, 35; 1884, 45; 1885, 63; 
1887, 55. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



243 



Forrester, Geo. B.— 

Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39 ; 1837, 37. 
Fine Ground Bone, 1883, 43. 
Ground Bone, 1884, 53. 
High-Grade Bi-Sulphate of Potash, 1885, 37. 
High-Grade Sulphate, 18S4, 35. 
High-Grade Sulphate of Potash, 1882, 28 ; 

1883. 30; 1887, 36; 1888, 45. 

Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29; 1883, 30; 1881, 

35 ; 1885, 36 ; 18S6, 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888, 44. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1882, 18 ; 18S3. 26 ; 1884, 31 ; 

1885, 28 ; 1885. 32 ; 1887, 31 ; 1S8S, 39. 
Plain Superphosphate from Bone Black, 

1884, 34. 

Potash Salts, 1885, 37 ; 1888, 45. 

Potato Fertilizer, 18S3, 39. 

Potato Manure, 1S82. 35 ; 1884, 45 ; 1885, 63 ; 

1886, 67 ; 1887, 55 ; 1888, 65. 
Pure Ground Bone, 1S83, 43. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1882, 20 ; 1883, 26 ; 
1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31 ; 1888, 
39. 

Forsyth, Joshua, Sampler, 1880, 31. 
Fostertown Marl Company, 1881, 29. 
Freitag, George, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
194. 

French, Richards & Co., Nova Scotia Land 

Plaster, 1881, 30. 
French's Land Plaster, 1880, 40. 
French's Selected Land Plaster, 1881, 30. 
Fritts, Joseph A., Sampler, 1883. 46. 
Fruit Growers' Union, 99-Cent Fertilizer, 1887, 

57. 

Pure Dried and Ground Fish, 1887, 57. 
Union Fish and Potash, 1887, 57. 
Union High-Grade No. I., 1887, 57. 
Union High-Grade No. II., 1887, 57. 



G. 

3arret8on & Bowne, Western Wheat Bran, 1880, 
47. 

Harrison & Minch, Bone, Fish and Potash, 
1886, 55. 
Dried Ground Fish, 1886, 33. 
Muriate of Potash. 1886, 38. 
Peach Grower, 1887, 57. 
Pride Fish, 1887, 57. 

Pride of Cumberland, 1886, 55 ; 1887, 57. 
Garrison. H. J., Sampler, 1883, 40. 
Garrison, Hosea, Marl. 1881, 29. 
3arwood, S., Marble Lime, 1882, 42. 

Oyster Shell Lime, 1882, 42. 
Gaskill. J. C, High Grade, 1886, 67. 

High-Grade Fertilizer. 1884, 47. 

High-Grade Manure, 1885, 59 ; 1887, 57. 

Popular Phosphate, 1884, 47 ; 1885, 59 ; 1886, 
67 ; 1887, 57. 

Soluble Bone with Potash, 1885, 67. 

Special Fish Manure, 1884, 47 ; 1883, 59 ; 

1886, 67 ; 1887, 57. 

German Millet, Analyses of, 1886, 175; 1888, 

116. 117. 
German Potash Salts, 1885, 36. 
German Potash Salts, Analyses of, 1886, 38 ; 

1887, 36. 

Giffin, Van Buren, Kirkwood Marl, 1880, 36. 

Sampler, 1883, 28; 1884, 54. 
Gilbert, Dr. J. H., Lecture by. 1884. 19. 
Glaser, Theodore, Potato Manure, 1887, 57. 

Union Co. Fertilizer, 1885, 59; 1886, 59; 

1888, 65. 

Glidden & Curtis, Soluble Pacific Guano, 1883, 

35 ; 1883, 51. 
Gluten Meal, 1884, 107. 

Goldsmith, Wm H., Report oh Vineyards, 
1883, 204. 

Grand Cayman Island Guano, Analyses of, 
1886, 35. 



Granger Fertilizer, Analyses of, 1886, 55. 

Grangers & Co., Grangers', 1883, 41. 

Grant, Wm. H., Sampler, 1883, 38. 

Grass, Hungarian, 1886, 175. 

Grass, Orchard. Analyses of, 1886, 160. 

Great Eastern Fertilizers Co., Peach Tree.Fer- 

tilizer, 1888, 65. 
Great Eastern Fertilizer Co., Vegetable and 

Vine, 1888, 65. 
Green Clover, 1884, 106. 
Green Fodder Corn, 1882, 71, 79. 
Green Fodder Com , Analyses of, 1883, 75 ; 1884, 

106. 

i Green, James, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 201. 

! Greensand Marls, 1881. 28; 1882, 43. 

I Greensand Marls, Analyses of, 1882, 45. 

! Green Sorghum, Amber, 1883, 75. 

i Green Stalks, Analyses of, 1882, 81. 

' Grifl&n, H. B., Superphosphate, 1886, 63 ; 1887, 

i Griscom, Jas. C, Sampler, 1888, 56, 62, 64, 72, 

76, 80. 

Ground Bone, Analyses of, 1880, 29, 30 ; 1881, 
17; 1882, 32; 1883, 42, 43; 1884, 52, 53; 

1885, 64, 65; 1886, 69, 71; 1887, 72,73; 1888, 
78, 79. 

Description of, 1881, 16. 

Valuation of, 1881, 17. 
Ground Linseed Cake, 1883, 74 ; 1884, 106. 
Ground Rye, Analyse* of, 1885, 170. 
Grover, J. S., Sampler, 1883, 44 ; 1885, 50, 52, 58, 

60, 62, 64, 66, 68. 
Groves & Daggett, Pure Ground Bone, 1886, 70. 

Raw Bone Superphosphate, Stock of 1885, 

1886, 55. 

Grundy, John, Sampler, 1888, 56, 66. 
Guanos, Analyses of, 1880, 26, 27. 
Guano, Swift Sure, Analyses of, 1886, 33 ; 1887, 
33. 

Guano, where obtained, 1880, 28. 
Guaranteed Chemical Composition of Mer- 
chantable Fertilizers, 1885, 39 ; 1886, 40 ; 

1887, 38; 1888, 45. 
Guarantees, 1884, 37; 1887,42; 1888, 49. 
Gypsum, 1880, 40. 



H. 

Hagaman, J. C, Sampler, 1884, 42. 

Haines, E. P., Sampler, 1881, 30. 

Haines, Geo. T., Sampler, 1880, 26. 

Haines, Stokes, Sampler, 1881. 25. 

Hair Manure, Analyses of, 1884, 32. 

Hair Waste, 1884, 55. 

Hale, Henry E., Sampler, 1885. 62. 

Hancock, Wm. R., Sampler, 1880, 24; 1883, 40. 

Hand, Mr., Sampler, 1886, 165. 

Harrison Bros., Acid Phosphate, 1883, 29. 

Acidulated Phosphate Rock, 1884, 33. 

Acidulated S. C. Rock, 1881, 19. 

Dissolved Bone, 1881 , 21 ; 1883, 44 ; 1884, 51. 

Dissolved 8. C. Rock, 1882. 24. 

Ground Bone, 1880, 30 ; 1882, 32. 

Kainite, 1881, 20 ; 1882, 28 ; 1883. 30. 

Muriate of Potash, 1881, 20 ; 1882, 29; 1883, 
30 ; 1884, 35. 

Nitrate of Soda, 1881, 23 ; 1882, 18 ; 1883, 26 ; 
1884, 3.. 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 
1884, 34. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1881, 23, 1882, 20; 
1883, 26 ; 1884, 31. 
Hassenteufel, Mrs.. Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
190. 

Hassinger Fertilizer Co., Cabbage Manure, 
1887, 57. 

Complete Manure, 1887, 57 ; 1888, 65. 
Hay, Black Grass, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Hay, Bog, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Hay, Clover, Analyses of, 1886, 158. 



244 INDEX, 



Hay, Field Experiments on, 1886, 1886, 78. 
Hay, Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 
1887, 80. 

Hay from Banked Meadows, Analyses of, 1886, 
164. 

Hay, Mixed, Field Experiments on, 1886, 113. 
Hay, Salt, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Hay, Timothy, Analyses of. 1883, 74 ; 1886. 158. 
Hays' Duster Co., Refuse of Turkey Feathers, 

1887, 74. 

Heidlen's Method of Determining Milk Solids, 
1884, 145. 

Hen Manure, Analyses of, 1881, S6. 
Herd Grass, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Heritage, J. D.. Report on Sweet Potatoes, 
1885,208. 

Hickory Wood Unleached, 1883, 47. 
Hildreth, Ephraim, Sampler, 1886, 159, 161, 

163, 165. 
Hill, D. R.. Sampler, 1880, 19. 
Hill, T. Wilton, Sampler, 1882, 40. 
Hill, Wm. T., Hill's Phosphate, 1887, 57. 

Pure Bone, 1887, 73. 
Hilyard, Frank W., Sampler, 1881, 25. 
Hincke, Julius, Report on Vineyards. 1885, 197. 
Hixson, Samuel J., Sampler, 1887, 52, 54, 66; 

1888, 58, 60, 76, 78. 

Hoagland, Peter Q., Sampler, 1S83, 36, 38. 
Hobson, Hurtado & Co., Lobos Peruvian 
Guano, 1880, 27 ; 1882, 36. 
Peruvian Guano, 1880, 27. 
Standard Peruvian Guano, 1882, 37. 
Hofmann, V. P., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
193. 

Hoi combe, Hiram, Sampler, 1883, 40. 
Holland, Thomas, Sampler, 1881, 18, 22. 
Holton, S. B., Sampler, 1882, 25. 
Home Fertilizer, 1883, 41. 
Home-made Fertilizers, Analyses of, 1880, 32- 
36. 

Hominy Meal, Analyses of, 1885, 166. 
Hopkins, L. N. & J. S., Carib Guano, 1886, 35. 

La Vuelta Guano, 1885, 59. 
Horton's Button Factory, Button Dust, 1881, 
17. 

Hoyt Bros., Ash from Tanners' Spent Hem- 
lock Bark, 1883, 46. 
Leached Wood Ashes, 1884, 54. 
Hughes, Henry A., Sampler, 1885, 30. 
Hungarian Grass, 1886, 175. 
Seed, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Straw, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Hurff, Geo. B., Sampler, 1881, 55 ; 1885, 159, 161, 
163. 

Hurtado & Co., Alkalized Guano, 1883, 37. 
Lobos, 1884, 41. 

Peruvian Guano, No. I., Guaranteed, 1884, 
41. 

Hyres, John, Sampler, 1885, 64. 



I. 

Idell, Chas. W., Sampler, 1887, 74. 

Improved Phosphatic Fertilizer Co., American 
Chemical Guano, 1888, 65. 

Incomplete Fertilizers, 1882, 17. 

Indian Corn, Field Experiment with Fertiliz- 
ers on, 1882, 47, 48, 50 ; 1883, 62, 54 ; 1884, 
59, 60, 62, 63, 65, 66, 67. 

Inglass, H. R., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 1885, 
207. 

Instructions for Sampling Commercial Fer- 
tilizers, 1880, 12; 188L, 69; 1882,103; 1883, 
103; 1884,160; 1885,215; 1886,200; 1887, 
186; 1888, 229. 

Insoluble Phosphoric Acid, 1880, 14. 

Inspectors, Names and Addresses of, 1887, 39; 
1888, 22. 

Irons, J. H., Field Experiments by, 1886, 100. 
Sampler, 1886, 159, 161, 163, 165. 



1880-1888. 



j. 

Jane way, Frank L., Sampler, 1883, 42. 
Jenkins, Dr. E. H., Buckwheat Flour, 1885, 176. 

Buckwheat Straw, 1885, 167. 

Clover Hay, 1886, 166. 

Corn Meal (all varieties), 1885, 174. 

Corn Stalks, 1886, 167. 

Cotton-Seed Meal, 1885, 176. 

Dent Corn, 1885, 174. 

Flax-Seed Meal, 1885, 176. 

Flint Corn, 1885, 174. 

Linseed Meal, 1885, 176. 

Linseed Meal (New Process), 1885, 176. 

Lucern, 1886, 166. 

Millet, 1886, 166. 

Oats, 1885, 174. 

Oat Straw, 1886, 167. 
' Rye, 1885, 175. 

Rye Bran, 1885, 175. 

Rye Straw, 1886, 167. 

Salt Marsh Hay, 1886, 166. 

Timothy Hay, 1886, 166. 

Western Corn, 1885, 174. 

Wheat Bran, 1885, 175. 

Wheat Middlings, 1885, 175. 

Wheat Shorts, 1885, 175. 

Wheat Straw, 1886, 167. 
Jersey Cows, Analyses of Milk of, 1880, 59. 
Jessup Geo. W., Sampler, 1882, 39. 
Johnson, J. B., Sampler, 1880, 19. 
Jones, M. F., Meat, Blood and Bone Fertilizer, 

1883, 37. 

K. 

Kainite, Analyses of, 1882, 28; 1883, 30; 1884, 
35 ; 1885, 36 ; 1886, 39 ; 1887, 37; 1888, 44. 

Keen, E. F., Sampler, 1884, 40. 

Kelsey, Hon. H. C, Hungarian Grass (dried). 
1880, 47. 

i Kenderdine, W., & Rice, A A Phosphate, 1887, 
59. 

AB Phosphate, 1887, 57. 
Pure Bone Dust, 1887, 73. 
White Bone, 1887, 73. 
Kerr, Alex., Bros. & Co., Kainite, 1883, 30; 
1886, 39. 
Muriate of Potash, 1886, 38. 
Kimball, Prince & Co., Muriate of Potash, 

1884, 35; 1886, 38. 
Kindersdine, Hard Bone Meal, 1882, 32. 

Watson Kindersdine's AA Phosphate, 1882, 
37. 

Watson Kindersdine's B Phosphate, 1882, 
37. 

Soft Bone, 1882, 32. 
King-Crab Fertilizer, Analyses of, 1880, 43. 
Kirby & Smith, Dried Fish, 1888, 40. 
Kirby, Geo., Sampler, 1886, 163. 
Knight. E. C. & Co., Blowings of Sugar Re- 
finery, 1887, 74. 
Kraus, Chas., Sampler, 1888, 62, 66, 70, 74, 76. 
Krom, John M., Sampler, 1880, 29. 
Kuhn, Julius, Buek wheat Flour, 1885, 176. 

Buckwheat Straw, 1886, 167. 

Clover Hay, 1886, 166. 

Corn Meal (all varieties), 1885, 174. 

Corn Stalks, 1886, 167. 

Cotton-Seed Meal, 1885, 176. 

Flax-Seed Meal, 1885, 176. 

Flint Corn, 1885, 174. 

Linseed Meal, 1883, 176. 

Linseed Meal (New Process), 1885, 176. 

Lucern, 1886, 166. 

Millet, 1886, 166. 

Oats, 1885, 174. 

Oat Straw, 1886, 167. 

Rye, 1885, 175. 

Rye Straw, 1886, 167. 

Salt Marsh Hay, 1886, 166. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



245 



hn, Julius — 
Timothy Hay, 1886, 166. 
Western Corn, 1885, 174. 
Wheat Bran. 1885, 175. 
Wheat Middlings, 1885, 175. 
Wheat Shorts, 1885, 175. 
Wheat Straw, 1886, 167. 



Em 

Labaw, J. C. & Son, Samplers, 1881, 18 ; 1882, 25, 
31, 39. 

Laboratory Methods, 1SS6, 43 ; 1887, 41 ; 1888, 
49. 

La Monte, Geo., Sampler, 1SS3, 38. 
Lane, Andrew, Nova Scotia Land Plaster, 
188 L, 30. 

Lanning, E. W., Chemical Fertilizer for Weeat, 

1880, 21. 
Sampler, 1S80, 19. 
Larison, Dr. C. W., Field Experiments on Oats, 

1882, 51. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Clover, 1884, 72. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Oats, 1882, 51. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Wheat, 1883, 60. 

Sampler, 1881, 39. 
Lawrence, Harman, Sampler, 1880, 19, 29. 
Lawrence, Hon. T., Fodder Rye, 1881, 54. 
Lawrence, H. W., Fish and Bird Guano, None 
Such, No. I., 1881, 26, 27. 

Sampler, 1881, 25. 
Leap, Ellisson T., Sampler, 1884, 40. 
Leather Waste, Analyses of, 1883, 47; 1884, 47. 
Lecture by Dr. J. H. Gilbert, 1884, 19. 
Legal Weights of one bushel of Agricultural 

Products, 1882, 99. 
Letters Concerning Black Grass, 1882, 85. 

Hon. J. G. W. Havens, 1882. 85. 

Joseph W. Killam, Esq , 1882, 86. 
Letters Concerning Cotton. 1883, 92. 

Charles Hunt, Esq., 1882, 91 ; 1883, 93. 

Dr. Theo. F. Pruden, 1883, 93. 

Emmor Roberts, Esq.. 1883, 93. 

Hon. W. B. Miller, 1883, 92. 

Prof. J. Cooper, 1883, 94. 

Z. U. Matthews, Esq., 1883. 93. 
Letters Concerning Cow Pea, Dr. J. P. Stevens, 
1882, 90. 

Hon. Michael Taylor, 1882, 89. 

John R. Dubois, Esq., 1882, 90. 

Joseph W. Killam, Esq., 1882, 88. 
Letters Concerning Cranberry Scald, 1881, 61. | 

Dr. L. W. Brown, 1881, 61. 

Dr. T. F. Pruden, 1881, 62; 1882, 98. 

Mr. A. J. Rider. 1881, 62. 

Mr. E. Stokes, 1881, 62. 

Mr. E. W. Crane, 1881, 63. 

Mr. G. B. Lee, 1881, 63. 

Mr. J. A. Fenwick, 1881, 62. 
Letters Concerning Milk, I. W. Nicholson, 

Esq , 1883, 87. 
Letters Concerning Yellow Tobacco, Henry 

Gamier, Esq., 1882, 93. 
Lewis & Price, Farmers' Bone Phosphate, 1887, ' 

59; 1888, 67. 
Lewis, D. C, Sampler, 1882, 39. 
Licorice Residue, 1881, 36. 
Lime, 1882, 41. 

Analyses of, 1880, 41, 42 ; 1882, 42 ; 1883, 46. 

Analyses of Sample of, 1881, 31. 
Lime and Ashes, 1881, 33. 

Description of, 1881, £0. 

Sand, 1881, 32. 

Weight of a Bushel, 1881, 31. 
Limestone. Analyses of Sample of, 1881, 32. 
Limestone Ground, 1881. 32. 
Linseed Cake, Ground, Analyses of, 1883, 74. 



Linseed Meal, 1882, 70. 

Analyses of, 1883, 74 ; 1884, 106. 
(New Process), Analyses of, 1883, 74 ; 1888, 
116, 117. 

(Old Process), Analyses of, 1888, 116, 117. 
Lippincott, Benjamin, Field Experiments,with 

Phosphoric Acid on Corn, 1885, 93. 
Lippincott, F. C, Sampler, 1884, 48. 
Lippincott, Jesse, Sampler, 1880, 24, 29. 
Lippincott, J , Jr., Corn Ensilage (A), 1881, 55. 

Corn Ensilage (B), 1881, 55. 
Lippincott, S. R., Compost, 1880, 32. 

Muck, 1881, 35. 

Sampler, 1883, 45 ; 18S5, 68. 
Lister Bros., Ammoniated Bone Phosphate, 

1881, 26, 27. 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1882, 36 ; 

1883, 39 ; 1884, 45 ; 1885, 55 ; 1886, 65. 
Bone-Black Superphosphate, 1883, 29 ; 1884, 

33 ; 1886. 35 ; 1887, 34 : 1888, 42. 
Celebrated Ground Bone, 1880, 30 ; 1881, 17; 

1882, 32 ; 1885, 65. 
Corn Manure, 1886. 65. 

Crescent Bone, 1880, 30 ; 1883, 43 ; 1884, 53 ; 

1885, 65 ; 1886, 70. 
Dissolved Bone Black, 1882, 27. 

Double Sulphate of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39 ; 1887, 37. 

Dried Blood, 1881, 23; 1883, 26; 1884, 31; 
1886, 33. 

Dried Fish, 1881, 23 ; 1S82, 22 ; 1883, 27 ; 

1884, 32. 

Ground Bone, 1881, 17. 

Kainite, 1882, 28 ; 1883, 30 ; 1884, 35 ; 1886, 

39 ; 1887, 37 ; 1888, 44. 
Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29 ; 1883, 30 ; 1884, 

35 ; 18S5. 36 ; 1886, 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888, 44. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1881, 23 ; 1882, 18 ; 1883, 26 ; 

1884, 31 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31 ! 1888, 39. 
Plain Superphosphate from Bone Black, 

1884. 34 ; 1885. 31. 
Potash Salts, 1888, 45. 

Potato Fertilizer, 1882, 35 ; 1883, 35, 39 ; 18S5, 
55. 

Potato Manure, 1884, 65. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1884, 53 ;. 1886, 70. 

Standard, 1885, 55; 1886, 65. 

Standard Superphosphate, 1880, 29 ; 1882, 

36 ; 1883, 39 ; 1884, 45. 

Standard Superphosphate of Lime, 1880, 

20; 1881, 26, 27. 
Success, 1886, 65. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1881, 23; 1882, 20; 

1883, 26 ; 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 
31 ; 18,88, 39. 

Tankage, 1886, 33 ; 1887, 33. 
U. S. Phosphate, 1880, 20 ; 1881, 26, 27 ; 1882, 
36. 

U. S. Superphosphate, 1884, 43; 1885, 55; 

1886, 65. 

Lister's Agricultural Chemical Works, Am- 
moniated Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 

1887, 59 ; 1888, 65. 

Celebrated Ground Bone, 1887,73; 1888, 79. 

Corn Fertilizer, 1887, 59. 

Corn Manure, 1888, 65. 

Crescent Bone, 1888, 79. 

Harvest Queen, 1887, 59. 

Harvest Queen Phosphate, 1888, 65. 

Peach Tree Fertilizer, 1887, 59. 

Potato Manure, 1887, 59; 1888, 65. 

Potato No. 2, 1888, 65. 

Raw Bone Phosphate, 1887, 59 ; 1888, 65. 

Standard, 1887, 59. 

Standard Superphosphate of Lime, 1888, 
65. 

Success, 1887, 59 ; 1888, 65. 
U. S. Phosphate, 1887, 59. 
U. 8. Superphosphate, 1888, 65. 
Little, Rev. Charles E., Muck, or Peat, 1881, 35. 
Sampler, 1880, 29. 



246 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



Lockwood & McClintock, Benton's Blood, 
Meat and Bone Superphosphate, 1882, 38. 
Lobos Guano, Analyses of. 1886, 55. 
Longman & Caldwell, Muriate of Potash, 

1881, 20. 

Lord & Polk, Acid Phosphate, 1886, 37. 

Challenge Bone Pftosphate, 1887, 59. 

Champion Fertilizer, 1887, 59 ; 1888, 67. 

Dried Fish, 1888, 40. 

Soluble Bone and Potash, 1887, 59. 

Truxillo, 1887, 69. 

Truxillo Guano, 1886, 59; 1888, 67. 

Union High-Grade Complete Manure, No. 
III., 1888, 67. 
Lovett, J. T., Sampler, 1884, 54. 
Lucern, 1886, 168. 

Analyses of, 1886, 160, 166. 

Green, Analyses of, 1888, 116, 117. 

Hay, Analyses of, 1888, 116, 117. 

or Alfalfa, 1887, 160; 1888, 105-113. 

M. 

Macbean, A. S., Sampler, 1881, 39. 

Macbean , Field Experiments with Phos- 
phate Acid on Corn, 1885, 93. 

MacBean, Geo. A., Sampler, 1888, 60, 66, 70, 72, 
80. 

Magnesia and Potash, Double Sulphates of, 

Analyses of, 1886, 39 ; 1887, 37. 
Maine Bone, 1881, 17. 

Malt Sprouts, Analyses of, 1885, 166 ; 1888, 116, 
117. 

Managers, Board of, 1880, 3 ; 1881, 5 ; 1882, 5 ; 
1883, 5 ; 1884, 5 ; 1885,5; 1886, 5; 1887, 5; 
1888, 9. 

Manhattan Blood Guano, 1880, 27. 
Manhattan Chemical Co., Cooke's Blood 

Guano, 1883 1 ; 41. 
Dissolved Ground Bone, 1883, 44. 
Manufacturers, List of, whose Brands have 

been Sampled and Analyzed this Year, 

1886, 49; 1887, 46; 1888, 54 
Manning, S. R., Sampler, 1882. 39. 
Mann, Wm. M v Dried Brewers' Grains, 1880, 46. 
Residue from Starch Works (Dried), 188'J, 

46. 

Mapes, F. & P., Guano Co., "A," 1880, 20. 

"A" Brand, 1882, 35 ; 1883, 35 ; 1884, 41 ; 

1885, 51 ; 1886, 51 ; 1887, 61 ; 1888, 67. 
"A" Brand, Special for Turnips, 1882, 35. 
Acid Phosphate, 1886, 37. 
Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1881, 21 ; 

1882, 31. 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, with Potash, 

1886, 51 ; 1887, 61 ; 1888, 67. 
Bone-Black Superphosphate, 1883, 29 ; 1885, 

31 ; 1886, 35 ; 1887, 34. 
Cabbage and Cauliflower, 1888, 67. 
Cabbage Manure, 1885. 53. 
Complete Manure for General Use, 1887, 61 ; 

1888, 69. 

Complete Manure for Light Soils, 1887, 61 ; 

1888. 67. 
Corn Fertilizer, 1883, 35. 
Corn Manure, 1880, 29; 1881, 26, 27; 1882, 

35 ; 1884, 43 ; 1885, 53 ; 1887, 61 ; 1888, 67. 
Dissolved Bone Black, 1881, 19. 
Dissolved S. C. Rock, 1883, 29. 
Domestic Sulphate of Potash, 1881, 20. 
Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39; 1887, 37. 
Dried and Ground Fish, 1885, 53 ; 1887, 61 ; 

1888, 67. 

Dried Blood. 1881, 23 ; 1882, 21; 1883, 26; 

1886, 33 ; 1887, 32. 
Dried Fine Ground Fish, 1881. 23. 
Dried Ground Fish, Special. 1884, 41. 
English Superphosphate, 1881, 19. 
Fine Bone. 1882, 32 ; 1883, 43 ; 1886, 70. 
Fruit and Vine, 1885, 53. 



Mapes, F. & P., Guano Co.— 

Fruit and Vine Manure, 1887, 61 ; 1888, 67, 
69. 

Grass and Grain Spring Top-Dressing, 1888, 
67. 

Ground Bone, 1885, 65 ; 1888, 79. 
High-Grade Sulphate, 1886, 38. 
High-Grade Sulphate of Potash, 1882, 28; 

1883, 30; 1887, 36. 

High-Grade Superphosphate, 1882, 27 ; 1883, 

29; 1885, 31; 1886, 35. 
Kainite, 1883, 30 ; 1886, 39 ; 1887, 37. 
Lawn Top-Dressing, with Plaster, 1887, 61. 
Light Soil, 1886, 51. 

Manure for Cauliflower and Cabbage, 1886, 
51. 

Manure for Corn. 1886, 51. 
Manure for Fodder Corn, 1882, 35. 
Manure for Fruit and Vine, 1886,161. 
Manure for General Use, 1886, 51. 
Manure for Heavy Soil, 1882, 37. 
Manure for Light Soils, 1882, 35. 
Manure for Potatoes, 1886, 51. 
Mapes' "A" Brand, 1881, 26, 27. 
Mapes' Bone Meal, 1881, 17. 
Mapes' Complete Manure, "A" Brand, 1881,. 
26, 27. 

Mapes' Sorghum Manure, 1881, 26, 27. 
Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29 ; 1883, 30 ; 1884, 

35 ; 1886, 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888, 44. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1881, 23 ; 1882, 18 ; 1883, 26 ; 

1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31. 
Nitrogenized Superphosphate, 1884, 43 ; 

1885, 51 ; 1886, 51 ; 1887. 61 ; 1888, 69. 
Peach Tree Manure, 1887, 69 ; 1888, 67. 
Peruvian Guano, No. I.. 1887, 61. 
Peruvian Guano, Unmanipulated. 1888. 67. 
Plain Superphosphate, 1881, 19 ; 1882, 24. 
Potash Salts, 1885. 37. 

Potato Manure, 1882, 35 ; 1884, 41 ; 1885, 51 ; 

1887, 59 ; 1888, 67. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1880, 30 ; 1884, 53. 
Soluble Chemical Guano. 1882, 36, 39. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 18S1, 23 ; 1882, 20 ; 

1883, 26; 1886, 32; 1887, 31. 
Tankage, 1886, 33; 1887, 33. 
Top-Dressing, with Plaster, 1888, 67. 
Marble Lime, 1883, 46. 

Market Prices of Fertilizers, 1886, 22 ; 1887, 23 ; 

1888, 30. 
Marl, 1881, 29. 

Analyses of, 1880, 36-39. 

Experience of Farmers with, 1881, 28. 

Fostertown Company, 1881, 29. 

Greensand, 1881, 28 ; 1882, 43. 
Marshall, W. B., Sampler, 1881, 24. 
Marsh Rosemary, Analyses of. 1886, 164. 
McMahan & Sons, Samplers, 1882, 40. 
Meley, Wm. J., Sampler, 1882, 39 ; 1883, 38, 42. 
Melick, Edwin, Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 
191. 

Methods for Comparing Brands from Different 

Manufactories, 1885, 47. 
Methods for Milk Analyses, 1884, 144. 
Meyer, C, Jr., Acme No. I., 1887, 61 ; 1888, 69. 
Acme No II., 1887. 61. 
Acme E. Brand, 1887, 61. 
Acme Fertilizer, 1886, 67. 
Ammonite and Castor Pomace, 1887, 32; 
1888, 40. 

Bone- Black Superphosphate, 1886, 35 ; 1887 

34 ; 1888, 42. 
Dried Fish. 1887, 32 ; 1888, 40. 
Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39 ; 1887, 37. 

Muriate of Potash, 1886, 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888, 
44. 

Potash Salts, 1888, 45. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, 1886, 32 ; 1887, 32 ; 

1888, 39. 
Tankage, 1886, 33. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



247 



Middleton, J. EL, Star Bone Phosphate, 1880, 32. 
Milk, 1883, 16, 83, 85. 

Analyses of, 1883. 88. 89. 

Analyses. Methods for, 1884, 144. 

Cost per Quart of Producing, 1885, 180. 

Cost per Quart of Wholesaling and Retail- 
ing, 1885, 181. 

Experiments on the Yield of, 1S80, 54-63 

of Ayrshire Cows, Analyses of. 1880, 61. 

of Jersey Cows. Analyses of, 18S0, 59. 

of Native Cows, Analyses of, 18S0. 60. 

Profit and Loss from Retailing, 1885. 182. 

Profit and Loss from Wholesaling, 1885, 182. 

Solids, Heidlen's Method of Determining, 
1884, 145. 

Study of Methods by which Profits may be 
Increased, 1885, 183. 

Yield of. 1880, 58. 
Millen, E. N.. Sampler, 1886, 54. 
Miller, Hon. W. B.. Sampler, 1881, 22, 24. 
Miller, H. S. & Co., Ammoniated Dissolved 
Bone, 1888, 69. 

Coarse Bone, 1888, 79. 

Dissolved Bone, 1888, 81. 

Fine Bone, 1888, 79. 

Ground Bone, 1S88. 79. 

Harvest Queen, 188S, 69. 

Medium Bone, 1888, 79. 

Potato Manure, 1888, 69. 

Standard Superphosphate of Lime, 188S, 
69. 

Miller, Wyatt W., Sampler, 1880, 19. 

Millet and Clover, Field Experiments with 

Fertilizers on, 1884, 75. 
Millet, Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 

by A. P. Arnold, 1888, 85. 
Millet, German, 1886, 175. 
Millet, German. Analyses of, 1886, 160, 166. 
Mills, C. W., Corn Ensilage. 1881, 55. 
Mineral Phosphates, Analyses of, 1886, 34, 35. 
Miscellaneous, 1884, 144. 

Analyses, 1882, 45 ; 1833, 45, 46, 47, 48 ; 1884, ' 
55. I 
Substances, Analyses of, 1880, 42, 43. 
Mitchell, A., Berry Manure, 1887, 61. 
Complete Manure, 1886, 55. 
Corn Manure, 1888. 69. 
Potato Grower, 1888. 69. 
Potato Manure, 1887, 61. 
Standard, 1883, 41. 
Standard Phosphate, 1884, 49 
Standard Superphosphate, 1888, 69. 
Mitchell, John J., Sampler, 1885, 165. 197, 169, 
171, 173 ; 1886, 50, 52, 56, 58, 60, 64, 66, 69, 1 
71 ; 1887, 52. 54, 58, 60, 62, 70, 72 ; 1888, 60, ' 
64. 68, 76, 78. 
Mixed Feed, Analyses of, 1885, 170. 
Mixing Fertilizers, Formulas for, 1884, 151. 
Moller & Bros., Champion No I., 1887, 61. 
Champion No. II., 1887, 61. 
Muriate of Potash, 1888, 44. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1888, 39. 
Monroe, Judson & Stroup, Canada Ashes, 1884, 
54. 

Canada Unleached Ashes, 1885, 68. 
Moritz, L., Button Bone. 18*2, 32; 1883, 43; 
1881, 53 ; 1885, 65 ; 1*86, 70 ; 1887, 73. 
Button Bone Waste, 1881. 17 
Morris, F., Corn Ensilage (A), 1881, 55. 

Corn Ensilage (B), 1881, 55. 
Mortimer, L., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 1885, 
209. 

Sampler. 1881, 20; 1884, 33; 1885, 32, 64; 
1886, 36. 

Muck, Analyses of, 1880, 42 ; 18X1, 35. 
Muck, Swamp, Analyses of, 1882, 42. 
Muhleisen, Geo. B., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
200. 

Muriate of Potash, Analyses of, 1880, 42 ; 1882, 
29 ; 1883, 30 ; 1884, 35 ; 1885, 36 ; 1886, 38 ; 
1X87, 36; 1888,44. 



N. 

National Fertilizer Co., Chittenden's Ammo- 
niated Bone, 1885, 53. 

Chittenden's Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate, 1886, 67. 

Chittenden's Complete Fertilizer for Pota- 
toes, 1885, 53. 

Chittenden's Fertilizer for Potatoes, Vege- 
tables, etc., 1886, 67. 

Chittenden's Fish and Potash, 1885, 53 ; 

1886, 67. 

Chittenden's Universal Phosphate, 1886, 
67. 

Fine Animal Bone, 1886, 70. 

Kainite, 1886, 39. 

Potato and Vegetables, 1888, 69. 

Potato Manure, 1887, 63. 

Universal, 1887, 63. 
Native Cows, Analyses of Milk of, 1880, 60. 
Negus, W. S., Sampler, 1883, 44. 
Neilson, James, Brewers' Grains (from Silo), 
1880, 46. 

Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 

Cotton-Seed Meal, 1880, 46. 

Fodder Rye, 188 1, 54. 

Sampler, 1885, 165, 169, 171, 173 ; 1886, 161. 

Second Growth Clover Hay, 1880, 47. 

Timothy Hay, 1880, 46. 
Newbold, A., Sampler, 1883, 28. 
Newcome, F. S., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 

1885, 209. 
New Feed, Analyses of, 1884, 107. 
New Jersey Chemical Co., Acid Phosphate, 
1885, 33 ; 1886, 37. 
■ Acidulated Fish Guano, 18S2, 37 ; 1883, 37 ; 

1884, 43 ; 1885, 61 ; 1886, 63 ; 1887, 63. 
Acidulated Phosphate, 1882, 24 ; 1883, 29 ; 

1885, 33 ; 1888, 81. 

Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1883, 37. 
Button Bone, 1884, 43 ; 1885, 61. 
Button Bone Fertilizer, 1883, 37. 
I. L. Lofland's Button Bone, 1886, 63 ; 1888, 
69. 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 
1884, 34. 

Soluble Bone and Potash, 1884, 43; 1885, 

67 ; 1886, 72 ; 1888, 81. 
Superphosphate, W. & C, 1882, 37. 
Twenty-five-Doilar Victor Ammoniated 

Bone, 1888, 69. 
Victor, 1887, 63. 

W. & C. Acidulated Phosphate, 1884, 33. 
W. & C. Superphosphate, 1884, 43 ; 1885, 61. 
Yarnell's Bone Fertilizer, 1884, 41; 1885, 

61 ; 18S7, 63. 
Yarnell's Bone Phosphate. 1884, 41. 
Yarnell's High-Grade Fertilizer, 1884, 41. 
Yarnell's High-Grade- Phosphate, 1885,61. 
Yarnell's High Grade Potato Manure, 18X8, 

69. 

New Jersey Fertilizing Co., Grass and Grain, 

1887, 63. 

New Jersey Station, Buckwheat Flour, 1885, 
176. 

Buckwheat Straw. 1886, 167. 

Clover Hay, 1XX6, 166. 

Corn Meal (all varieties), 1885, 174. 

Corn Stalks, 1X86, 167. 

Cotton-Seed Meal. 1885, 176. 

Dent Corn, 1885, 174. 

Flax-Seed Meal, 1885, 176. 

Flint Corn, 18rf5, 174. 

Linseed Meal, 1X85, 176. 

Linseed Meal (New Process), 188), 176, 

Lucern, 1886, 166. 

Millet, 18X6, 166. 

Oats, 1885, 174. 

Oat Straw, 18X6, 167. 

Rye, 18X5, 175. 

Rye Bran, 1885, 175. 



248 INDEX, 



New Jersey Station- 
Rye Straw, 1886, 167. 

Salt Marsh Hay, 1886, 166. 

Timothy Hay, J 886, 166. 

Western Corn, 1885, 174. 

Wheat Bran, 1885, 175. 

Wheat Middlings, 1885, 175. 

Wheat Shorts, 1885, 175. 

Wheat Straw, 1886, 167. 
Newton & Ludlam, Animal Bone, 1887, 63. 

Cereal Brand, 1887, 63; 1888, 71. 

Cereal Fertilizer, 1886, 61. 
New York Superphosphate Co., Salified Super- 
phosphate, 1880, 25. 
Nicholson, I. W., Letter from, about Milk, 1883, 
87. 

Sampler, 1880, 19, 26, 39; 1881, 22, 24 ; 1882, 
40; 1884. 40, 42, 50, 52; 1885, 32, 52, 54, 56, 
58. 62; 1886, 34, 36, 50, 54, 56, 58, 62, 69, 71 ; 

1887, 34, 35, 48, 50, 54, 56, 58, 62, 64, 68 ; 

1888, 42. 43, 58, 66, 70. 72, 74, 76, 78, 80. 
Nicholson, Wm. C, Sampler, 1880, 39. 
Nicholson, Wm. E., Marl, 1881, 29. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1883, 61. 

Analyses of, 1882, 18; 1883, 26; 1884, 31; 

1885, 28; 1886, 32; 1887, 31 ; 1888, 39. 
Consumption of, 1883. 31. 

Nitrogen, Average Retail Prices of, 1887, 27. 
Average Retail Prices of, in Crude Stock, 

1883. 25; 1884, 29; 1885, 27; 1886, 28; 1887, 
27 ; 1888, 35. 

Comparison between the Average Whole- 
sale and Retail Prices of, 1886, 28 ; 1887, 
28 ; 1888, 35. 

Examination and Comparison of Analyti- 
cal Methods for the Determination of, 

1886, 185. 

Forms of, 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31. 

From Wool Waste, Compared with Nitro- 
gen from Ammonium Sulphate, 1885, 106. 

Methods for the Determination of, 1887, 
169. 

Prices of, 1880, 15; 1882, 14, 17; 1883, 25; 

1884, 28 ; 1885, 22, 25. 

Sources of, 1886, 29; 1887, 29; 1888, 36. 

Valuation of, 1881, 14. 

Where Found, 1880. 13. 

Wholesale Prices of, 1883, 23; 1884, 27 ; 1885, 

23; 1886, 25; 1887,26; 1888.33. 
Wholesale Prices of, in Crude Stock, 1886, 

23. 

Nitrogenous Fertilizers, Analyses of, 1881, 23. 

Description of, 1881, 22. - 

Valuation of, 1881, 23. 
Nitrogenous Superphosphates, 1885, 66. 

Analyses of, 1882, 3l ; 1883, 44; 1884, 50, 51. 

Without Potash, 1881, 20, 21. 
Nitro High-Grade Superphosphate, 1881, 26, 27. 
Nixon, J. L., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 191. 
North, Dr. J. H., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
198. 

Nova Scotia Land Plaster, 1880, 40 ; 1881, 30. 



O. 

Oak Wood, Unleached Ashes, 1883, ;47. 
Oats, 1882, 87. 

Analyses of, 1885, 172. 

Field Experiments on, 1884, 1886, 78. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 

1882. 51 , 62, 53 ; 1884, 69, 70 ; 1885, 73 ; 1887, 

80 ; 1888, 100. 
Ground, Analyses of, 1888, 116, 117. 
Straw, Analyses of, 1886, 162, 167 ; 1888, 116, 

117. 

Officers, Executive, 1881, 7; 1882, 7; 1883, 7; 

1884, 7 ; 1885, 7; 1886, 7 ; 1887, 7; 1888, 11. 
Officers of the Board of Managers. 1881, 7 ; 1882, 

7; 1883, 7; 1884, 7; 1885, 7; 1886, 7 ; 1887, 

7 ; 1888, 11. 



1880-1888. 



Oil Meal, Analyses of, 1885, 172. 
Oil Meal (Old Process), 1886, 164. 
Olden, C. H, Sampler, 1884, 40. 
Oliver, John V. D., Sampler, 1885, 66. 
Orchard Grass, Analyses of, 1886, 160, 164 ; 1888, 
116, 117. 

Orchilla Guano, Analyses of, 1885, 68 ; 1886, 35. 

No. II., Analyses of, 1884, 55. 
Order of Station Work, 1883, 105 ; 1884, 162 : 
1885, 218. 

Orient Guano Manufacturing Co., Complete 
Manure, 1888, 71. 

Fish and Potash, 1888, 71. 

Standard Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate, 1888, 71. 

Suffolk County, Ammoniated Bone, 1888, 
71. 

Suffolk County, Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate, 1887, 63. 
Osborn & Vail, Dried Fish, 1881, 23. 
Otis, James E., Dried and Ground Fish Guano, 
1887, 63 ; 1888, 71. 

Dried Fish, 1881, 23. 

Dried Ground Fish Guano, 1886, 68. 

Dried Fish and Potash, 1880, 31. 

Dried Fish Guano, 1885, 55. 

Sampler, 1881, 22. 
Oyster Interests of New Jersey, 1888, 163-201. 



P. 

Pacific Guano Co., Nobsque Guano, 1888. 71. 

Soluble Pacific Guano, 1883, 41; 1886, 61; 
1887, 65 ; 1888, 71. 

Special Potato Fertilizer, 1888, 71. 
Palm Nut Meal, 1882, 71. 
Palm Nut Meal (Imported), 1882, 71. 
Pancoast. J. W., Lime Sand, 1881, 33. 

Sampler. 1880, 24, 29. 
Parkhurst, L. H. , Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
199. 

Parmly, j. E., Field Experiments by, 1886, 100. 
Patterson & Jones, Pure Ground Bone, 1881, 17. 

Raw Bone, 1880, 30. 
Peaches and Peach Trees, Report of Mr. J. M. 

White, 1885, 190. 
Peach Trees, Analyses of the Ash of Peach 
Wood, 1884, 141. 
and Their Special Fertilizers, 1883, 94. 
and the Yellows, 1884, 135. 
Field Experiments on, 1886, 108. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 
1887, 102. 

Report of J. M. White, Esq., on, 1884, 137. 

Special Report on, 1886, 181. 
Pea Feed, Analysis of, 1885, 166. 
Pea Meal, Analyses of, 1885. 166. 
Pearson, A W., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 202. 
Peat, Analyses of, 1881, 35. 
Penguin Island Guano, Analysis of, 1886, 35. 
Peninsular Fertilizing Co., 1886, 67. 

Planet Brand Phosphate, 1887, 63. 
Pennsylvania Salt Co., Nitrate of Soda, 1884, 
31. 

Peruvian Guano, 1885, 55. 

Lobos, 1885, 55. 

No. I., Analyses of, 1886. 55. 
Peterson, Amos, Sampler, 1886, 165. 
Pettit, Woodnutt, Field Experiments by, 1887, 
89. 

Sampler, 1887, 48, 50, 52, 58, 60, 64. 66, 68, 70, 
72 ; 1888, 56. 60. 62, 66, 70, 74, 76. 78, 80. 
Philadelphia Stock Yard Co., Blood Fertilizer, 
1883, 27. 
Dried Blood, 1881, 23. 
Phillips, Frederick, Acid Phosphate. 1887, 35. 
Domestic Sulphate of Potash, 1887, 36. 
Genuiue Improved Superphosphate, 1888, 
71. 

Kainite, 1887, 37. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



249 



Phillips, Frederick- 
Nitrate of Soda, 1887, 31. 

Pure Phuine. 18S7, 65 ; 1888, 71. 

Superphosphate, 1887, 65. 
Phillips, Moro, Acid Phosphate, 1886, 37. 

Ammonite, 1S83, 27. 

Azotine, 1881, 23. 

Bisulphate of Potash, 1886, 38. 

Genuine Improved Superphosphate, 1884,' 
45. 

Genuine Improved Superphosphate of 

Lime, 1880, 21. 
High-Grade Domestic Sulphate, 1S85, 39. 
High-Grade Sulphate of Potash. 1882, 28 ; I 

1883, 30. 
Kainite, 1886, 39. 

Muriate of Potash, 1883, 30 ; 1885, 36 ; 1886, i 
38. 

Nitrate of Soda, 1881, 23 ; 18S2, 18 ; 1883, 26 ; i 

1886, 32. 
Phosphate, 1880, 21. 
Phosphate Plaster, 1881, 19. 
Phuine, 1S80. 29 ; 1881, 26, 27 ; 1883, 37 ; 1885, ! 

55 ; 1886, 65. 
Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, \ 

1884, 34. 

Pure Phuine, 1882, 37 ; 1884, 45. 
Soluble Bone, 1883, 29. 
Soluble Bone Phosphate, 1884, 33 ; 1885, 33. 
Soluble Bone (S. C. Rock), 1881, 19 ; 1882, 24. 
Superphosphate, 1886, 65. 
Superphosphate of Lime, 1881, 26, 27 ; 1882, 
36 : 1883, 37 ; 1885, 55. 
Phosphate Meal, Phosphoric Acid in, 1887, 92. 
Phosphates, Mineral, Analyses of, 1886, 34, 35. 
Phosphoral, Analyses of, 1885, 31, 96. 
Phosphoric Acid, Average Retail Prices of, i 
1886, 27 ; 1887, 27. 
Comparison between the Average Whole- 
sale and Retail Prices of, 1886, 28 ; 1887, 
28 ; 1888, 35. 
Field Trials with, 1886, 98. 
Field Trials to Test Various Forms of, ! 

1885, 85. 

In Cayman Island Guano, 1887, 92. 
In Phosphate Meal, 1887, 92. 
Insoluble, 1880, 14. 

Methods for the Determination of, 1887, 
171. 

Prices of, 1880, 15 ; 1883, 25 ; 1884, 28. 
Reverted, 1880, 14. 
Soluble, 1880, 13. 

Sources of, 1886, 30 ; 1887, 29 ; 1888, 36. 
Valuation of, 1881, 14. 
Wholesale Prices of, 1887, 25; 1888, 32. 
Wholesale Prices of, in Crude Stock, 1886, 
24. 

Plain Superphosphates, Analyses of, 1881, 19; 
1882, 24, 27 ; 1883, 28, 29 ; 1884, 33, 34 ; 1885, 
30-33; 1886,34-37; 1887,34,35; 1888,42,43. 

Description of, 1881, 18. 

Valuation of, 1881, 19. 
Plaster, Analyses of, 1880, 39, 40. 

Composition of Pure, 1881, 29. 

Description of, 1881, 30. 
Piatt, B. C. Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 
Plummer, S. W., Jr., Sampler, 1881, 18. 
Polhemus, James, Sampler, 1883. 38. 
Pomace, Apple, Analyses of, 188/5, 45, 46. 
Pomace, Castor, Analvsesof, 188:5, 27; 1884. 32; 

1886, 33. 

Pond, Robert, Muriate of Potash, 1881, 20. 
Porpoise Fishing Co., Cape May, Porpoise. 

Scrap, 1884, 32. 
Porpoise Scrap, Analyses of, 1884, 32. 
Potash, 1880, 14. 

and Magnesia, Double Sulphates of, 1887, 

and Magnesia, Double Sulphates of, 

Analyses of, 1886, 39. 
Average Retail Prices of, 1886, 27 ; 1887, 27. I 



Potash- 
Comparison Between the Average Whole- 
sale and Retail Prices of, 1886, 28 ; 1887, 
28 ; 1888. 35. 
High-Grade Sulphate of, Analyses of, 1887, 
36. 

Methods for the Determination of, 1887, 170. 
Muriate of, Analyses of, 1886, 38; 1887, 36. 
Prices of, 1880, 15; 1883, 25; 1884, 28; 1885, 
22, 25. 

Salts, 1881, 20; 1882, 28. 
Salts, Analyses of, 1883,30; 1884, 35; 1885, 
37. 

Salts, German, Analyses of, 1886, 38; 1887, 
36. 

Salts, Prices of, 1885, 26. 

Salts, Sources of, 1886, 30 ; 1887, 29 ; 1888, 36. 

Sources of, 1887, 29. 

Valuation of, 1881, 15. 

Wholesale Prices of, 1883, 23; 1884, 2? ; 1885, 
23; 1886, 25; 1887, 26; 1888, 33. 

Wholesale Prices of, in Crude Stock, 1886, 
24. 

Potatoes, Field Experiments with Fertilizers 

on, 1883, 55 ; 1884, 77. 
Potatoes, Sweet, Field Experiments with Fer- 
tilizers on, 1883, 57, 96. 
Potter, Clover Ensilage, 1881, 55. 
Potts, John W., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 203. 
Pondrette, Dried, 1881, 36. 
Pondrettes, Analyses of, 1883, 45. 
Powell, Morse & Co., Ocean Guano, 1886, 59. 
Virginius, 1886, 59. 
Virginius Guano, 1885, 57. 
Powell, Moses, Report on Sweet Potatoes, 1885, 
207. 

Powter, N. B., Grand Cayman Island Guano, 
1886. 35. 

Practical Use of Station Valuations, 1885, 46. 
Precipitated Phosphate of Lime, Analyses of, 

1885, 31. 

Preston & Sons, Ammoniated Bone Super- 
phosphate, 1881, 21. 

Ground Bone, 1881, 17. 
Preston Fertilizer Co., Ammoniated Bone 
Phosphate, 1886, 65. 

Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 1880, 
25; 1882, 31; 1883, 44; 1888, 73. 

Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1886, 65. 

Bone Black, Bone Ash, etc., 1886, 35. 

Bone Sawings, 1882, 32. 

Corn Fertilizer, 1886, 65. 

Doughten's Fish Guano, 1886, 68. 

Dried and Ground Fish, 1888, 71. 

Dried Ground Fish Guano, 1880, 31. 

Fish Guano, 1886, 71. 

Ground Bone. 1880, 30; 1882, 32; 1883, 43; 

1886, 70 ; 1888, 71. 

Potato Fertilizer, 1886, 65 ; 1888, 71. 

Preston's Phosphate. 1880, 25. 
Preston, H. & Sons, Ammoniated Bone Phos- 
phate, 1887, 63. 

Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 1885, 
57. 

Corn Fertilizer, 1887, 63. 

Doughten's Ammoniated Superphosphate, 

1884, 51. 

Dried and Ground Fish, 1887, 65. 

Dried and Ground Fish Guano, 1884, 47 ; 

1885. 57; 1887, 70. 
Fish Guano, 1885, 68. 
Ground Bone, 1887, 63. 
Potato Fertilizer, 1887, 63. 

Pure Bone Sawings, 1880, 30 ; 1884, 53. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1887, 73. 

Superphosphate, 1887, 63. 
Proteine, 1882, 69 ; 1883, 71; 1884, 102. 
Pruden, Dr. T. F., Letter from, Concerning 

Cranberry Scald, 1881, 62. 
Publication, 1886, 48. 

Pumyea & Perrine, Ground Bone, 1888, 79. 



250 INDEX, 



Pumyea, John V. D., Sampler, 1880, 39. 
Pure Ground Bone, Analyses of, Allen, Ale- 
zander B., 1887, 73. 

Baker, H. J., 1882, 32 ; 1883, 43. 

Clancy, Terry, 1883, 43 ; 1884, 53. 

Crocker Fertilizer Co., 1837, 73. 

Depue, Son & Co., 1881, 17 ; 1886, 70. 

Dilatush, J. Y., 1885, 65. 

Forrester, Geo. B., 1883, 43. 

Lister Bros., 1884, 53; 1886, 70. 

Mapes, F. & P., Guano Co., 1880, 30; 1884, 
53. 

Preston, H. & Sons, 1887, 73. 

Ruckman, B. F. & Son, 1884, 53. 

Tygert, J. E. & Co., 1885, 65. 

Wilson, Fitzgerald & Co , 1881, 17. 
Pure Nova Scotia Land Plaster, 1880, 40. 
Pursel, D. T., Field Experiments by, 1886, 100. 

Sampler, 1886, 66, 69, 71. 



Quaker City Manufacturing Co., Quaker City 

Poudrette, 1886, 55. 
Quaker City Poudrette, 1884, 45 ; 1885, 55. 
Quimby, J. S., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 190. 



K. 

Race, Dr. Henry, Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 
191. 

Rafferty & Williams, American Ammoniated 

Bone Superphosphate, 1881, 26, 27. 
Commonwealth Bone Meal, 1881, 17. 
Rain-Fall, Monthly Record of Mean, at New 

Brunswick, 1886, 83. 
Raisch, Henry, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 202. 
Ralston, John, High-Grade Knickerbocker 

Phosphate, 1887, 65. 
Ralston's Knickerbocker, 1884, 43 ; 1885, 59. 
Potato Fertilizer, 1885, 59. 
Potato Manure, 1884, 43. 
Ransom, J. D., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 199. 
Raspberry Disease, 1880, 67, 68. 
Rational System of Stock Feeding, 1880, 48-54. 
Rations Fed to Cows, 1883, 83, 85, 90, 91 ; 1884, 

120. 

For Feeding Brewers' Grains, 1885, 149, 159. 

For Feeding Corn Meal, 1885, 155. 158. 

For Feeding Cotton-Seed Meal, 1885, 157. 

For Feeding Wheat Bran, 1885, 158. 

For Feeding Wheat Bran and Linseed 
Meal, 1885, 153. 
Read & Co., Acid Phosphate, 1887, 35. 

Alkaline Bone, 1887, 71; 1888, St. 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1888, 81. 

Blood and Bone, 1887, 65 ; 1888, 73. 

Bone- Black Superphosphate, 1887, 34. 

Castor Pomace, 1888, 40. 

Cook's Blood Guano, 1886, 61. 

Dried Blood, 1887, 32; 1888, 40. 

Farmers' Friend, 1884, 47 ; 1887, 65. 

Farmers' Friend for All Crops. 1888, 73. 

Farmers' Friend, Special for Corn, 1885, 63. 

Farmers' Friend, Special for Wheat and 
Rye, 1885, 63. 

Ground Tankage, 1888, 41. 

High-Grade Farmers' Friend, 1888, 73. 
. Kainit, 1888, 44. 

Muriate of Potash. 1887, 36 ; 1888, 44. 

Nitrate of Soda, 1888, 39. 

S. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1888, 43. 

Sulphate of Ammonia. 1887, 31. 

Tankage, 1887, 33 ; 1888, 41. 
Red Clover, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Reed, John, Delta, 1886, 55. 
Reese, John S. & Co., Soluble Pacific Guano, 
1880, 27. 

Reimann, Dr., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 196. 



1880-1888. 



Rend Rock Powder Co., Complete Fertilizer, 

1883, 35. 

Rennyson, Wm. , Marble Lime, 1880, 41. 
Report of the Joint Committee of the Pomfret 

and Woodstock Farmers, 1884. 
Repp, John, Sampler, 1881, 16. 
Reustle, David, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 200. 
Reverted Phosphoric Acid, 1880, 14. 
Rice Bran, Analyses of, 1883, 74. 
Rice, T. T., Fodder Rye, 1881, 54. 
Richardson, J. H., Sampler, 1888, 62, 68, 72, 

76. 

Richmond, J., Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate, 1885, 63 ; 1887, 65 ; 1888, 73. 
Azotized Bone, 1887, 65. 
Azotized Bone Superphosphate, 1888, 73. 
Bone Meal, 1887, 73. 

Cereal Bone Phosphate, 1887, 65; 1888, 73. 
Excelsior, 1885, 63; 1887, 65. 
High-Grade Excelsior, 1888, 73. 
Potato and Fruit Tree Fertilizer, 1887, 65; 

1888, 73. 

S. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1888, 43. 
Soluble Bone Phosphate, 1888, 81. 
Rider, A. J., Letter from, concerning Cran- 
berry Scald, 1881, 62. 
Ridgeway, S. P., Field Experiments by, 1886, 
113. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on Po- 
tatoes, 1884, 77. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Wheat, 1885, 77. 

Ridgway, Caleb S., Sampler, 1888, 68, 80. 

Riley, J. M., Sampler, 1881, 16. 

Riley, M. F., Sampler, 1882, 32. 

Ringoes' Formula, Analyses of, 1886, 68. 

Rio Grande, Field Experiments on Sorghum 
at, 1884, 86-93; 1885, 117-142; 1886, 115- 
155; 1887, 96-100, 114-159; 1888, 133-162. 

Robert, Pond, Muriate of Potash, 1883. 30. 

Roberts, John W., Sampler, 1885, 68. 

Roberts, Samuel L., Sampler, 1880, 26. 

Roe, L. H, Sampler, 1885, 171. 

Rosemary, Marsh, Analysis of, 1886, 164. 

Ross, William H., Kirkwood Marl, 1880, 36. 

Rotten Bone, Analysis of, 1883, 45, 46. 

Ruckman, B. F. & Son. Flesh and Bone Fer- 
tilizer, 1881, 43 ; 1887, 65. 
Ground Bone, 1884, 53. 
Pure Ground Bone, 1884, 53. 

Rve Bran, Analyses of, 1885, 170, 175. 

Rye Ensilage, 1883, 75. 

Rye, Field Experiments on, 1886. 111. 

Rye, Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 
1885, 78. 

Rye, Field Experiments with Phosphoral up- 
on. 1885, 102 

Rye, Field Trials on, with Available Phos- 
phoric Acid, 1886, 98. 

Rye Fodder, Analysis of, 1883, 75. 

Ryerson, A., Sampler, 1883, 31. 

Rye Straw, Analvsis of, 1886, 162, 167; 1888, 116, 
117. 

S. 

Saalmann, Charles, Report on Vineyards 
1885, 197. 

Sardy. A L.. Acid Phosphate, 1887, 35. 
Alkaline Phosphate, 1886, 72. 
Phospho Peruvian Guano, 1886, 55; 1887, 
67. 

Sardy, J. B., Acid Phosphate. 1882, 24; 1883, 29. 

Atomized Phosphate, 1883, 46. 

Dissolved Bone Phosphate, 1882, 24. 
Sardy, J. B., & Son, Phospho Peruvian Guano, 

1882, 37 ; 1883, 35. 
Salt Hay, Analyses of, 1886, 164, 166. 
Salt Marsh Hay, 1882, 70, 85. 
Saltpeter, 1883, 61. 

Sampling Commercial Fertilizers, 1884, 37. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



251 



Sampling Commercial Fertilizers, Instructions 

for, 1880, 12 ; 1882, 103; 1883. 103 : 1884, 103 ; 

1885, 215 ; 1886, 200 ; 1887, 186 ; 1888, 229. 
Savidge, R., Swift and Sure, 1887, 67 ; 1888, 73. 
Saver & Van Derhoof, Wood Ashes, 1884, 54. 
Schenck, Hon. John C, Sampler, 1880, 24. 
Schester, John. Report on Vineyards, 1885, 196. 
Schmoeger's. Dr., Examinations of Heidlen's 

Method, etc., 1884, 145. 
Schureman, James, Sampler, 1883, 46. 
Scott, D. & Bro., Sure Growth, 1887, 67; 1888, 

73. 

Scranton, S. T., Fodder Rve, 1881. 54. 
Sedge, Creek, Analysps of, 1886, 164. 
Sedge, Short, Analysis of, 18J-6, 164. 
Sergent, N. S., Field Experiments by, 1886, 111. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Corn, 1884, 62. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on Oats, 
1885, 73. 

Field Experiments with Phosphoric Acid 

on Corn, 1885, 93. 
Sharpless & Carpenter, Acid Phosphate, 1883, 

29; 1886. 37; 1887, 35. 
Ammonite and Castor Pomace, 1887. 32. 
Bone- Black Superphosphate, 1887, 34. 
Bone Meal, 1886, 70. 

Bone Phosphate, No. I., 1885, 61; 1886, 63; 

1887, 65; 1888, 73. 
Dried Fish. 1888, 40. 
Imperial Phosphate, 1884, 45. 
Kainite, 1886, 39, 1887, 37. 
Muriate of Potash, 1886, 38; 1887, 36. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1886. 32; 1887. 31. 
Pure Bone Meal, 1885, 65 ; 1887, 73 ; 1888, 

79. 

Pure Dissolved Bone, 1888, 73. 

Soluble Tampico Guano, 1885, 61 ; 1886, 63 ; 

1887, 65 ; 1888, 73. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1886, 32; 1887, 31. 
Tankage, 1886, 33 ; 1887, 33. 
Union High-Grade Fertilizer No. II., 1888, 

73. 

Sheppard, D. M„ Fertilizer, 1880, 32. 
Shinn & Curtis, "New Jersey" Superphos- 
phate, 1881. 26, 27. 
Shivers, Wm, Animal Matter. 1883, 27. 
Shoemaker. M. L. & Co., Acid Phosphate, 1884, 
33; 1885, 33; 1886, 37 ; 1887, 35. 
Amraoniated Dissolved Bone, 1884, 51 ; 

1885, 65 ; 1886, 71. 
Ammonite and Castor Pomace, 1887, 32. 
Ammonite, Brand A, 1882, 21; 1884, 32; 

1885, 29. 

Ammonite. Brand B. 1882, 21 ; 1883, 27 ; 

1884, 32 ; 1885, 29 ; 1886, 33 ; 1888, 40. 
Bone-Ash Superphosphate, 1886, 35. 
Bone-Black Superphosphate, 1886, 35 ; 1888, 

42. 

Dissolved Bone Ash, 1881, 33; 18*5, 31;' 

1887, 34. 

Dissolved Bone Black, 1885, 31. 
Dissolved Bone Black and Canadian Apa- 
tite. 1887, 34. 
Dissolved 8. C. Rock. 1884, 33. 
Double Sulphates of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39 : 1887, 37. 

Dried Blood, 1882, 21; 1883, 26; 1884, 31; 

1885, 29; 1888.40. 

Echo, 1881, 49; 1885, 55; 1886, 65; 1887, 67. 

Good Enough, 1884, 49 ; 1887, 67. 

Good Enough Superphosphate, 1885, 57 ; 

1886, 65. 

High-Grade Sulphate, 1886, 38. 

High Grade 8ulphate of Potash, 1887, 36. 

Kainite. 1884, 35; 1885, 36; 1886. 39; 1887, 

.",7; 1888,44. 
Muriate of Potash, 188:5, 30 ; 1884 , 35 ; 1885, 

36 ; 1886. 38 ; 1887, 36 ; 1888. 44. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 31 ; 

1888, 39. 



Shoemaker, M. L. & Co.— 

Plain Superphosphate from Bone Black, 
1884, 34. 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 
1884. 34. 

S. C. Rock Superphosphate, 1888, 43. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 

1887, 31 ; 1888, 39. 
Swift Sure Bone, 1881, 17. 
Swift Sure Bone Meal, 1881, 17 ; 1882, 32 ; 

1883, 43 ; 1884, 53 ; 1885. 65 ; 1886, 70 ; 1887, 

73 ; 1888, 79. 
Swift Sure Dissolved Bone, 1883, 44; 1884, 

51 ; 1885, 66. 
Swift Sure Ground Bone, 1884, 53 ; 1885, 65; 

1886, 70. 

Swift Sure Guano, 1883, 27; 1885, 29; 1886, 
33 

Swift Sure Phosphate, 1881, 26, 27 ; 1886, 65. 
Swift Sure Superphosphate, 1882, 36 ; 1883, 

35 ; 1884, 45; 1883, 57 ; 1887, 67 ; 1888, 75. 
Tankage. 1887, 33 ; 1888. 41. 
Twenty-three-Dollar Phosphate, 1885, 57; 

1886, 65 ; 1887, 67. 
Western Bone Meal, 1883, 43. 

Shumaker, M. S., Swift Sure Fertilizer, 1880, 
20. 

Simons & Boutcher, Farmers' Favorite Phos- 
phate, 1885, 59. 

Smith, C. H., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 1885, 
209. 

Smith, Isaac H., Sampler, 1882, 40. 

Smith, J. I., Bone Phosphate, 1883, 39 ; 1884, 41 ; 

1887, 67 : 1888, 75. 

Ground Bone. 1883, 43; 1884, 53. 
Peach Tree Fertilizer. 1887, 67. 
Potato and Truck Fertilizer, 1886, 67. 
Potato, Truck and Tobacco, 1887. 67 ; 1888, 
75. 

Pure Bone, 1887, 73. 
Sampler, 1881, 16, 24, 25. 
Smith s Bone Phosphate, 1881, 26, 27; 1882 f 
36. 

Smith's Pure Ground Bone, 1881, 17. 
Standard Grain and Grass, 1887. 67. 
Standard Grain and G*ass Fertilizer, 1£86, 
67. 

Superphosphate, 1881, 26. 27. 
XX Brand, 1887, 67. 
Smith, John J. & Son, Raw Bone Phosphate, 
1880, 21. 

Snell. Charles R., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
2 )2. 

Soluble Bone and Potash. Analyses of, 1885, 67. 

Soluble Pacific Guano, 1884, 49. 

Soluble Pacific Guano Co., Soluble Pacific 

Guano, 1881, 26, 27. 
Soluble Phosphoric Acid, 188"), 13. 
Sorghum, 1883, 14, 61-70; 1881, 78; 1885, 107; 

1886, 115. 
Sorghum and Sugar, 1882, 61 
Sorghum and Sugar-Makiug, 1887, 114; 1888, 

133 

Sorghum Ensilage, 1883, 75 ; 1881, 128. 
Sorghum Ensilage, Analysis of, 1883, 75 ; 1881, 
106. 

Sorghum Experiments at Rio Grande, 1884, 

86-93; 1885, 117-142; 1886, 115-155; 1887, 

96-100, 114-159; 1888, 133-162. 
Sorghum, Experiments upon College Farm, 

1KS1, 78; 1885, 108-116. 
Sorghum, Fertilizers used, 1884, 80. 
Sorghum (Green), Analyses of, 1883, 75; 1881, 

106. 

Sorghum Leaves, Amber, 1883. 75. 
Sorghum Manufacture, 1882. 66. 
Sorghum Meal, 1882, 70. 

Sorghum Seed, Feeding Experiments with, 
1882, 75. 

Sorghum Sugar Industry, General Remarks 
upon, 1884, 91. 



252 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



Sorghum, Summary of Experiments in 1881, 

1882, 1883 and 1884, 1884, 85. 
Sorghum, Variety of Seed, 1884, 78. 
Sources of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and 

Potash, 1886, 29 ; 1887, 29. 
South, A. W., Bone Meal, 1885, 65. 
Harvest Pride, 1885, 55. 
Raw Bone, 1886, 70. 
South Carolina Rock, Analyses of, 1887, 35. 
Southern, or Cow Pea. 1882, 87 ; 1883, 75, 94. 
Spear, Charles, Jr., Penguin Island Guano, 
1886, 35. 

Spent Hemlock-Bark Ashes, Unleached, 1883, 
47 ; 1884, 54. 

Sproulle, E. R. , Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
198. 

Staats, J. D., Fodder Rye, 1881, 54. 

Stalks (Dried), Analyses of, 1882, 81. 

Stalks (Green), Analyses of, 1882, 81; 1883, 74. 

Starch Feed, Dried and Ground. 1883, 74. 

Starch Feed, Dried and Ground, Analyses of, 

1883, 74. 

Starch Feed Waste, Analyses of, 1883, 74. 

Starch Waste, 1883, 74. 

Statiser, D. A., Sampler, 1882, 28. 

Stearns & Co., Ammoniated Bone, 1886, 53. 

Eagle Brand, 1886, 53. 

High-Grade Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate, 1888, 75. 

Lobos Guano, 1888, 75. 

No. I. Peruvian Guano, 1888, 75. 
Steigauf, Philip, Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
194. 

Stevenson, David, Kiln Dust, 1881, 23. 

Stiles, W. A., Field Experiments on Wheat. 

1882, 57. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizer on 

Wheat,. 1882, 57. 
Sampler, 1884, 54. 
Stockbridge Manure for Potatoes, 1884, 41. 
Stock Feeding, a Rational System of, 1880, 48- 
54. 

Stokes, E., Letter from, concerning Cranberry 

Scald, 1881, 62. 
Straw, Wheat, Analyses of, 1883, 74. 
Sugar Industry, General Remarks upon, 1884, 

94. 

Sulphate of Ammonia, Analyses of, 1882, 20 ; 

1883, 26 ; 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28; 1886, 32 ; 1887, 
31; 1888, 39. 

Summerill & Hires, Orchilla, 1880, 27. 
Orchilla Guano, 1881, 19 ; 1882, 24. 
Samplers, 1880, 26. 
Superphosphates, Nitrogenous, Analyses of, 

1882, 31 ; 1883, 44 ; 1884, 50 ; 1885, 66. 
Superphosphates, Plain, Analyses of, 1882, 24, 
•27; 1883,28,29; 1884,33,34; 1885,30; 1886, 
34; 1887, 34; 1888, 42. 
Plain, Analyses of, from Bone Black, Bone 
Ash, etc., 1886, 34, 35; 1887, 34; 1888, 
42. 

Plain, Analyses of, from S. C. Rock, etc., 

1886, 36, 37; 1887, 35 ; 1888, 43. 
Without Potash, Analyses of, 1880, 24, 25. 
With Potash, Analyses of, 1880, 19, 20, 

21. 

Susquehanna Manufacturing Co., Ammoni- 
ated Bone Phosphate. 1887, 67. 
Swallon, J. W., Sampler, 1886, 68. 
Swamp Muck, Analyses of, 1882, 42. 
Sweet Potatoes, Analyses of, 1886, 164. 
Disease, 1881, 65. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 

1883,57,96; 1887,83. 
Growing, Report of Mr. A. P. Arnold upon, 

1885, 206. 
Rot, 1880, 68. 
Sick Soils, 1883, 16. 
Vine (Red), 1883, 75. 
Vine (Yellow), 1883, 75. 
Swift, M. C, Sampler, 1883, 46. 



T. 

Tankage, Analyses of, 1883, 45, 46; 1881, 32; 

1885, 29; 1886, 33; 1887, 33. 
Tantum, John C, Sampler, 1880, 19. 
Taylor Bros., All Crops Fertilizer, 1888, 75. 

Cotton-Seed Meal, 1883, 27. 
Muriate of Potash, 1885. 36. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1885, 28. 
Peruvian Guano, "Lobos," 1881, 26, 27. 
Pure Fish Guano, 1888. 81. 
Samplers, 1885, 165, 167, 169, 173. 
Standard Peruvian Guano, No. I., 1881, 26, 
27. 

Taylor, John & Co., Ammoniated Dissolved 
Bone and Potash, 1886, 61 ; 1887, 69 ; 1888, 

75. 

Beef Tankage, 1886, 33. 
Complete Fertilizer, 1884, 47 ; 1885, 57. 
Complete Fertilizer for Corn, 1887, 69. 
Complete Fertilizer for Corn and Truck, 

1886, 61. 

Complete Fertilizer for Fruit Trees, 1885, 

57. 

Complete Fertilizer for Potatoes, Truck 

and Tobacco, 1886, 61. 
Complete Fertilizer for Truck and Tobacco, 

1885, 57. 

Complete Fertilizer for Wheat, 1885, 57. 

Complete Fertilizer for Wheat, Oats and 
Grass, 1886, 61. 

Corn and Truck, 1888, 75. 

Corn Fertilizer, 1885, 57. 

Dried Animal Matter, 1881, 23. 

Dried Blood, 1881, 23. 

Hog Tankage, 1886, 33. 

Potato Manure, 1887, 69. 

Potatoes, Truck and Tobacco, 1888, 75. 

Samplers, 1881, 22. 

Tankage, 18S3, 46; 1881, 32. 

Wheat Fertilizer, Brand A, 1884, 49. 

Wheat Fertilizer, Brand B, 1884, 49. 
Taylor, Sheppard, Sampler, 1886, 161. 
Taylor, Wm. S., Coin Meal, 1880, 47. 

Sampler, 1880, 26 ; 1881, 39. 

Timothy and Clover (Mixed), 1880, 46. 
Temperature, Monthly Record of Mean, at 

New Brunswick, 1886. 83. 
Ten Eyck, J. S., Sampler, 1888, 64, 68, 72, 74. 
78 

Tenth of Acre Plot, Dimensions of, 1882, 99. 
Thatcher, R., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 192. 
Thomas, I. P. & Son, Farmers' Choice, 1887, 
67. 

Bone Phosphate, 1888, 75. 

Fish Guano, 1888, 75. 

Normal Bone, 1887, 67. ' 

Normal Bone Phosphate, 1888, 75. 

Normal Superphosphates, 1886, 63. 

Peach Tree Fertilizer, 1888, 75. 

Potato Manure, 1887, 69. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1886, 70. 

Raw Bone Meal, 1888. 79. 

Tip Top, 1886, 63 ; 1887, 67. 

Tip Top Superphosphate, 1885, 57. 
Thompson, A. J., Potato Manure, 1888, 75. 

Sampler, 1888, 58, 66, 72, 74, 78, 80. 
Thompson & Edwards. Ammoniated Bone 
Superphosphate, 1880, 25. 

Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1880, 25. 

Dissolved Bone Meal, 1880, 25. 

Fine Ground Bone, 1880, 30. 

Raw Bone, 1880, 30. 
Thompson, G. W., Sampler, 1882, 31. 
Thompson, J. B., Sampler, 1883, 36. 
Thompson, Rev. H. P., Field Experiments 
with Fertilizers, 1884, 60. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Clover, 1885, 82. 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on In- 
dian Corn, 1882, 47. 



INDEX, 



Thompson, Rev. H. P.— 

Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Potatoes, 1883, 55. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Wheat, 1884, 73 
Field Experiments with Phosphoric Acid 
on Corn, 1885, 93. 
Tice. Charles F., Blue Marl, 1882, 45. 

Marl, 1882, 45. 
Tiger, Henrv H.. Sampler, 1883, 42. 
Timothy Hay, 1S82, 71, 87 ; 1883, 74. 

Analyses of, 1886, 158, 164, 166 ; 1888, 116, 
117. 

Tomlinson. E. P.. Sampler, 1881, 18, 22; 1882, 
32 39 40. 

Trade Values, Schedule of, for 18S5, 1885, 44. 

Schedule of, for 1886, 1886, 45. 

Schedule of, for 1887, 1887, 43. 

Schedule of, for 1888, 1888, 52. 
Treasurer's Report, 1881, 11 ; 1882, 9 ; 1883, 9 ; 

1884, 9 ; 1886. 9 ; 1887, 9; 1888, 15. 
Tronnam Bros., Report on Sweet Potatoes, 

1885, 207. 

Tropic Guano Co., Connetable Island Floats, 

1886, 35. 
Floats, 1885, 31. 
Phosphoral, 1885, 31. 

Tully, James, Ashes, Wool Waste, etc., 1884, 
49. 

Leached Ashes, 1886, 74. 
Turnips, Field Experiments with Phosphoral 

upon, 1885, 100, 101. 
Tygert, J. E. & Co., Acid Phosphate. 1886, 37. 

Dissolved Bone, 1885, 66. 

Dissolved S. C. Rock, 1885, 33. 

Muriate of Potash, 1881, 20. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1885, 65. 

Star Bone Guano, 1886, 70 ; 1887 , 69 ; 1888, 
77. 

St ir Bone Phosphate, 1880, 21 ; 1881, 26, 27 ; 

1885, 57 ; 1886, 61 : 1888, 77. 
Star Guano. 1881, 26, 27. 
Truckers' Triumph, 1888, 77. 



r. 



Uhlen, John, Cesspool Material, 1881, 26, 27. 

Guano Fertilizer, 1882, 38. 
United States Chemical Co., Ammonite B, 
1883, 27 ; 1886, 33. 

Dried Ground Fish, 1886, 33. 

Muriate of Potash, 1883, 30 ; 1886, 38. 

National Complete, 1884, 45. 

National Lawn Fertilizer, 1886, 63. 

National Phila. Standard Phosphate, 1885, 
33. 

National Potato Fertilizer, 1884, 49 ; 1885, 

61 ; 1886, 63. 
National Superphosphate, 1881, 26, 27; 

1883, 37 ; 1885, 61 ; 1886, 63. 
National Tobacco Fertilizer, 1885, 61 ; 1886, 

63. 

Nitrate of Soda, 1883, 26. 
Phila. Standard, 1883, 29. 
Phila. Standard Acid Phosphate, 1882, 
24. 

Phila. Standard Phosphate, MM, 19; 1884, 

33; 1886, 37. 
Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 

1884 34. 
Potato Fertilizer, 1883, 37. 
Sampler, 1881, 18, 24. 
Superphosphate, 1882, 36. 
Tobacco Fertilizer, 1882, 35; 1883, 37. 
U. 8. Chemical Co.'s Superphosphate, 1881, 

26, 27. 

Unleached Ashes, Canada, Analysis of, 1885, 
68. 

Urnttone, J., Ashes, 188*, 54. I 



1880-1888. 253 



v. 

Vail & Griffin, Dried Fish, 1881, 23. 

Vail, Daniel, Dried Fish, 1885, 68. 

Valuation of Commercial Fertilizers, 1881, 14. 

Complete Fertilizers, 1881, 26, 27. 

Fertilizer, on what it Depends, 1^80, 14. 

Fertilizer, the Uses of the, 1880, 15. 

Ground Bone, 1881, 17. 

Nitrogen, 1881, 14. 

Nitrogenous Fertilizers, 1881, 23. 

Nitrogenous Superphosphates without Pot- 
ash, 1881, 21. 

Phosphoric Acid, 1881, 14. 

Plain Superphosphates, 1881, 19. 

Potash, 1881, 15. 

Potash Salts, 1881, 20. 
Vanderhuff, W. S., Sampler, 1885, 165, 167, 169, 
171. 

Van Doren, C. C, Sampler, 1880, 24, 29; 1882, 
31, 32. 

Vanness, John H., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
205. 

Vermeule, Adrain, Sampler, 1881, 39. 
Vermuele, C. C, Sampler, 1884, 42. 
Vineyards, Report of Mr. E. Williams upon, 
1885 193 

Voorhees,' A., Sampler, 1882, 25. 40; 1881, 52. 
Voorhees, David C, Home-Made Fertilizer, 
1881, 26, 27. 
Lime Stone (Ground), 1881, 33. 
Sampler, 1881, 20, 24 ; 1883, 28, 38, 42 ; 1881, 
46, 48, 50, 52. 
Voorhees, J., Esq., Field Experiments with 
Fertilizers on Indian Corn, 1883, 52. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Oats, 1881, 70. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 
Wheat, 1885, 74. 
Vreeland, Wm., Field Experiments with Phos- 
phoric Acid on Corn, 1885, 93. 



W. 



Waddington, James & Son, Raw Bone Phos- 
phate, 1887, 69. 

Waddington, Joseph & Son, Waddington Phos- 
phate, 1884, 49. 
Smith's Raw Bone Phosphate. 1882, 37. 

Waddington, Joshua. Sampler, 1880, 19, 29 ; 
1882, 40 ; 1884, 48. 

Wagner, Jeptha, A. & Co., Wagner's Mineral 
Fertilizer, 1883, 39; 1888, 21. 
Fifty-five-Dollar Mineral Fertilizer, 1888, 
77. 

Wahl, Emil, Button Bone. 1886, 70. 
Button-Bone Waste, 188 L, 17. 
Pure Ground Bone, 1880, 30. 
Walton, Whann & Co., Acid Phosphate (S. C. 
Rock), 1881, 19. 
Diamond Soluble Bone, 1882, 24 ; 1883, 29 ; 

1885, 33; 1886, 37. 
Dried Fish Guano, 1880. 31. 
Gaskill's High-Grade Manure, 1886, 68. 
"Plow Brand," 1882, 36; 1883, 37, 39; 1884, 

43 ; 1885, 59 ; 1886, 67 ; 1887, 69. 
Raw Bone Phosphate, 1880, 20. 
Raw Bone Superphosphate, 1881, 26, 27. 
Reliance, 1887, 69. 
Waltz, Button-Bone Waste, 1880, 30. 
Wanderoth & Son, Dried Flesh, 1881, 23. 
Wando Phosphate Co., Ammoniated Fertil- 
izer, 1887, 69. 
Blood Phosphate, 1888, 77. 
Special Formula, 1887, 69. 
Warbasse, D. R., Sampler, 1887, 48, 52, 54, 58, 

62, 64, 68 ; 1888, 56, 58, 60, 64, 70, 80. 
Ward, William B., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 
204. 



254 INDEX, 



Ward, William R., Sampler, 1887. 52, 56, 58, 60; 

1888, 60, 64, 66. 
Waste, Leather, Analyses of, 1883, 47. 
Watters, J. L. K., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 

191. 

Wedderburn, A. T., Jersey Lightning, 1887, 69. 
Weidinger, Paul, Kainite, 1887, 37. 

Phosphate Meal, 1887, 74; 1888, 81. 

Phosphate Meal from Peine Thomas Scoria, 
1886, 35. 

Weights of one Bushel of Agricultural Pro- 
ducts, 1882, 99. 
Wenderoth & Sons, Equine, 1885, 63 ; 1888, 77. 
Favorite, 1888, 77. 

Potato Fertilizer, 1885, 63; 1886, 61; 1888, 
77. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1888, 79. 
Wenderoth, Adam, Guano, 1884, 41. 
West Jersey Marl Co., Green Marl, 1882, 45. 
West Philadelphia Abattoir, Blood Guano, 
1881, 23. 

West Philadelphia Abattoir, Blood Guano, 

"Treated " 1881 23. 
West, Theodore, Field Experiments by, 1886, 

100 ; 1887, 108. 
Field Experiments on Corn, 1882, 50. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Corn, 1885, 70; 1886, 84; 1888, 100. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Indian Corn, 1882, 50; 1883, 54; 1884, 63. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Oats, 1882, 53 ; 1884, 69 ; 1888, 100. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Rye, 1885, 78. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on 

Wheat, 1885, 76; 1888, 100. 
Field Experiments with Wool Waste, 1886, 

94. 

Sampler, 1881, 39. 
Wharf, J. W. B , Apple Pomace Ash, 1883, 46. 
Wheat Bran, Analyses of, 1885, 166; 1888, 116, 
117. 

Wheat Chaff, Analyses of, 1884, 107 ; 1888, 116, 
117. 

Wheat, Field Experiments on, 1885, 1886, 78. 
Field Experiments with Fertilizers on, 

1883, 60; 1884, 73; 1885, 74, 76, 77, 1887, 80, 

88 ; 1888, 100. 
Field Experiments with Phosphoral upon, 

1885, 102. 

Field Experiments with Wool Waste, 1886, 
94. 

Field Experiments with Wool Waste as a 

Fertilizer, 1884, 97. 
Field Experiments with Wool Waste upon, 

1885, 102. 

Field Trials on, with Available Phosphoric 

Acid, 1887, 98. 
Field Trials upon, 1888, 101-104. 
Wheat Middlings, Analyses of, 1885, 168; 1888, 

116, 117. 

Wheat, Nitrate of Soda as a Top Dressing for, 
18S3, 61. 

Wheat Straw, Analvses of, 1882, 70 ; 1883, 74 ; 

1886, 162, 167 ; 1888, 116, 117. 
Whitall, John C, Sampler, 1880, 19. 

White, George E., Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29. 
Whitehead, Mortimer, Sampler, 1885, 50. 
White, J. M., Report on Peaches and Peach 
Trees, 1885, 190. 
Report on Peach Trees, 1884, 137. 
Sampler, 1882, 31, 32; 1885, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 
60, 62, 64 ; 1886, 34, 36, 50, 54, 56, 58, 60, 62, 
64, 69 ; 1887, 35, 60, 62, 64, 66, 72, 74 ; 1888, 
56, 58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 74, 78, 80 
Special Report on Peach Trees and Peaches, 
1886, 181. 
White Lime, 1883, 46. 

White, P. & Sons, Barren Island Guano, 1884, 
45. 

Farmers' Pride, 1880, 21 ; 1884, 45. 



1880-1888. 



White, P & Sons- 
Potato Fertilizer, 1886, 65. 
Superphosphate of Lime, Farmers' Pride, 
1881, 26, 27. 

Whitman & Burrill, Corn Ensilage, 1881, 55. 
Whitney. B. C, Sampler, 1884, 54. 
Wilkinson & Co., Economical Bone Fertilizer, 
1888 77 

Williams/ciark & Co . Acid Phosphate, 1884, 
33 ; 1886, 37 ; 1887, 35. 
Acid Phosphate from Land Rock, 1885, 
33. 

Americus, 1887, 69 ; 1888, 77. 
Americus Ammoniated Bone Superphos- 
phate, 1881, 26, 27 ; 1885, 53 ; 1888, 77. 
Americus Ammoniated Superphosphate, 
. 1882, 36 ; 1883, 41. 
Americus Corn Fertilizer, 1881. 26, 27. 
Americus Potato Fertilizer, 1881, 26, 27 ; 

1885, 53 ; 1886, 61. 

Americus Pure Bone Meal, 1888, 79. 
Ammoniated Bone Superphosphate, 1886, 
61. 

Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 1883. 44. 
Ammoniated Superphosphate, 1882, 31. 
Bone-Black Superphosphate, 1884, 33 ; 1885, 

31 ; 1886, 35 ; 1887, 34. 
Cabbage Fertilizer, 1883, 41. 
Dissolved Animal Bones, 1887, 70. 
Dissolved Bone Black, 1881, 19 ; 1882, 27. 
Dissolved Rock Phosphate, 1881, 19. 
Dissolved S. C. Rock, 1882, 24 ; 1883, 29. 
Double Sulphate of Potash and Magnesia, 

1886, 39 ; 1887, 37. 

Dried Blood, 1881, 23; 1883, 26; 1884, 31; 

1885, 29; 1886, 33; 1887, 32. 
Dried Fish, 1883, 27; 1885, 29; 1887, 32. 
High-Grade Special Potato, 1888, 77. 
High-Grade Sulphate, 1884, 35 ; 1886, 38. 
High-Grade Sulphate of Potash, 1887, 36. 
Kainite, 1883, 30; 1884,35; 1885,36; 1886, 

39 ■ 1887 37 
Muriate of Potash, 1882, 29; 1883, 30; 1885, 

36 ; 1886. 38 ; 1887, 36. 
Nitrate of Soda, 1884, 31 ; 1885, 28 ; 1886, 32 ; 

1887, 31. 

Peach Tree Fertilizer, 1885, 53. 
Peach Yellow Specific, 1887, 71. 
Plain Superphosphate from Bone Black, 
1884, 34. 

Plain Superphosphate from S. C. Rock, 

1884, 34. 

Potato Manure, 1882, 35. 
Potato Phosphate, 1888, 77. 
Pure Bone Meal, 1886, 70 ; 1887, 73 ; 1888, 
79. 

Raw-Bone Superphosphate, 1881, 26, 27. 
Royal Bone, 1885, 53 ; 1886, 61 ; 1887, 69 ; 

1888, 77. 

Special for Cabbage and Cauliflower, 1887, 
69. 

Special U. S. Phosphate, 1881, 26, 27. 
Sulphate of Ammonia, 1882, 20; 1883, 26; 

1885, 31; 1886, 32; 1887,31. 
Tankage, 1887, 33. 
Universal, 1887, 69. 

Universal Ammoniated Dissolved Bone, 

1881, 26, 27 ; 1882, 31 ; 1886, 71. 
Universal Dissolved Bone, 18S5, 66. 
U. S. Brand, Royal Bone, 1884, 47. 
Williams, E., Report on Vineyards, 1885, 

193. 

Sampler, 1885, 67. 
Wilson, Fitzgerald & Co., English Superphos- 
phate, 1883. 29. 

Fish Guano, 1880, 31. 

Nova Scotia Land Plaster, 1881, 30. 

Pure Ground Bone, 1881, 17. 

Pure Nova Scotia Land Plaster, 1881, 30. 
Wilson, John, Sampler, 1880, 29. 
Winter Wheat Bran, 1882, 70, 71 ; 1883, 74. 



INDEX, 1880-1888. 



255 



Wood Ashes, 1S81. 34. 

Wood Ashes. Analyses of, 1883, 46 ; 1884, 54. 
Woodruff & Bohl, Samplers, 1884, 48. 
Woodruff, W. H , Sampler, 1882, 31. 
Woods. William H., Sampler. 1887, 74. 
Woolridge, it. A. & Co. . Orchilla Guano. 1885, i 

68 ; 1886. 35. 
Wool Waste, Analysis of, 1883, 47 ; 1884. 55. 
As a Wheat Fertilizer. 1884, 97. 
Field Experiments with. 1886, 94; 1887, 

108. 

Field Trials with on Wheat, 1885, 102- 
105. 

Nitrogen from. Compared with Nitrogen 
from Ammonium Sulphate, 1885, 106. 
Wortman, S. H., Report on Peach Trees, 1885, 
190. 

Wyckoff, Caleb, Sampler. 1883, 40, 42, 44. 



Y. 

Yarnell's Ammoniated Phosphate, 1886, 63. 
Bone, 1886, 63. 

Bone Fertilizer, 1883, 37 ; 1884, 41 ; 1885, 61. 
Bone Phosphate, 1884, 41. 
Fish, 1886, 63. 

High-Grade Fertilizer, 1884, 41. 

High-Grade Phosphate, 1885, 61. 

High Grade Potato, 1886, 63. 

Pure Bone Fertilizer, 1880, 20. 
Yarnell, W. & C, Superphosphate, 1886, 63. 
Yellow Tobacco, 1882, 92; 1883, 92. 
Young, J. S. & Co., Leached Ashes, 1886, 74. 



Z. 

Zell, P. & Sons, La Vuelta, 1884, 43.